Publications by authors named "Christian Ebere Enyoh"

8 Publications

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Levels and health risk assessment of heavy metals in dried fish consumed in Bangladesh.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 19;11(1):14642. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Center for Applied Physics and Radiation Technologies, School of Engineering and Technology, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, 47500, Selangor, Malaysia.

As a cheap source of high-quality protein, healthy fats and essential nutrients, dried fish is a common item in the daily diet of the Bangladesh populace. In this study, ten types of widely consumed dried fish (H. neherius, T. lepturu, P.chinensis, P. affinis, A. mola, P. microdon, I. megaloptera, C. dussumieri, L. calcarifer, and G. chapra) were analyzed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Hg, Pb, Ni and As by using an Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The concentration of the studied metals was found in the order Fe > Zn > Hg > Cu > Se > Cr > Mn > Co > Rb > Pb, while As and Ni were below the limit of detection. All fish species showed moderate to high pollution, where the species H. Neherius and P. Chinensis are the most and least polluted ones, respectively. The probable source of contamination is the leaching from the drying pans into the fish samples, atmospheric deposition, anthropogenic contamination, etc. of the water body where these fish were harvested. The calculated hazard index for the general population was below the maximum limiting value (i.e., < 1) except for Hg to children. The carcinogenic risk showed values lower than the acceptable limit for cancer risks (10 to 10). Periodic monitoring of trace metals in the aquatic organisms along with fish is recommended to avoid any unexpected health hazards caused by the toxic heavy metals via fish consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93989-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290005PMC
July 2021

Nutrient uptake and pharmaceutical compounds of as influenced by integration of inorganic fertilizer and poultry manure in soil.

Heliyon 2021 Jul 2;7(7):e07464. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh.

had been used for numerous medical and cosmetic applications since ancient times. The study aimed to investigate the integrated effects of inorganic fertilizer (IF) and poultry manure (PM) on the nutritional and pharmaceutical constituents of . Eighteen month old seedlings were used following completely randomized design with three replications. Six combinations of IF [Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and sulphur (S) at the rate of 150, 80, 120 and 30 kg ha, respectively] and PM (at the rate of 5 t ha) were considered ., IFPM (IF = 0%, PM = 0%), IFPM(IF = 100%, PM = 0%), IFPM (IF = 75%, PM = 25%), IFPM (IF = 50%, PM = 50%), IFPM (IF = 25%, PM = 75%) and IFPM (IF = 0%, PM = 100%) as treatments. Different treatment combinations of IF and PM exerted significant influence on the nutritional and pharmaceutical contents of . Concentrations and uptake of the concerned nutrients were gradually increased with the increased levels of PM except NPKS which were highest in sole application of IF. The aloin concentration of leaf was gradually increased with the increased level of PM and by 42.44% over control. The highest chlorophyll, total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations were found in the plants receiving the treatment IFPM except protein content which was obtained from IFPM. Significant and positive relationships between N and S with P concentrations and P and S with K concentrations of leaf were noticed. Aloin, total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with Mg, Fe and Mn concentrations of leaf. Farmers may be advised to cultivate applying 75% PM at the rate of 5 t ha along with 25% IF (N, P, K and S at the rate of 150, 80, 120 and 30 kg ha, respectively) for obtaining better quality leaf in terms of nutrients and pharmaceutical compounds under the agro-climatic conditions of the study area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264604PMC
July 2021

Blocking the interactions between human ACE2 and coronavirus spike glycoprotein by selected drugs: a computational perspective.

Environ Anal Health Toxicol 2021 Jun 14;36(2):e2021010-0. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, PMB 2000 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with rapid rate of transmission and fatalities worldwide. Scientists have been investigating a host of drugs that may be rechanneled to fight this malaise. Thus, in this current computational study we carried out molecular docking experiments to assess the bridging potentials of some commercial drugs such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, nafamostat, camostat, famotidine, umifenovir, nitazoxanide, ivermectin, and fluvoxamine at the interface between human ACE2 and the coronavirus spike glycoprotein complex. This is aimed at ascertaining the ability of these drugs to bridge and prevent the complexing of these two proteins. The crystal structure of human ACE2 and the coronavirus spike glycoprotein complex was retrieved from protein database, while the selected drugs were retrieved from PubChem data base. The proteins and drugs were prepared for docking using Cresset Flare software. The docking was completed via AutoDock Vina module in Python Prescription software. The best hit drugs with each receptor were selected and their molecular interactions were analyzed using BIOVIA's Discovery Studio 2020. The best hit compounds on the human ACE2 were the lopinavir (-10.1 kcal/mol), ritonavir (-8.9 kcal/mol), and nafamostat (-8.7 kcal/mol). Ivermectin, nafamostat, and camostat with binding energy values -9.0 kcal/mol, -7.8 kcal/mol, and -7.4 kcal/mol respectively were the hit drugs on the coronavirus spike glycoprotein. Nafamostat showed a dual bridging potential against ACE2 and spike glycoprotein, and could therefore be a promising lead compound in the prevention and control of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2021010DOI Listing
June 2021

Nitrogen use efficiency and critical leaf N concentration of in urea and diammonium phosphate amended soil.

Heliyon 2020 Dec 15;6(12):e05718. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama, Japan.

L is widely cultivated in many countries due to its importance as an all-purpose herbal or medicinal plant. The growth and yield of this plant can be enhanced by application of fertilizer. It is expected that a higher and balanced nutrient supply will result in higher crop production maintaining soil health, which is possible when the applied fertilizers are done in way that is efficient. So, there is a need to understand the amount of applied and type of fertilizer that will give the best output for farmers and to formulate economical market products. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of N fertilizer on leaf yield, its uptake and requirement, critical concentration, use efficiency and economics of L. Plants were grown at six levels of N: 0, 40, 80, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha from urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) following completely randomized design with three replicates under field condition. The highest values of yield and yield attributes and profit based on benefit cost ratio (3.81 for urea and 2.91 for DAP) were obtained with 150 kg N ha (urea) and 100 kg N ha (DAP). Leaf biomass yield increased by 18-128 % in urea-N and 30-139 % in DAP-N fertilized plant over control while DAP > urea by 7.59 %. Sucker production (mean number) was urea-N (4.95 Plant) > DAP-N (2.28 Plant). Both gel and leaf N concentration and uptake was highest at 200 kg ha for both sources. For 80 % leaf biomass yield, minimum requirement of N was 74.90 (urea) and 89.60 kg ha (DAP). Growth and yield parameters to N application exhibited significant and positive correlations. Critical leaf N concentration was 0.88% (DAP) and 0.90% (urea) while mean and maximum NUE was 34% and 64 % (urea) and 43% and 69% (DAP), respectively. Farmers can be advised to apply N at the rate of 150 kg ha from urea for producing economically higher yield and better-quality leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749385PMC
December 2020

Microplastics Exposure Routes and Toxicity Studies to Ecosystems: An Overview.

Environ Anal Health Toxicol 2020 Mar 25;35(1):e2020004. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Chimborazo, Riobamba, Ecuador.

Microplastics (MPs) are now ubiquitous in global ecosystem, therefore all biota is at risk of exposure and potential toxicity. In this study, we presented an overview of information based on literature concerning exposure to MPs and the toxicity of such exposure. Currently, four major routes of exposure have been identified including entanglement, contact, ingestion and inhalation. Humans maybe the most exposed organism because they are at the peak of the food chain. Toxicology effect to marine and freshwater organisms are classified based on exposure dosage as either high (mortality, decreased reproductive output, organ damage) or low (changes in behavior with time). On plants, reports have shown that MPs exposure can affect negatively the growth and depending on exposure concentration and types of MPs and oxidative activities. However, effects on plants maybe short-term and transient. Although, toxicity studies regarding human are still ongoing as per reports, plants and animals are still scantly studied. Animal toxicity studies have widely used D. magna as model specie. MPs pollution may have a knock-on effect on trophic structure and functioning of ecosystems by affecting the base of the food chain. We concluded by identifying the gap in knowledge and give recommendations for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5620/eaht.e2020004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308665PMC
March 2020

Monitoring and modeling of heavy metal contents in vegetables collected from markets in Imo State, Nigeria.

Environ Anal Health Toxicol 2020 Mar 25;35(1):e2020003. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, Imo State, Nigeria.

Vegetable consumption is one major exposure route of heavy metals to humans, but few data exist for Imo State, Nigeria. We assessed the contamination levels and associated health risk of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in vegetables (Telfairia occidentalis, Pterocarpus mildbraedii, Gongronenina latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina) that are consumed frequently from markets (n=16) in three zones of Imo State, Nigeria. After wet-digestion of samples, the supernatant were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations in the four vegetables ranged from 0.006±0.003 mg/kg to 0.011±0.007 mg/kg for Cd, 0.064±0.012 mg/kg to 1.225±0.226 mg/kg for Co, 10.711±1.968 mg/kg to 25.088±13.975 mg/kg for Cu, 0.062±0.013 mg/kg to 0.307±0.210 mg/kg for Ni, 0.006±0.005 mg/kg to 0.012±0.002 mg/kg for Pb and 63.55±4.055 mg/kg to 104.126±24.080 mg/kg for Zn. Except for Zn, all heavy metals in the various vegetables were below the joint standard of Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization. Although, overall load of heavy metal was very low, Zn had the highest contamination factor in vegetables. Heavy metals concentrations in vegetables generally showed low to high variations and statistically different (p<0.05). Average daily intake was below the provisional tolerance limit except for Zn. The target hazard quotient of metals in vegetables for both children and adults were below 1, indicating no potential risk to the public. Overall, heavy metals hazard index were below 1, indicating acceptable level of non-carcinogenic adverse health effect. However, potential multi-element contamination from ingestion is possible as revealed by the correlation profiling of heavy metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5620/eaht.e2020003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308666PMC
March 2020

Finding a relationship between mobility factors of selected heavy metals and soil particle size in soils from children's playgrounds.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Nov 12;191(12):742. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Group Research in Analytical Chemistry, Environment and Climate Change (GRACE & CC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imo State University, P.M.B. 2000, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

In the 3-year study, heavy metals mobility factors for soils of public playgrounds within Owerri metropolis were correlated with soil particle size. Such studies could develop a body of knowledge that could enable detection and quantification of potential risk of metals to children from playground soil without actually involving children. Calculated values of mobility factors were subjected statistical treatment and to obtain descriptive statistics. Regression analysis of mobility factors and particle size were determined. Copper and zinc were most mobile elements, while cobalt was least mobile. Result showed that clay particle size had strong influence on mobility factors. The significance of this study is that recent estimation of mobility factors of metals are used to expand its possible understanding and application to fundamental and practical problems of ecotoxicology of metals which could reflect metals potentials to cause harm thereby permitting the evaluation of metals toxicity without direct involvement of children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7937-7DOI Listing
November 2019

Airborne microplastics: a review study on method for analysis, occurrence, movement and risks.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Oct 24;191(11):668. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Group Research in Analytical Chemistry, Environment and Climate Change (GRACE & CC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imo State University, P. M. B 2000, Imo State, Owerri, Nigeria.

Microplastics (of size < 5 mm) pollution in our environment is of current concern by researchers, public media and non-governmental organizations. Implications by their presence in aquatic and soil ecosystems have been well studied and documented, but less attention has been paid on airborne microplastics (MPs). Studies concerning airborne microplastics started from 2016 and only a few (n = 13) have been published to date. Although, studies may increase in the following years, since air is very important for human survival. Microplastics have been observed in atmospheric fallouts in indoor and outdoor environments using a sampling or vacuum pump, rain sampler, and/or particulate fallout collector. Identification and quantification have been carried out by visual, spectroscopic, and spectrometric techniques. Factors such as meteorological, climatic, and anthropogenic influence the distribution and movement of airborne MP. Human exposure may be through inhalation, dermal, and open meal during fallout, with their potential biopersistence and translocation. Ingestion may cause localized inflammation and cancer due to responses by the immune cells, especially in individuals with compromised metabolism and poor clearance mechanisms. Ecological risks involve possible contamination of the ecosystem through a dynamic relationship of MPs in soil, water, and air forming a MP contamination cycle. The present review aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of current knowledge or information regarding microplastics in air, identifying gap in knowledge, and giving suggestions for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7842-0DOI Listing
October 2019
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