Publications by authors named "Christian Chabannon"

173 Publications

Natural killer cell alloreactivity in HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic transplantation: a study on behalf of the CTIWP of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I mismatches that trigger donor-versus-recipient natural killer (NK)-cell alloreactivity reduce the incidence of leukemia relapse and improve survival of acute myeloid leukemia patients after T-cell-depleted HLA-haplotype mismatched ("haploidentical") hematopoietic transplantation. In murine graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) models, alloreactive NK-cells also prevent GvHD. Here we report the results of a non-interventional, prospective study performed on behalf of the Cellular Therapy and Immunobiology Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The study was aimed at re-assessing the role of NK-cell alloreactivity in a cohort of haploidentical transplants performed in Europe between 2012 and 2015 and composed of unmanipulated, as well as T-cell-depleted transplants. One hundred thirty-eight patients with acute myeloid or lymphoid leukemias were analyzed. Eighty-six patients received ex-vivo T-cell-depleted transplants, 52 patients received unmanipulated transplants. Fifty patients were transplanted from NK alloreactive donors, 88 from non-NK alloreactive donors. NK cell alloreactivity did not impact on GvHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS) in unmanipulated transplants (HR: 1.66 (0.9-3.1), p = 0.1). In contrast, it did impact beneficially on GRFS in T-cell-depleted transplants (HR: 0.6, (0.3-1.2), p = 0.14, interaction p < 0.001). This effect was the consequence of reduced incidences of acute and chronic GvHD and non-relapse mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01259-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Hematopoietic cell transplantation and cellular therapy survey of the EBMT: monitoring of activities and trends over 30 years.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Numbers of Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in Europe and collaborating countries continues to rise with 48,512 HCT in 43,581 patients, comprising of 19,798 (41%) allogeneic and 28,714 (59%) autologous, reported by 700 centers in 51 countries during 2019. Main indications were myeloid malignancies 10,764 (25%), lymphoid malignancies 27,895 (64%), and nonmalignant disorders 3173 (7%). A marked growth in CAR-T cellular therapies from 151 in 2017 to 1134 patients in 2019 is observed. This year's analyses focus on changes over 30 years. Since the first survey in 1990 where 143 centers reported 4234 HCT, the number has increased to 700 centers and 48,512 HCT. Transplants were reported in 20 countries in 1990, and 51, 30 years later. More than 800,000 HCT in 715,000 patients were reported overall. Next to the massive expansion of HCT technology, most notable developments include the success of unrelated donor and haploidentical HCT, an increase followed by decrease in the number of cord blood transplants, use of reduced intensity HCT in older patients, and the phenomenal rise in cellular therapy. This annual report of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) reflects current activity and highlights important trends vital for health care planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01227-8DOI Listing
February 2021

[How to perform leukapheresis for procurement of the staring material used for commercial CAR T-cell manufacturing: A consensus from experts convened by the SFGM-TC].

Bull Cancer 2021 Mar 17;108(3):295-303. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Aix-Marseille University, institut Paoli-Calmettes Comprehensive Cancer Center, centre de thérapie cellulaire, Inserm CBT-1409, 232, boulevard de Sainte-Marguerite, 13009 Marseille, France.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are a new class of cancer treatments manufactured through autologous or allogeneic T cells genetic engineering to induce CAR expression directed against a membrane antigen present at the surface of malignant cells. In Europe, tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah™) has a marketing authorization for the treatment of relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and young adults and for the relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The marketing authorization for axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta™) is the treatment of relapsed/refractory DLBCL and mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. Both products are "living drugs" and genetically modified autologous T cells directed against CD19 which is an antigen expressed throughout B lymphoid differentiation and on many B malignancies. This collaborative work - part of a series of expert works on the topic - aims to provide practical advice to assist collection facilities that procure the starting material i.e. blood mononuclear cells for autologous CAR T-cell manufacturing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2020.11.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Adoptive Cell Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Biological Rationale and First Results in Early Phase Clinical Trials.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 13;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Medical Oncology, Paoli-Calmettes Institute, 232 Boulevard Sainte Marguerite, 13009 Marseille, France.

The mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is quickly increasing worldwide. In unresectable HCC, the cornerstone of systemic treatments is switching from tyrosine kinase inhibitors to immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICI). Next to ICI, adoptive cell transfer represents another promising field of immunotherapy. Targeting tumor associated antigens such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), glypican-3 (GPC3), or New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1), T cell receptor (TCR) engineered T cells and chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) engineered T cells are emerging as potentially effective therapies, with objective responses reported in early phase trials. In this review, we address the biological rationale of TCR/CAR engineered T cells in advanced HCC, their mechanisms of action, and results from recent clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828372PMC
January 2021

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in poor prognosis peripheral T-cell lymphoma: the impact of different donor type on outcome.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 15;56(4):883-889. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Haematology Department, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

We report the outcome of 68 patients with advanced peripheral T-cell lymphoma receiving transplantation from haploidentical or from conventional donors. The 4-year OS, PFS, 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse and 2-year GRFS was 75%, 70%, 21%, and 51%, respectively. Survival was not affected by donor type. The 2-year NRM was 9%, lower after related or haploidentical donor (21% vs 0% vs 7%; p = 0.06). Grade 2-4 aGVHD cumulative incidence was significantly different after transplantation from haploidentical vs matched sibling vs unrelated donor, and (24% vs 35% vs 58%, p = 0.024). The familial donor cohort was compared to the unrelated cohort. Familial donor induced less grade 2-4 aGVHD, with a trend to less grade 3-4 aGVHD or moderate-severe cGVHD. The OS and PFS were not different, while the relapse risk and NRM were reduced. Allo-SCT is highly effective in T-cell lymphoma, with low NRM and low relapse rate. The incidence of aGVHD was lower after haploidentical transplantation. Related donor may challenge unrelated transplant reducing the risk of relapse and NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01133-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666822PMC
April 2021

Use of the HLA-B leader to optimize cord-blood transplantation.

Haematologica 2020 10 29;Online ahead of print. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Eurocord, Hôpital Saint Louis APHP, Institut de Recherche de Saint-Louis (IRSL) EA3518, Université de Paris, Paris, France; Monacord, International Observatory on Sickle Cell Disease, Centre Scientifique de Monaco.

Cord-blood transplantation (CBT) can cure life-threatening blood disorders. The HLA-B leader affects the success of unrelated donor transplantation but its role in CBT is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the HLA-B leader influences CBT outcomes in unrelated single-unit cord-blood transplants performed by Eurocord/European Blood and Marrow Transplant (EBMT) centers between 1990 and 2018 with data reported to Eurocord. Among 4822 transplants, 2178 had one HLA-B mismatch of which 1013 were HLA-A and HLA-DRB1-matched. The leader (M or T) was determined for each HLA-B allele in patients and units to define the genotype. Among single HLA-B-mismatched transplants, the patient/unit mismatched alleles were defined as leader-matched if they encoded the same leader, or leader-mismatched if they encoded different leaders; the leader encoded by the matched (shared) allele was determined. The risks of GVHD, relapse, non-relapse mortality and overall mortality were estimated for various leaderdefined groups using multivariable regression models. Among the 1013 HLA-A, -DRB1- matched transplants with one HLA-B mismatch, increasing numbers of cord-blood unit M-leader alleles was associated with increased risk of relapse (hazard ratio [HR] for each increase in one M-leader allele 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.60, P 0.02). Furthermore, leader mismatching together with an M-leader of the shared HLA-B allele lowered non-relapse mortality (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.81; P 0.009) relative to leader-matching and a shared T-leader allele. The HLA-B leader may inform relapse and non-relapse mortality risk after CBT. Future patients might benefit from the appropriate selection of units that consider the leader.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.264424DOI Listing
October 2020

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult soft-tissue sarcoma: an analysis from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

ESMO Open 2020 10;5(5):e000860

Internal Medicine and Medical Therapy, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia, Lombardia, Italy.

Background: The role of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in the treatment of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) remains an unsettled issue. Prospective clinical trials failed to prove a benefit of the procedure but were limited by small and heterogeneous patient cohorts. Thus, it is unknown if ASCT may be a valuable treatment option in specific patient subgroups.

Methods: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of ASCT according to histological subtype in STS patients who were registered in the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database between 1996 and 2016.

Results: Median progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the entire cohort of 338 patients were 8.3 and 19.8 months, respectively, and PFS and OS at 5 years were 13% and 25%, respectively. Analysis of outcomes in different subgroups showed that younger age, better remission status before transplantation and melphalan-based preparative regimen were predictive of benefit from ASCT, whereas histology and grading had no statistically significant impact.

Conclusions: Outcomes after ASCT compared favorably to those of recent trials on conventional chemotherapies and targeted therapies in STS, including histology-tailored approaches. ASCT, thus, should be reinvestigated in clinical trials focusing on defined patient subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/esmoopen-2020-000860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590345PMC
October 2020

Nonmyeloablative Conditioning Regimen before T Cell Replete Haploidentical Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide for Advanced Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 12 19;26(12):2299-2305. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Hematology Department, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a valid option in patients with refractory lymphomas. HLA haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) expanded the accessibility to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The aims of study were to retrospectively assess the toxicity and efficacy of haplo-SCT using nonmyeloablative conditioning in patients with advanced lymphoma. In total, 147 patients with advanced lymphoma at 2 partner institutions were included. Patients received a uniform nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), GVHD, nonrelapse mortality, and GVHD, relapse-free survival (GRFS). Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 6 to 114 months). The median age was 46 years (range, 19 to 71 years). Sixty-five percent of patients were in complete remission (CR) at transplantation. Cumulative incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD was 30% (95% confidence interval [Cl], 23% to 38%). Two-year cumulative incidence of all grades of chronic GVHD was 13% (95% CI, 8% to 20%). Two-year cumulative incidence of disease relapse was 19% (95% CI, 14% to 27%), with a higher incidence in patients not being in CR at allo-HCT (CR versus not CR: 12% versus 33%, P = .006). Two-year PFS, OS, and GRFS were 66% (95% CI, 59-75), 73% (95% CI, 66-81), and 56% (95% CI, 48-65), respectively. Haplo-SCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide may be considered a valid option for patients with aggressive lymphoma and deserves further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.014DOI Listing
December 2020

Reduced-Intensity versus Myeloablative Conditioning in Cord Blood Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (40-60 years) across Highly Mismatched HLA Barriers-On Behalf of Eurocord and the Cellular Therapy & Immunobiology Working Party (CTIWP) of EBMT.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 11 26;26(11):2098-2104. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Eurocord, Hopital Saint Louis-EA3518, Paris, France; Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

The use of myeloablative conditioning (MAC) in umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) has been associated with high nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in patients aged >40 years, especially those having a high HLA disparity, thus limiting wider applications. We hypothesized that the NRM advantage of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and higher graft-versus-leukemia effect associated with greater HLA disparities would expand its use for patients (aged 40 to 60 years) without compromising efficacy and compared outcomes between RIC and MAC regimens. In total, 288 patients aged 40 to 60 years, with de novo acute myeloid leukemia, receiving UCBT with at least 2 HLA mismatches with RIC (n = 166) or MAC (n = 122) regimens were included. As compared to RIC, the MAC cohort included relatively younger patients, having received more single UCBT, with lower total nucleated cell counts and more in vivo T cell depletion. Median time to neutrophil engraftment, infections (bacterial, viral, and fungal), and grade II to IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were similar in both groups. In the multivariate analysis, overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.98; P = .9), NRM (HR, 0.68; P = .2), and relapse (HR, 1.24; P = .5) were not different between RIC and MAC. Refractory disease was associated with worse survival. Outcomes of UBCT for patients aged 40 to 60 years having ≥2 HLA mismatches are comparable after the RIC or MAC regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.07.025DOI Listing
November 2020

Validation of a flow cytometry-based method to quantify viable lymphocyte subtypes in fresh and cryopreserved hematopoietic cellular products.

Cytotherapy 2021 Jan 25;23(1):77-87. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Centre de Thérapie Cellulaire, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Background Aims: Adoptive cellular therapy with immune effector cells (IECs) has shown promising efficacy against some neoplastic diseases as well as potential in immune regulation. Both inherent variability in starting material and variations in cell composition produced by the manufacturing process must be thoroughly evaluated with a validated method established to quantify viable lymphocyte subtypes. Currently, commercialized immunophenotyping methods determine cell viability with significant errors in thawed products since they do not include any viability staining. We hereby report on the validation of a flow cytometry-based method for quantifying viable lymphocyte immunophenotypes in fresh and cryopreserved hematopoietic cellular products.

Methods: Using fresh or frozen cellular products and stabilized blood, we report on the validation parameters accuracy, uncertainty, precision, sensitivity, robustness and contamination between samples for quantification of viable CD3+, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD3-CD56+CD16+/- NK cells, CD19+ B cells and CD14+ monocytes of relevance to fresh and cryopreserved hematopoietic cellular products using the Cytomics FC500 cytometer (Beckman Coulter).

Results: The acceptance criteria set in the validation plan were all met. The method is able to accommodate the variability in absolute numbers of cells in starting materials collected or cryopreserved from patients or healthy donors (uncertainty of ≤20% at three different concentrations), stability over time (compliance over 3 years during regular inter-laboratory comparisons) and confidence in meaningful changes during cell processing and manufacturing (intra-assay and intermediate precision of 10% coefficient of variation). Furthermore, the method can accurately report on the efficacy of cell depletion since the lower limit of quantification was established (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells at 9, 8 and 8 cells/µL, respectively). The method complies with Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) standards for IEC, FACT-Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT-EBMT (JACIE) hematopoietic cell therapy standards, International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use Q2(R1) and International Organization for Standardization 15189 standards. Furthermore, it complies with Ligand Binding Assay Bioanalytical Focus Group/American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, International Council for Standardization of Hematology/International Clinical Cytometry Society and European Bioanalysis Forum recommendations for validating such methods.

Conclusions: The implications of this effort include standardization of viable cell immunophenotyping of starting material for cell manufacturing, cell selection and in-process quality controls or dosing of IECs. This method also complies with all relevant standards, particularly FACT-JACIE standards, in terms of enumerating and reporting on the viability of the "clinically relevant cell populations."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2020.06.005DOI Listing
January 2021

Opportunities and challenges associated with the evaluation of chimeric antigen receptor T cells in real-life.

Curr Opin Oncol 2020 09;32(5):427-433

Legal Regulatory Affairs Committee (LRAC) of EBMT, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose Of Review: With the approval of the first chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell products on the market, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) required market authorization holders (MAHs) to monitor the long-term efficacy and safety of CAR-T cells for 15 years after administration. In 2019, the cellular therapy module of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry received a positive qualification opinion from the EMA indicating that the registry fulfills the essential needs to capture such data. We investigated its broader implication.

Recent Findings: Since 2020, the cellular therapy module of the EBMT registry captures data to support postauthorization studies for MAHs and EMA. The process toward a positive qualification opinion has attracted interest from many other stakeholders, such as scientists and Health Technology Assessment bodies, and was the spin-off for a stimulating development which defined the need for a registry to comply with regulatory requirements, and also inspired ways to deal with CAR-T cell programs in terms of center qualifications and educational standards for professionals.

Summary: The positive qualified opinion of the EBMT registry by EMA to monitor long-term efficacy and safety of commercial CAR-T cells created opportunities and challenges and was serving as linking-pin to launch a novel CAR-T cell community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCO.0000000000000665DOI Listing
September 2020

The connected worlds of stem cell transplantation and HIV.

Lancet HIV 2020 09 7;7(9):e594-e595. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Hematology and Center for Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 3508 GA Utrecht, Netherlands. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30170-3DOI Listing
September 2020

Welcome to ISCT 2020 Paris Virtual.

Cytotherapy 2020 05;22(5S):S3

ISCT 2020 Paris Co-Chair, University Hospital Basel, CHE.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2020.04.096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244427PMC
May 2020

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide GvHD prophylaxis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from 9/10 or 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors for acute leukemia.

Leukemia 2021 02 14;35(2):585-594. Epub 2020 May 14.

Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris University UPMC, INSERM U938, Paris, France.

HLA-matching largely contributes to unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (UD-HCT) success but, due to the selective deletion of alloreactive T-cells, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) could modulate its negative impact on outcomes. We retrospectively compared acute leukemia patients receiving 10/10 or 9/10 HLA allele-matched UD-HCT with PTCy-GvHD prophylaxis between 2010 and 2017, reported to EBMT registry. The 100-day incidence of grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 aGvHD were comparable for 10/10 and 9/10 UD (28% versus 28%, p = 0.8 and 10% versus 8%, p = 0.5, respectively). The 2-year cGvHD and extensive cGvHD were similar between 10/10 and 9/10 UD (35% versus 44%, p = 0.2 and 21% versus 20%, p = 0.6, respectively). The 2-year nonrelapse mortality was 20% after 10/10 and 16% after 9/10 UD-HCT (p = 0.1). Relapse incidence at 2-year was 24% for 10/10 and 28% for 9/10 UD-HCT (p = 0.4). Leukemia-free survival at 2-year was the same for 10/10 and 9/10 UD (56 and 56%, p = 0.6, respectively), with comparable overall survival (62 and 59%, p = 0.9, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed no effect of HLA-matching on outcomes. An advanced disease status and patient disability remained the most important factors portending a worse survival. PTCy could alleviate the detrimental effect of HLA-allele mismatching in UD-HCT, potentially expanding the donor pool for acute leukemia patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0863-4DOI Listing
February 2021

The challenge of COVID-19 and hematopoietic cell transplantation; EBMT recommendations for management of hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, their donors, and patients undergoing CAR T-cell therapy.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 11 13;55(11):2071-2076. Epub 2020 May 13.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread over the world causing the disease by WHO called COVID-19. This pandemic poses unprecedented stress on the health care system including programs performing allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and cellular therapy such as with CAR T cells. Risk factors for severe disease include age and predisposing conditions such as cancer. The true impact on stem cell transplant and CAR T-cell recipients in unknown. The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) has therefore developed recommendations for transplant programs and physicians caring for these patients. These guidelines were developed by experts from the Infectious Diseases Working Party and have been endorsed by EBMT's scientific council and board. This work intends to provide guidelines for transplant centers, management of transplant candidates and recipients, and donor issues until the COVID-19 pandemic has passed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0919-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220575PMC
November 2020

Checkpoint inhibition before haploidentical transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide in Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(7):1242-1249

Department of Hematology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Rozzano, Italy.

We report on 59 Hodgkin lymphoma patients undergoing haploidentical stem cell transplantation (SCT; haplo-SCT) with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, comparing outcomes based on pretransplant exposure to checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). Considering pretransplant characteristics, the 2 cohorts (CPI = 29 patients vs no-CPI = 30 patients) were similar, except for the number of prior lines of therapy (6 vs 4; P < .001). With a median follow-up of 26 months (range, 7.5-55 months), by univariate analysis, the 100-day cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute GVHD was 41% in the CPI group vs 33% in the no-CPI group (P = .456), whereas the 1-year cumulative incidence of moderate to severe chronic GVHD was 7% vs 8%, respectively (P = .673). In the CPI cohort, the 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse appeared lower compared with the no-CPI cohort (0 vs 20%; P = .054). No differences were observed in terms of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (at 2 years, 77% vs 71% [P = .599], 78% vs 53% [P = .066], and 15% vs 21% [P = .578], respectively). By multivariable analysis, CPI before SCT was an independent protective factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; P = .037). Stable disease (SD)/progressive disease (PD) was an independent negative prognostic factor for both OS and PFS (HR, 14.3; P < .001 and HR, 14.1; P < .001, respectively) . In conclusion, CPI as a bridge to haplo-SCT seems to improve PFS, with no impact on toxicity profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160255PMC
April 2020

Analysis of a large single institution cohort of related donors fails to detect a relation between SDF1/CXCR4 or VCAM/VLA4 genetic polymorphisms and the level of hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization in response to G-CSF.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(3):e0228878. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Etablissement Français du Sang PACA Corse, Biologie des Groupes Sanguins, Marseille, France.

We studied a cohort of 367 healthy related donors who volunteered to donate their hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation. All donors were homogeneously cared for at a single institution, and received rhG-CSF as a mobilization treatment prior to undergoing apheresis. Peripheral blood CD34+ cell counts were used as the main surrogate marker for rhG-CSF induced mobilization. We searched whether inter-individual variations in known genetic polymorphisms located in genes whose products are functionally important for mobilization, could affect the extent of CD34+ mobilization, either individually or in combination. We found little or no influence of individual SNPs or haplotypes for the SDF1, CXCR4, VCAM and VLA4 genes, whether using CD34+ cell counts as a continuous or a categorical variable. Simple clinical characteristics describing donors such as body mass index, age and possibly sex are more potent predictors of stem cell mobilization. The size of our cohort remains relatively small for genetic analyses, however compares favorably with cohorts analyzed in previously published reports suggesting associations of genetic traits to response to rhG-CSF; notwithstanding this limitation, our data do not support the use of genetic analyses when the choice exists of several potential donors for a given patient.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228878PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058310PMC
June 2020

Identification of hurdles in the development of cell-based therapies.

Cytotherapy 2020 02;22(2):53-56

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2019.12.009DOI Listing
February 2020

The EBMT activity survey on hematopoietic-cell transplantation and cellular therapy 2018: CAR-T's come into focus.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 08 17;55(8):1604-1613. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) is widely used for acquired and congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system. Number of transplants performed in Europe and associated countries continues to rise with 47,468 HCT in 42,901 patients [19,630 allogeneic (41%) and 27,838 autologous (59%)] reported by 701 centers in 50 countries in 2018. Main indications were myeloid malignancies 10,679 (25%; 97% allogeneic), lymphoid malignancies 27,318 (64%; 20% allogeneic), solid tumors 1625 (4%; 2.9% allogeneic), and nonmalignant disorders 3063 (7%; 81% allogeneic). This year's analysis focuses on cellular therapies with the marked growth in CAR T-cell therapies from 151 in 2017 to 301 patients reported in 2018. Other cellular therapy numbers show less significant changes. Important trends in HCT include a 49% increase in allogeneic HCT for chronic phase CML (although transplant numbers remain low) and a 24% increase in aplastic anemia. In autologous HCT, there is an ongoing increase in autoimmune diseases (by 19%), predominantly due to activity in multiple sclerosis. This annual report reflects current activity and highlights important trends, useful for health care planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0826-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391287PMC
August 2020

[Reporting data of patients receiving CAR T cell therapy into the EBMT registry: Guidelines of the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2020 Dec 9;107(12S):S178-S184. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Hôpital Lyon Sud, service d'hématologie, société francophone de greffe de moelle et de thérapie cellulaire, 165, chemin du grand Revoyet, 69310 Pierre-Bénite, France. Electronic address:

Tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah™) and axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta™) are the first two approved drug products that belong to of a new class of therapies manufactured through an industrial process that includes the ex vivo genetic modification of human autologous T lymphocytes with viral vectors. Since CAR-T Cells qualify as gene therapy medicinal products, there is a requirement for long-term (15 years) follow-up of treated patients. As part of a global initiative aiming at a better use of continental registries to study the outcome of homogeneous groups of patients, EMA issued a positive opinion on the use of the EBMT registry to capture LTFU of patients treated with CAR-T Cell in EU Member states. The use of a European registry will provide a global view of this new field across EU countries and across diverse indications, and bears advantages over the use of registries dedicated to specific categories of diseases, or national registries. This is an important asset to fully measure the medical value of these innovative therapies in real-life conditions, and assess whether pricing is fully justified. To fulfill EMA requirements, as well as requirements from Pharma companies, EBMT has designed a new Cellular Therapy Med-A form that allows to capture the essential information on the administered drug product, disease and patient. Registering patients and capturing follow-up data is already possible in Promise, and will be made easier when the full migration of the EBMT database from Promise to MACRO is completed in the forthcoming weeks. Negotiations are ongoing with all interested parties including patients to define in which conditions data will be accessed and analyzed; the underlying principle is to favor rather than restrict the use of data, with a view to build cooperative projects involving relevant cooperative groups and professional associations. Here, we present practical recommendations issued by SFGM-TC to help data managers capture information related to patients treated with CAR-T Cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2019.10.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Correction: Benchmarking of survival outcomes following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A review of existing processes and the introduction of an international system from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and the Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT and EBMT (JACIE).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 Apr;55(4):838-839

Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0740-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609270PMC
April 2020

Management of adults and children undergoing chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy: best practice recommendations of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and the Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT and EBMT (JACIE).

Haematologica 2020 31;105(2):297-316. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Medical Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are a novel class of anti-cancer therapy in which autologous or allogeneic T cells are engineered to express a CAR targeting a membrane antigen. In Europe, tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah™) is approved for the treatment of refractory/relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and young adults as well as relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, while axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta™) is approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory high-grade B-cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. Both agents are genetically engineered autologous T cells targeting CD19. These practical recommendations, prepared under the auspices of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, relate to patient care and supply chain management under the following headings: patient eligibility, screening laboratory tests and imaging and work-up prior to leukapheresis, how to perform leukapheresis, bridging therapy, lymphodepleting conditioning, product receipt and thawing, infusion of CAR T cells, short-term complications including cytokine release syndrome and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome, antibiotic prophylaxis, medium-term complications including cytopenias and B-cell aplasia, nursing and psychological support for patients, long-term follow-up, post-authorization safety surveillance, and regulatory issues. These recommendations are not prescriptive and are intended as guidance in the use of this novel therapeutic class.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.229781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012497PMC
January 2020

CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-T cells in B-cell leukemia and lymphoma: current status and perspectives.

Leukemia 2019 12 5;33(12):2767-2778. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

The approval of tisagenlecleucel and axicabtagene ciloleucel represents a breakthrough in the field of immune and cellular therapy for hematologic malignancies. These anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR) proved to be highly effective in the treatment of relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and specific histologic subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. This expert review aims to summarize the current available research evidence in this field, with a special focus on the different challenges faced by treating physicians, and we also provide future perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0615-5DOI Listing
December 2019

Benchmarking of survival outcomes following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A review of existing processes and the introduction of an international system from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and the Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT and EBMT (JACIE).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 04 21;55(4):681-694. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

In many healthcare settings, benchmarking for complex procedures has become a mandatory requirement by competent authorities, regulators, payers and patients to assure clinical performance, cost-effectiveness and safe care of patients. In several countries inside and outside Europe, benchmarking systems have been established for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but access is not universal. As benchmarking is now integrated into the FACT-JACIE standards, the EBMT and JACIE established a Clinical Outcomes Group (COG) to develop and introduce a universal system accessible across EBMT members. Established systems from seven European countries (United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland), USA and Australia were appraised, revealing similarities in process, but wide variations in selection criteria and statistical methods. In tandem, the COG developed the first phase of a bespoke risk-adapted international benchmarking model for one-year survival following allogeneic and autologous HSCT based on current capabilities within the EBMT registry core dataset. Data completeness, which has a critical impact on validity of centre comparisons, is also assessed. Ongoing development will include further scientific validation of the model, incorporation of further variables (when appropriate) alongside implementation of systems for clinically meaningful interpretation and governance aiming to maximise acceptance to centres, clinicians, payers and patients across EBMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0718-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113189PMC
April 2020

A matched-pair analysis reveals marginally reduced CD34+ cell mobilization on second occasion in 27 related donors who underwent peripheral blood stem cell collection twice at the same institution.

Transfusion 2019 11 18;59(11):3442-3447. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Centre de Thérapie Cellulaire, Cell Collection & Cell Processing Facility, Marseille, France.

Background: In a small proportion of cases, hematopoietic function is insufficient after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as a result of poor graft function or graft failure. These complications are common indications of re-mobilization of the initial donor, either for a second allograft or for an infusion of CD34+ Selected stem Cell Boost (SCB).

Methods And Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the results of two cycles of CD34+ cell mobilization and collection. CD34+ cells mobilized and collected at each cycle were compared. When CD34+ cell selection from the collected allogeneic mononuclear cells was indicated, it was performed with the Clinimacs Plus® medical device, and results from in-process and final quality checks were analyzed. To assess the efficacy of CD34+ SCB, transfusion needs before and after the infusion of selected CD34+ cells were calculated.

Results: The median peripheral blood concentration of CD34+ cells/μL was marginally reduced during the second cycle (35.6 vs 33.8, p < 0.05); results revealed a strong correlation between paired values (r = 0.85). The cumulative number of collected CD34+ cells were similar for both cycles; the total processed blood volume was higher during the second cycle (p = 0.023). For CD34+ immune-selection procedures, CD34+ cell recovery and purity were respectively 57% and 95%, with a median T-cell depletion of 6.7 log. Recipients' needs for platelet and red blood cell transfusions were significantly reduced after CD34+ SCB.

Conclusion: This study confirms the feasibility of a second cycle of mobilization in healthy related donors and the benefits of CD34+ SCB on hematopoietic reconstitution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15545DOI Listing
November 2019

Epigenetic down-regulation of the HIST1 locus predicts better prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia with NPM1 mutation.

Clin Epigenetics 2019 10 12;11(1):141. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Epigenetic Factors in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis Team, Aix Marseille University, CNRS, Inserm, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, CRCM, 27 Boulevard Lei Roure, 13273, Marseille Cedex 09, France.

Background: The epigenetic machinery is frequently altered in acute myeloid leukemia. Focusing on cytogenetically normal (CN) AML, we previously described an abnormal H3K27me3 enrichment covering 70 kb on the HIST1 cluster (6.p22) in CN-AML patient blasts. Here, we further investigate the molecular, functional, and prognosis significance of this epigenetic alteration named H3K27me3 HIST1 in NPM1-mutated (NPM1mut) CN-AML.

Results: We found that three quarter of the NPM1mut CN-AML patients were H3K27me3 HIST1. H3K27me3 HIST1 group of patients was associated with a favorable outcome independently of known molecular risk factors. In gene expression profiling, the H3K27me3 HIST1 mark was associated with lower expression of the histone genes HIST1H1D, HIST1H2BG, HIST1H2AE, and HIST1H3F and an upregulation of genes involved in myelomonocytic differentiation. Mass spectrometry analyses confirmed that the linker histone protein H1d, but not the other histone H1 subtypes, was downregulated in the H3K27me3 HIST1 group of patients. H1d knockdown primed ATRA-mediated differentiation of OCI-AML3 and U937 AML cell lines, as assessed on CD11b/CD11c markers, morphological and gene expression analyses.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that NPM1mut AML prognosis depends on the epigenetic silencing of the HIST1 cluster and that, among the H3K27me3 silenced histone genes, HIST1H1D plays a role in AML blast differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-019-0738-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790061PMC
October 2019

Analysis of data collected in the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Registry on a cohort of lymphoma patients receiving plerixafor.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 03 30;55(3):613-622. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Plerixafor + granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is administered to patients with lymphoma who are poor mobilizers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in Europe. This international, multicenter, non-interventional registry study (NCT01362972) evaluated long-term follow-up of patients with lymphoma who received plerixafor for HSC mobilization versus other mobilization methods. Propensity score matching was conducted to balance baseline characteristics between comparison groups. The following mobilization regimens were compared: G-CSF + plerixafor (G + P) versus G-CSF alone; G + P versus G-CSF + chemotherapy (G + C); and G-CSF + plerixafor + chemotherapy (G + P + C) versus G + C. The primary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR). Overall, 313/3749 (8.3%) eligible patients were mobilized with plerixafor-containing regimens. After propensity score matching, 70 versus 36 patients were matched in the G + P versus G-CSF alone cohort, 124 versus 124 in the G + P versus G + C cohort, and 130 versus 130 in the G + P + C versus G + C cohort. For both PFS and OS, the upper bound of confidence interval for the hazard ratio was >1.3 for all comparisons, implying that non-inferiority was not demonstrated. No major differences in PFS, OS, and CIR were observed between the plerixafor and comparison groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0693-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7051902PMC
March 2020