Publications by authors named "Christi L Salgado"

7 Publications

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Intravenous administration of mesenchymal stromal cells leads to a dose dependent coagulopathy and is unable to attenuate acute traumatic coagulopathy in rats.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Blood and Shock Resuscitation, United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234.

Background: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) express surface tissue factor (TF), which may affect hemostasis and detract from therapeutic outcomes of MSCs if administered intravenously (IV). In this study, we determine a safe dose of MSCs for IV administration, and further demonstrate the impact of IV-MSC on acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in rats.

Methods: TF expression of rat bone marrow derived MSC (BMSC) or adipose derived MSC (AMSC) was detected by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The coagulation properties were measured in MSC-treated rat whole blood, and blood samples collected from rats after IV administration of MSCs. ATC-rats underwent polytrauma and 40% hemorrhage, followed by IV administration of 5 or 10million/kg BMSCs (BMSC-5, BMSC-10), or vehicle at 1 hr after trauma.

Results: Rat MSCs expressed TF, and incubation of rat BMSCs or AMSCs with whole blood in vitro led to a significantly shortened clotting time (CT). However, a dose-dependent prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) with reduction in platelet counts and fibrinogen was found in healthy rat treated with IV-MSCs. BMSCs at 5 million/kg or less led to minimal effect on hemostasis. MSCs were not found in circulation, but in the lungs after IV administration regardless of the dosage. ATC with prolonged PT was not significantly affected by 5 or 10million/kg BMSCs. BMSC-10 led to significantly lower fibrinogen and platelet counts; while significantly higher levels of lactate, wet/dry weight ratio and leukocyte infiltration in the lung were present compared to BMSC-5 or vehicle. No differences were seen in immune or inflammatory profiles with BMSC treatment in ATC-rats, at least in the acute timeframe.

Conclusions: Intravenous administration of MSCs leads to a risk of coagulopathy associated with a dose-dependent reduction in platelet counts and fibrinogen, and is incapable of restoring hemostasis of rats with ATC after polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock.

Level Of Evidence: Animal and laboratory studies; Study type: therapeutic.
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November 2021

Extracellular vesicles derived from cardiosphere-derived cells as a potential antishock therapeutic.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 08;91(2S Suppl 2):S81-S88

From the Coagulation and Blood Research (Blood) (T.C.C., X.W., J.D.K., J.G.-M., C.L.S., B.L., A.P.C., J.A.B.), United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, San Antonio, Texas; Capricor Therapeutics Institute (J.J.M., K.A.P., L.R.-B., N.A.A., L.S.M.), Beverly Hills, California; Department of Biological Chemistry (S.J.G.), Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland; and Department of Biomedical Engineering (C.R.R.), The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas.

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from cardiosphere-derived cells (CDC-EVs) are coming to light as a unique cell-free therapeutic. Because of their novelty, however, there still exist prominent gaps in knowledge regarding their therapeutic potential. Herein the therapeutic potential of CDC-EVs in a rat model of acute traumatic coagulopathy induced by multiple injuries and hemorrhagic shock is outlined.

Methods: Extracellular vesicle surface expression of procoagulant molecules (tissue factor and phosphatidylserine) was evaluated by flow cytometry. Extracellular vesicle thrombogenicity was tested using calibrated thrombogram, and clotting parameters were assessed using a flow-based adhesion model simulating blood flow over a collagen-expressing surface. The therapeutic efficacy of EVs was then determined in a rat model of acute traumatic coagulopathy induced by multiple injuries and hemorrhagic shock.

Results: Extracellular vesicles isolated from cardiosphere-derived cells are not functionally procoagulant and do not interfere with platelet function. In a rat model of multiple injuries and hemorrhagic shock, early administration of EVs significantly reduced the elevation of lactate and creatinine and did not significantly enhance coagulopathy in rats with acute traumatic coagulopathy.

Conclusion: The results of this study are of great relevance to the development of EV products for use in combat casualty care, as our studies show that CDC-EVs have the potential to be an antishock therapeutic if administered early. These results demonstrate that research using CDC-EVs in trauma care needs to be considered and expanded beyond their reported cardioprotective benefits.
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August 2021

Role of albumin on endothelial basement membrane and hemostasis in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 08;91(2S Suppl 2):S65-S73

From the Tactical Combat Casualty Care Research Department, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

Background: We sought to determine the extent of loss of endothelial basement membrane (BM), leukocyte recruitment, and changes in coagulation after hemorrhagic shock, followed by limited-volume resuscitation (LVR) with 5% albumin (ALB).

Methods: Anesthetized rats were bled 40% of blood volume and assigned to treatment groups: untreated (n = 6), LVR with normal saline (NS; n = 8), or LVR with ALB (n = 8). Sham rats (n = 6) underwent all procedures except hemorrhage or resuscitation. Blood samples were assayed for active proteases, such as metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM-10), BM-type heparan sulfate proteoglycan (perlecan), cell count, and coagulation function. Leukocyte transmigration was used to estimate the net efficiency of leukocyte recruitment in cremaster venules.

Results: Hemorrhage significantly lowered red cell count, but white cell and platelet counts did not change (vs. sham). Ionized calcium in plasma was significantly reduced in untreated and remained so after NS. In contrast, ionized calcium was normalized after ALB. Plasma expansion after NS and ALB further reduced leukocyte and platelet counts. Metalloproteinase 9, ADAM-10, and perlecan were significantly higher in untreated rats (vs. sham). Albumin normalized MMP-9, ADAM-10, and perlecan levels, while NS further increased MMP-9, ADAM-10, and perlecan (vs. sham). Transmigrated leukocytes doubled in the untreated group and remained elevated after NS (vs. sham) but normalized after ALB. Albumin reduced every stage of the leukocyte recruitment process to sham levels.

Conclusion: Despite similar plasma expansion, NS weakened platelet function contrary to ALB. Plasma expansion with ALB resulted in restoration of BM integrity and attenuation of leukocyte recruitment to tissues, in contrast to NS. Albumin plays a critical role in restoring BM integrity, attenuating leukocyte recruitment to tissues, and optimizing hemostasis by increasing ionized calcium in plasma.
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August 2021

Interactions of human mesenchymal stromal cells with peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a Mitogenic proliferation assay.

J Immunol Methods 2021 05 18;492:113000. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Blood and Coagulation Research, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is a potentially important therapeutic modality. MSCs suppress peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in vitro, suggesting a mechanism for suppressing inflammatory responses in vivo. This study details the interactions of PBMCs and MSCs.

Methods: Pooled human PBMCs and MSCs were co-cultured at different MSC:PBMC ratios and harvested from 0 to 120 h, with and without phytohaemagglutin A (PHA) stimulation. Proliferation of adherent MSCs and non-adherent PBMCs was assessed by quantitation of ATP levels. PBMC surface marker expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity was determined by kynurenine assay and IDO mRNA by RT-PCR. Cytokine release was measured by ELISA. Immunofluorescent microscopy detected MSC, PBMC, monocyte (CD14+) and apoptotic events.

Results: PBMC proliferation in response to PHA gave a robust ATP signal by 72 h, which was suppressed by co-culture with densely plated MSCs. Very low level MSC seeding densities relative to PBMC number reproducibly stimulated PBMC proliferation. The CD4+/CD3+ population significantly decreased over time while the CD8+/CD3+ population significantly increased. No change in CD4+/CD8+ ratio is seen with high density MSC co-culture; very low density MSCs augment the changes seen in PHA stimulated PBMCs alone. IDO activity in MSCs co-cultured with PBMCs correlated with PBMC suppression. MSCs increased the secretion of IL-10 and IL-6 from stimulated co-cultures and decreased TNF-α secretion. In stimulated co-culture, low density MSCs decreased in number; fluorescence immunomicroscopy detected association of PBMC with MSC and phosphatidyl serine externalization in both cell populations.

Conclusions: A bidirectional interaction between MSCs and PBMCs occurs during co-culture. High numbers of MSCs inhibit PHA-stimulated PBMC proliferation and the PBMC response to stimulation; low numbers of MSCs augment these responses. Low density MSCs are susceptible to attrition, apparently by PBMC-induced apoptosis. These results may have direct application when considering therapeutic dosing of patients; low MSC doses may have unintended detrimental consequences.
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May 2021

Use of Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators to Alleviate Cold Platelet Storage Lesion.

Transfusion 2020 06 1;60 Suppl 3:S112-S118. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Coagulation and Blood Research Program, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Cold-stored platelets are an attractive option for treatment of actively bleeding patients due to a reduced risk of septic complications and preserved hemostatic function compared to conventional room temperature-stored platelets. However, refrigeration causes increased platelet activation and aggregate formation. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), cell signaling mediators biosynthesized from essential fatty acids, have been shown to modulate platelet function and activation. In this study, we sought to determine if SPMs could be used to inhibit cold-stored platelet activation.

Methods: Platelets were collected from healthy donors (n = 4-7) and treated with SPMs (resolvin E1 [RvE1], maresin 1 [MaR1], and resolvin D2 [RvD2]) or vehicle (VEH; 0.1% EtOH). Platelets were stored without agitation in the cold and assayed on Days 0 and 7 of storage for platelet activation levels using flow cytometry, platelet count, aggregation response using impedance aggregometry, and nucleotide content using mass spectrometry.

Results: Compared to VEH, SPM treatment inhibited GPIb shedding (all compounds), significantly reduced both PS exposure and activation of GPIIb/IIIa receptor (RvD2, MaR1), and preserved aggregation response to TRAP (RvD2, MaR1) after 7 days of storage. Similar to untreated cold-stored platelets, SPM-treated samples did not preserve platelet counts or block the release of P-Selectin. Nucleotide content was unaffected by SPM treatment in cold-stored platelets.

Conclusions: SPM treatment, particularly Mar1 and RvD2, led to reduced platelet activation and preserved platelet function after 7 days of storage in the cold. Future work is warranted to better elucidate the mechanism of action of SPMs on cold platelet function and activation.
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June 2020

An in vitro pilot study of apheresis platelets collected on Trima Accel system and stored in T-PAS+ solution at refrigeration temperature (1-6°C).

Transfusion 2019 05 6;59(5):1789-1798. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Coagulation and Blood Research Program, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

Background: Using platelet additive solution (PAS) to dilute fibrinogen during long-term cold storage of platelets (PLTs) decreases PLT activation and increases functional PLT shelf life. We performed a randomized, paired study to assess the in vitro quality of PLTs stored in the cold in T-PAS+ for up to 18 days evaluated against PLTs stored under currently allowable conditions (5-day room temperature-stored PLTs [RTP] and 3-day cold-stored PLTs [CSP]).

Study Design And Methods: PLTs were collected from healthy volunteers (n = 10) and diluted to 65% T-PAS+/35% plasma before cold storage. Double-dose apheresis PLTs (in 100% plasma) were collected from the same donors and split into two bags (one bag RTP, one bag CSP). All bags were sampled on the day of collection (Day 0). CSP and RTP bags were sampled on Days 3 and 5, respectively. T-PAS+ samples were assessed on Days 3, 5, 14, 16, and 18 of storage for metabolism, hemostatic function, and activation.

Results: After 18 days of storage in T-PAS+, pH was 6.71 ± 0.04, PLT count was comparable to Day 3 CSP, PLT function (aggregation and clot strength) was comparable to Day 5 RTP, and PLT activation was significantly increased.

Conclusion: Refrigerated PLTs stored in T-PAS+ for 18 days met FDA pH standards. Functional metrics suggest activity of T-PAS+-stored PLTs and the potential to contribute to hemostasis throughout 18 days of storage. Extending the shelf life of PLTs would increase access to hemostatic resuscitation for bleeding patients in military and civilian settings.
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May 2019

Low-volume resuscitation with normal saline is associated with microvascular endothelial dysfunction after hemorrhage in rats, compared to colloids and balanced crystalloids.

Crit Care 2017 06 29;21(1):160. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Damage Control Resuscitation, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Background: Restoration of endothelial glycocalyx (EG) barrier may be an essential therapeutic target for successful resuscitation. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the effects of resuscitation with normal saline (NS) to lactated Ringer's solution (LR), 5% albumin and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) on their ability to maintain EG and barrier function integrity, mitigate endothelial injury and inflammation, and restore vascular homeostasis after hemorrhagic shock.

Methods: Anesthetized rats (N = 36) were subjected to hemorrhagic shock (bled 40% of total blood volume), followed by resuscitation with 45 ml/kg NS or LR, or 15 ml/kg 5% albumin or FFP. Microhemodynamics, EG thickness, permeability, leukocyte rolling and adhesion were assessed in >180 vessels from cremaster muscle, as well as systemic measures.

Results: After hypotensive resuscitation, arterial pressure was 25% lower than baseline in all cohorts. Unlike FFP, resuscitation with crystalloids failed to restore EG thickness to baseline post shock and shedding of glycocalyx proteoglycan was significantly higher after NS. NS decreased blood flow and shear, and markedly increased permeability and leukocyte rolling/adhesion. In contrast, LR had lesser effects on increased permeability and leukocyte rolling. Albumin stabilized permeability and white blood cell (WBC) rolling/adhesion post shock, comparable to FFP.

Conclusions: Resuscitation with NS failed to inhibit syndecan-1 shedding and to repair the EG, which led to loss of endothelial barrier function (edema), decline in tissue perfusion and pronounced leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Detrimental effects of NS on endothelial and microvascular stabilization post shock may provide a pathophysiological basis to understand and prevent morbidity associated with iatrogenic resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock.
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June 2017