Publications by authors named "Christelle Monteil"

26 Publications

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Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade with finerenone improves heart function and exercise capacity in ovariectomized mice.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Inserm U1096 ENVI, Rouen Medical School, UNIROUEN, Normandy University, Rouen, France.

Aims: In post-menopausal women, incidence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is higher than in men. Hormonal replacement therapies did not demonstrate benefits. We tested whether the non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone limits the progression of heart failure in ovariectomized (OVX) mice with metabolic disorders.

Methods And Results: Ovariectomy was performed in 4-month-old mice, treated or not at 7 months old for 1 month with finerenone (Fine) 1 mg/kg/day. Left ventricular (LV) cardiac and coronary endothelial functions were assessed by echocardiography, catheterization, and myography. Blood pressure was measured by plethysmography. Insulin and glucose tolerance tests were performed. Exercise capacity and spontaneous activity were measured on treadmill and in combined indirect calorimetric cages equipped with voluntary running wheel. OVX mice presented LV diastolic dysfunction without modification of ejection fraction compared with controls (CTL), whereas finerenone improved LV filling pressure (LV end-diastolic pressure, mmHg: CTL 3.48 ± 0.41, OVX 6.17 ± 0.30**, OVX + Fine 3.65 ± 0.55 , **P < 0.01 vs. CTL, P < 0.05 vs. OVX) and compliance (LV end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, mmHg/RVU: CTL 1.65 ± 0.42, OVX 4.77 ± 0.37***, OVX + Fine 2.87 ± 0.26 , ***P < 0.001 vs. CTL, P < 0.01 vs. OVX). Acetylcholine-induced endothelial-dependent relaxation of coronary arteries was impaired in ovariectomized mice and improved by finerenone (relaxation, %: CTL 86 ± 8, OVX 38 ± 3**, OVX + Fine 83 ± 7 , **P < 0.01 vs. CTL, P < 0.01 vs. OVX). Finerenone improved decreased ATP production by subsarcolemmal mitochondria after ovariectomy. Weight gain, increased blood pressure, and decreased insulin and glucose tolerance in OVX mice were improved by finerenone. The exercise capacity at race was diminished in untreated OVX mice only. Spontaneous activity measurements in ovariectomized mice showed decreased horizontal movements, reduced time spent in a running wheel, and reduced VO and VCO , all parameters improved by finerenone.

Conclusions: Finerenone improved cardiovascular dysfunction and exercise capacity after ovariectomy-induced LV diastolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13219DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparative study on gene expression profile in rat lung after repeated exposure to diesel and biodiesel exhausts upstream and downstream of a particle filter.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 26;266(Pt 2):115264. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Univ Rennes, CHU Rennes, Inserm, EHESP, Irset (Institut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail), UMR_S 1085, 35000, Rennes, France.

Biodiesel is considered as a valuable and less toxic alternative to diesel. However, cellular and molecular effects of repeated exposure to biodiesel emissions from a recent engine equipped with a diesel particle filter (DPF) remain to be characterized. To gain insights about this point, the lung transcriptional signatures were analyzed for rats (n = 6 per group) exposed to filtered air, 30% rapeseed biodiesel (B30) blend or reference diesel (RF0), upstream and downstream a DPF, for 3 weeks (3 h/day, 5 days/week). Genomic analysis revealed a modest regulation of gene expression level (lower than a 2-fold) by both fuels and a higher number of genes regulated downstream the DPF than upstream, in response to either RF0 or to B30 exhaust emissions. The presence of DPF was found to notably impact the lung gene signature of rats exposed to B30. The number of genes regulated in common by both fuels was low, which is likely due to differences in concentrations of regulated pollutants in exhausts, notably for compound organic volatiles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, NO or NOx. Nevertheless, we have identified some pathways that were activated for both exhaust emissions, such as integrin-, IGF-1- and Rac-signaling pathways, likely reflecting the effects of gas phase products. By contrast, some canonical pathways relative to "oxidative phosphorylation" and "mitochondrial dysfunction" appear as specific to B30 exhaust emission; the repression of transcripts of mitochondrial respiratory chain in lung of rats exposed to B30 downstream of DPF supports the perturbation of mitochondria function. This study done with a recent diesel engine (compliant with the European IV emission standard) and commercially-available fuels reveals that the diesel blend composition and the presence of an after treatment system may modify lung gene signature of rats repeatedly exposed to exhaust emissions, however in a rather modest manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115264DOI Listing
November 2020

Nitrogen Dioxide Inhalation Exposures Induce Cardiac Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Impair Mitochondrial Function and Promote Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 07 30;17(15). Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, UNICAEN ABTE, 14000 Caen et, 76 000 Rouen, France.

Traffic air pollution is a major health problem and is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) diseases. In a previous experimental study, we showed that diesel exhaust (DE) exposures induced cardiac mitochondrial and CV dysfunctions associated with the gaseous phase. Here, we hypothesized that NO exposures to levels close to those found in DE induce a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which contribute to an endothelial dysfunction, an early indicator for numerous CV diseases. For this, we studied the effects of NO on ROS production and its impacts on the mitochondrial, coronary endothelial and cardiac functions, after acute (one single exposure) and repeated (three h/day, five days/week for three weeks) exposures in Wistar rats. Acute NO exposure induced an early but reversible mitochondrial ROS production. This event was isolated since neither mitochondrial function nor endothelial function were impaired, whereas cardiac function assessment showed a reversible left ventricular dysfunction. Conversely, after three weeks of exposure this alteration was accompanied by a cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction highlighted by an alteration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation and an increase in mitochondrial ROS production. Moreover, repeated NO exposures promoted endothelial dysfunction of the coronary arteries, as shown by reduced acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation, which was due, at least partially, to a superoxide-dependent decrease of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. This study shows that NO exposures impair cardiac mitochondrial function, which, in conjunction with coronary endothelial dysfunction, contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Together, these results clearly identify NO as a probable risk factor in ischemic heart diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432061PMC
July 2020

Short-and long-term administration of imeglimin counters cardiorenal dysfunction in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2020 Jul 16;3(3):e00128. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

UNIROUEN Inserm U1096 FHU-REMOD-VHF Normandie Univ Rouen France.

Introduction: Imeglimin, a glucose-lowering agent targeting mitochondrial bioenergetics, decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and improves glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether this is associated with protective effects on metabolic syndrome-related left ventricular (LV) and vascular dysfunctions.

Methods: We used Zucker rats to assess the effects on LV function, LV tissue perfusion, LV oxidative stress and vascular function induced by imeglimin administered orally for 9 or 90 days at a dose of 150 mg/kg twice daily.

Results: Compared to untreated animals, 9- and 90-day imeglimin treatment decreased LV end-diastolic pressure and LV end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, increased LV tissue perfusion and decreased LV ROS production. Simultaneously, imeglimin restored acetylcholine-mediated coronary relaxation and mesenteric flow-mediated dilation. One hour after imeglimin administration, when glucose plasma levels were not yet modified, imeglimin reduced LV mitochondrial ROS production and improved LV function. Ninety-day imeglimin treatment reduced related LV and kidney fibrosis and improved kidney function.

Conclusion: In a rat model, mimicking Human metabolic syndrome, imeglimin immediately countered metabolic syndrome-related cardiac diastolic and vascular dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress/increased NO bioavailability and improving myocardial perfusion and after 90-day treatment myocardial and kidney structure, effects that are, at least in part, independent from glucose control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/edm2.128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7375119PMC
July 2020

An integrated functional and transcriptomic analysis reveals that repeated exposure to diesel exhaust induces sustained mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunctions.

Environ Pollut 2019 Mar 17;246:518-526. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, UNICAEN, ABTE, 14000 Caen et 76 000 Rouen, France. Electronic address:

Diesel exhaust (DE) contributes to air pollution, an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms by which DE exposure induces cardiovascular dysfunction remain unknown and there is still debate on the contribution of the primary particulate matter (PM) fraction compared to the gaseous phase. Although the mitochondria play a key role in the events leading to cardiovascular diseases, their role in DE-induced cardiovascular effects has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to highlight cardiac and mitochondrial events that could be disrupted following acute and/or repeated DE exposures and the contribution of gaseous pollutants to these effects. To address this question, Wistar rats were exposed to DE generated under strictly controlled and characterized conditions and extracted upstream or downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF). Evaluation of the cardiac function after acute DE exposure showed a disturbance in echocardiographic parameters, which persisted and worsened after repeated exposures. The presence of the DPF did not modify the cardiovascular dysfunction revealing an important implication of the gas phase in this response. Surprisingly, redox parameters were not altered by DE exposures while an alteration in mitochondrial oxidative capacity was observed. Exploration of the mitochondrial function demonstrated a more specific alteration in complex I of the respiratory chain after repeated exposures, which was further confirmed by transcriptional analysis of left ventricular (LV) tissue. In conclusion, this work provides new insights into cardiovascular effects induced by DE, demonstrating a cardiac mitochondrial impairment associated with the gaseous phase. These effects suggest deleterious consequences in terms of cardiac function for vulnerable populations with underlying energy deficit such as patients with heart failure or the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.12.049DOI Listing
March 2019

Comparative study of diesel and biodiesel exhausts on lung oxidative stress and genotoxicity in rats.

Environ Pollut 2018 Apr 8;235:514-524. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, UNIROUEN, ABTE, 14000 Caen et 76000, Rouen, France; Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France. Electronic address:

The contribution of diesel exhaust to atmospheric pollution is a major concern for public health, especially in terms of occurrence of lung cancers. The present study aimed at addressing the toxic effects of a repeated exposure to these emissions in an animal study performed under strictly controlled conditions. Rats were repeatedly exposed to the exhaust of diesel engine. Parameters such as the presence of a particle filter or the use of gasoil containing rapeseed methyl ester were investigated. Various biological parameters were monitored in the lungs to assess the toxic and genotoxic effects of the exposure. First, a transcriptomic analysis showed that some pathways related to DNA repair and cell cycle were affected to a limited extent by diesel but even less by biodiesel. In agreement with occurrence of a limited genotoxic stress in the lungs of diesel-exposed animals, small induction of γ-H2AX and acrolein adducts was observed but not of bulky adducts and 8-oxodGuo. Unexpected results were obtained in the study of the effect of the particle filter. Indeed, exhausts collected downstream of the particle filter led to a slightly higher induction of a series of genes than those collected upstream. This result was in agreement with the formation of acrolein adducts and γH2AX. On the contrary, induction of oxidative stress remained very limited since only SOD was found to be induced and only when rats were exposed to biodiesel exhaust collected upstream of the particle filter. Parameters related to telomeres were identical in all groups. In summary, our results point to a limited accumulation of damage in lungs following repeated exposure to diesel exhausts when modern engines and relevant fuels are used. Yet, a few significant effects are still observed, mostly after the particle filter, suggesting a remaining toxicity associated with the gaseous or nano-particular phases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.12.077DOI Listing
April 2018

Physiological role of endothelin-1 in flow-mediated vasodilatation in humans and impact of cardiovascular risk factors.

J Hypertens 2017 06;35(6):1204-1212

aDepartment of Pharmacology, Rouen University HospitalbInstitut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1096cInstitute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, Normandy University, University of RouendCentre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC)-INSERM 1404, Rouen University HospitaleEquipe d'Accueil (EA) 4651, Rouen, France.

Objectives: The current study addressed the hypothesis that the local decrease in endothelin-1 (ET-1) bioavailability during sustained flow increases contributes to endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of conduit arteries and is altered in presence of cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods And Results: In nine young healthy individuals, the decrease in local ET-1 plasma levels and radial artery FMD in response to hand skin heating (from 34 to 44 °C) was not affected by endothelin type A (ETA) receptor blockade, achieved using the brachial infusion of BQ-123 (100 nmol/min per l of forearm), as compared with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) infusion. In contrast, endothelin type B (ETB) receptor blockade with BQ-788 (10 nmol/min per l) suppressed the decrease in plasma ET-1 during heating and reduced FMD, without altering nitric oxide release. The coinfusion of BQ-123 did not affect the inhibitory effect of ETB receptor blockade on the decrease in ET-1 plasma levels during heating but prevented the reduction in FMD. Basal radial artery parameters, systemic hemodynamics, and endothelium-independent dilatation to glyceryl trinitrate were not modified by ETA and/or ETB blockade. In a general population of 40 participants without treatment or major cardiovascular diseases, including the nine healthy individuals, the reduction in endothelin-1 level during heating was correlated with FMD (r = -0.55, P < 0.001) and decreased with increased age (r = 0.49, P = 0.001), mean arterial blood pressure (r = 0.48, P = 0.002), and total cholesterol level (r = 0.37, P = 0.024).

Conclusion: The uptake of endothelin-1 by ETB receptors contributes to conduit artery FMD, preventing its vasoconstrictor action mediated by ETA receptors. The alteration of this mechanism by cardiovascular risk factors may contribute to endothelial dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001307DOI Listing
June 2017

Selective Heart Rate Reduction Improves Metabolic Syndrome-related Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2015 Oct;66(4):399-408

*Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1096, Rouen, France; †Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, Rouen, France; ‡UFR de Médecine et Pharmacie, Rouen University, Rouen, France; §Plateau d'Imagerie CardioThoracique de l'Universite de Rouen, Rouen, France; ¶Equipe d'Acceuil 4651, Aliment Bioprocedes Toxicologie Environnement, Rouen, France; ‖Bruker Biospin MRI GMBH, Ettlingen, Germany; and **Servier, Suresnes, France.

Background: Enhanced heart rate observed in metabolic syndrome (MS) contributes to the deterioration of left ventricular (LV) function via impaired LV filling and relaxation, increased myocardial O2 consumption, and reduced coronary perfusion. However, whether heart rate reduction (HRR) opposes LV dysfunction observed in MS is unknown.

Methods: We assessed in Zucker fa/fa rats, a rat model of MS, the cardiovascular effects of HRR induced by the If current inhibitor S38844 (3 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)).

Results: Delayed short-term (4 days) and long-term (90 days) HRR induced by S38844 reduced LV end-diastolic pressure and LV end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, increased myocardial tissue perfusion, decreased myocardial oxidized glutathione levels, and preserved cardiac output, without modifying LV end-systolic pressure and LV end-systolic pressure-volume relation, although only long-term S38844 opposed LV collagen accumulation. Long-term S38844 improved flow-induced endothelium-dependent dilatation of mesenteric arteries, while metabolic parameters, such as plasma glucose levels, and Hb1c, were never modified.

Conclusions: In rats with MS, HRR induced by the If inhibitor S38844 improved LV diastolic function and endothelium-dependent vascular dilatation, independent from modifications in metabolic status. Moreover, this improvement in cardiac function involves not only immediate effects such as improved myocardial perfusion and reduced oxidative stress but also long-term effects such as modifications in the myocardial structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0000000000000294DOI Listing
October 2015

Role of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in mediating endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling in primary arterial antiphospholipid syndrome.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2014 Nov;66(11):3210-20

Rouen University Hospital, INSERM U1096, University of Rouen, and Centre d'Investigation Clinique, INSERM 1404, Rouen, France.

Objective: To assess the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-mediated vascular abnormalities in patients with primary arterial antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

Methods: Forty-eight subjects participated in the study. Arterial function and structure and TLR pathway activation were determined in patients with primary arterial APS and matched controls. The pathogenic effects of aPL isolated from patients were assessed in wild-type (WT) and TLR-knockout mice.

Results: APS patients had endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening, and hypertrophy, as evidenced by decreased brachial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increased aortic pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), as compared with controls. Plasma samples from APS patients revealed decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability and a pro-oxidative, proinflammatory, and prothrombotic state illustrated by a decrease in nitrite and an increase in lipid peroxidation, tumor necrosis factor α levels, and tissue factor (TF) levels. Furthermore, TLR pathway activation was found in APS patients with increased TLR-2 and TLR-4 messenger RNA expression and increased protein levels of the activated TLR transduction protein interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, agonist-stimulated cell-surface expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in circulating monocytes was higher in APS patients than in controls. These changes were positively associated with IMT and negatively associated with FMD. Finally, aPL injection decreased mesenteric endothelium-dependent relaxation and increased TF expression in WT mice but not in TLR-2- or TLR-4-knockout mice.

Conclusion: This translational study supports the notion that TLR-2 and TLR-4 play a role in mediating vascular abnormalities in patients with primary arterial APS. TLRs thus constitute a promising pharmacologic target for preventing cardiovascular complications in APS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.38785DOI Listing
November 2014

Polycystin deficiency induces dopamine-reversible alterations in flow-mediated dilatation and vascular nitric oxide release in humans.

Kidney Int 2015 Feb 16;87(2):465-72. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

1] Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France [2] Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1096, Rouen, France [3] Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, Rouen, France [4] Centre d'Investigation Clinique (CIC)-INSERM 1404, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a renal hereditary disorder associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, due to mutations in polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 genes. Endothelial polycystin-deficient cells have an altered mechanosensitivity to fluid shear stress and subsequent deficit in calcium-induced nitric oxide release, prevented by dopamine receptor stimulation. However, the impact of polycystin deficiency on endothelial function in ADPKD patients is still largely unknown. Here we assessed endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation in 21 normotensive ADPKD patients and 21 healthy control subjects, during sustained (hand skin heating) and transient (postischemic hyperemia) flow stimulation. Flow-mediated dilatation was less marked in ADPKD patients than in controls during heating, but it was similar during postischemic hyperemia. There was no difference in endothelium-independent dilatation in response to glyceryl trinitrate. Local plasma nitrite, an indicator of nitric oxide availability, increased during heating in controls but not in patients. Brachial infusion of dopamine in a subset of ADPKD patients stimulated plasma nitrite increase during heating and improved flow-mediated dilatation. Thus, ADPKD patients display a loss of nitric oxide release and an associated reduction in endothelium-dependent dilatation of conduit arteries during sustained blood flow increase. The correction of these anomalies by dopamine suggests future therapeutic strategies that could reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular events in ADPKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2014.241DOI Listing
February 2015

High-efficiency on-line haemodiafiltration improves conduit artery endothelial function compared with high-flux haemodialysis in end-stage renal disease patients.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Feb 13;29(2):414-22. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Background: Middle molecular weight uraemic toxins are considered to play an important role in vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Recent dialysis techniques based on convection, specifically high-efficiency on-line haemodiafiltration (HDF), enhance the removal of middle molecular weight toxins and reduce all-cause mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients. However, the mechanisms of these improved outcomes remain to be established.

Methods: This prospective study randomly assigned 42 ESRD patients to switch from high-flux HD to high-efficiency on-line HDF (n=22) or to continue HD (n=20). Brachial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation, central pulse pressure, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), internal diastolic diameter and distensibility and circulating markers of uraemia, inflammation and oxidative stress were blindly assessed before and after a 4-month follow-up.

Results: Brachial flow-mediated dilatation and carotid artery distensibility increased significantly in the HDF group compared with HD, while carotid IMT and diameter remained similar. HDF decreased predialysis levels of the uraemic toxins β2-microglobulin, phosphate and blood TNFα mRNA expression. Oxidative stress markers were not different between the HD and HDF groups. Blood mRNA expression of protein kinase C β2, an endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS) inhibitor, decreased significantly with HDF.

Conclusions: High-efficiency on-line HDF prevents the endothelial dysfunction and stiffening of the conduit arteries in ESRD patients compared with high-flux HD. HDF decreases uraemic toxins, vascular inflammation, and is associated with subsequent improvement in eNOS functionality. These results suggest that reduced endothelial dysfunction may be an intermediate mechanism explaining the beneficial outcomes associated with HDF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gft448DOI Listing
February 2014

Precision cut lung slices as an efficient tool for in vitro lung physio-pharmacotoxicology studies.

Xenobiotica 2013 Jan 3;43(1):63-72. Epub 2012 Oct 3.

EA4651-ABTE/Toxemac, University of Rouen, Rouen, France.

1.We review the specific approaches for lung tissue slices preparation and incubation systems and the research application fields in which lung slices proved to be a very efficient alternative to animal experimentation for biomechanical, physiological, pharmacological and toxicological approaches. 2.Focus is made on air-liquid interface dynamic organ culture systems that allow direct tissue exposure to complex aerosol and that best mimic in vivo lung tissue physiology. 3.A compilation of research applications in the fields of vascular and airway reactivity, mucociliary transport, polyamine transport, xenobiotic biotransformation, chemicals toxicology and complex aerosols supports the concept that precision cut lung slices are a very efficient tool maintaining highly differentiated functions similar to in vivo lung organ when kept under dynamic organ culture. They also have been successfully used for lung gene transfer efficiency assessment, for lung viral infection efficiency assessment, for studies of tissue preservation media and tissue post-conditioning to optimize lung tissue viability before grafting. 4.Taken all together, the reviewed studies point to a great interest for precision cut lung slices as an efficient and valuable alternative to in vivo lung organ experimentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00498254.2012.727043DOI Listing
January 2013

Xanthine oxidase contributes to mitochondrial ROS generation in an experimental model of cocaine-induced diastolic dysfunction.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2012 Dec;60(6):538-43

University of Rouen, INSERM, Rouen, France.

Recent studies have shown that long-term cocaine use induces diastolic impairment and a myocardial oxidative stress. Recently, we have reported that cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction may be due to a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, which occurs at the same time as xanthine oxidase (XO) activation. In this work, we hypothesized that XO activation contributes to mitochondrial ROS overproduction, which in turn contributes to diastolic dysfunction. To test this, we used a well-established in vivo model of cocaine-induced diastolic dysfunction. In this experimental model treated with or without allopurinol, an inhibitor of XO, we measured mitochondrial ROS production and function. Mitochondrial alterations were characterized by an increase in oxygen consumption through complexes I and III, a reduction in ATP production, and an increased ROS production specifically in isolated interfibrillar mitochondria. Allopurinol treatment prevented the rise in mitochondrial ROS levels and the decrease in ATP production. In the same way, allopurinol treatment improved ventricular relaxation with a decrease in Tau, an index of left ventricle relaxation and of end-diastolic pressure volume relation. These results confirmed the critical role of XO in the sequence of events leading to cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0b013e318271223cDOI Listing
December 2012

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids contribute with altered nitric oxide and endothelin-1 pathways to conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension.

Circulation 2012 Mar;125(10):1266-75

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, France.

Background: We sought to clarify, using functional and biological approaches, the role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species balance, and endothelin-1 in conduit artery endothelial dysfunction during essential hypertension.

Methods And Results: Radial artery diameter and mean wall shear stress were determined in 28 untreated patients with essential hypertension and 30 normotensive control subjects during endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation induced by hand skin heating. The role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and NO was assessed with the brachial infusion of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (fluconazole) and NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine [L-NMMA]). Compared with controls, hypertensive patients exhibited a decreased flow-mediated dilatation in response to postischemic hyperemia as well as to heating, as shown by the lesser slope of their diameter-shear stress relationship. In controls, heating-induced flow-mediated dilatation was reduced by fluconazole, L-NMMA, and, to a larger extent, by L-NMMA+fluconazole. In patients, flow-mediated dilatation was not affected by fluconazole and was reduced by L-NMMA and L-NMMA+fluconazole to a lesser extent than in controls. Furthermore, local plasma epoxyeicosatrienoic acids increased during heating in controls (an effect diminished by fluconazole) but not in patients. Plasma nitrite, an indicator of NO availability, increased during heating in controls (an effect abolished by L-NMMA) and, to a lesser extent, in patients, whereas, inversely, reactive oxygen species increased more in patients (an effect diminished by L-NMMA). Plasma endothelin-1 decreased during heating in controls but not in patients.

Conclusions: These results show that an impaired role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids contributes, together with an alteration in NO/reactive oxygen species balance and endothelin-1 pathway, to conduit artery endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension.

Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.eudract.ema.europa.eu. Unique identifier: RCB2007-A001-10-53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.070680DOI Listing
March 2012

Improvement of left ventricular diastolic function induced by β-blockade: a comparison between nebivolol and metoprolol.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2011 Aug 24;51(2):168-76. Epub 2011 May 24.

INSERM U644, Institut Fédératif de Recherches Multidisciplinaires sur les Peptides n°23 Institut de Recherche et d'Innovation Biomédicale de Haute Normandie, UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Rouen, France.

Objectives: Enhanced adrenergic drive is involved in the development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction observed in metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus, β-blockers might improve LV dysfunction observed in MS, but whether this occurs is unknown.

Methods: We assessed in Zucker fa/fa rats the effects of short- (5 days) and long-term (90 days) metoprolol ('pure' β-blockade; 80 mg/kg/day) or nebivolol (β-blocker with vasodilating properties; 5mg/kg/day) treatment on LV hemodynamics and remodeling, as well as the long-term effects on coronary and peripheral endothelial dysfunction.

Results: At identical degree of β(1)-receptor blockade, metoprolol and nebivolol decreased heart rate to the same extent and preserved cardiac output via increased stroke volume. None of the β-blockers, either after long- or short-term administration, modified LV end-systolic pressure-volume relation. Both β-blockers reduced, after long-term administration, LV end-diastolic pressure, Tau and end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, and this was associated with reduced LV collagen density, but not heart weight. Similar hemodynamic effects were also observed after short-term nebivolol, but not short-term metoprolol. These short-term effects of nebivolol were abolished by NO synthase inhibition. At the vascular level, nebivolol, and to a lesser extend metoprolol, improved NO dependent coronary vasorelaxation, which was abolished by NO synthase inhibition.

Conclusions: In a model of MS, the β-blockers metoprolol and nebivolol improve to the same extent LV hemodynamics, remodeling and diastolic function, but nebivolol prevent more markedly endothelium dependent vasorelaxation involving a more marked enhancement of NO bio-availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.05.012DOI Listing
August 2011

Reduced cardiac remodelling and prevention of glutathione deficiency after omega-3 supplementation in chronic heart failure.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2011 Jun;25(3):323-32

INSERM U644, Institut Fédératif de Recherches Multidisciplinaires sur les Peptides n°23, Rouen Institut for Biomedical Research and Inovation, UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, 22 Boulevard Gambetta, 76183 Rouen, France.

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) supplementation is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality and post-infarction death. However, the impact of omega-3 supplementation in congestive heart failure (CHF) is still unknown. This study assesses the effects of omega-3 supplementation on left ventricular (LV) function and remodelling. We assessed, in rats with CHF induced by left coronary ligation, the effects of a 1-week and a 12-week supplementation with omega-3 (450 mg/kg per day) on LV hemodynamics, function and structure. Chronic omega-3 reduces total peripheral resistance due to an increase in cardiac output without modification of arterial pressure. Only chronic omega-3 reduces LV end-diastolic pressure and LV relaxation constant. Moreover, chronic omega-3 decreases LV systolic and diastolic diameters, LV weight and collagen density. Acute and chronic omega-3 increase LV γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase and oppose glutathione deficiency resulting in a reduction of myocardial oxidized glutathione. In experimental CHF, long-term omega-3 supplementation improves LV hemodynamics and function and prevents LV remodelling and glutathione deficiency. The latter might be one of the mechanisms involved, but whether other mechanism, independent of myocardial redox 'status', such as reduced inflammation, are implicated remains to be confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2010.00839.xDOI Listing
June 2011

Mitochondrial impairment contributes to cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction: Prevention by the targeted antioxidant MitoQ.

Free Radic Biol Med 2010 Sep 4;49(5):748-56. Epub 2010 Jun 4.

INSERM U644, University of Rouen, Rouen F-76183, France.

The goal of this study was to assess mitochondrial function and ROS production in an experimental model of cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction. We hypothesized that cocaine abuse may lead to altered mitochondrial function that in turn may cause left ventricular dysfunction. Seven days of cocaine administration to rats led to an increased oxygen consumption detected in cardiac fibers, specifically through complex I and complex III. ROS levels were increased, specifically in interfibrillar mitochondria. In parallel there was a decrease in ATP synthesis, whereas no difference was observed in subsarcolemmal mitochondria. This uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation was not detectable after short-term exposure to cocaine, suggesting that these mitochondrial abnormalities were a late rather than a primary event in the pathological response to cocaine. MitoQ, a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, was shown to completely prevent these mitochondrial abnormalities as well as cardiac dysfunction characterized here by a diastolic dysfunction studied with a conductance catheter to obtain pressure-volume data. Taken together, these results extend previous studies and demonstrate that cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction may be due to a mitochondrial defect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.05.024DOI Listing
September 2010

Aldosterone synthase inhibition improves cardiovascular function and structure in rats with heart failure: a comparison with spironolactone.

Eur Heart J 2008 Sep 27;29(17):2171-9. Epub 2008 Jun 27.

Faculté de Médecine et Pharmacie, INSERM U644, 22 Boulevard Gambetta, 76183 Rouen Cedex, France.

Aims: Inhibition of aldosterone synthase, the key enzyme in aldosterone formation, could be an alternative strategy for mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists in congestive heart failure (CHF), but its effect in CHF is unknown.

Methods And Results: We compared, in rats with CHF, the effects of a 7 day and a 12 week treatment with the aldosterone synthase inhibitor FAD286 (4 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) with those induced by spironolactone (80 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). FAD286/spironolactone increased cardiac output without modifying arterial pressure. Long-term FAD286 and spironolactone reduced left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, LV relaxation constant, and LV dilatation, and these effects were more marked with FAD286, whereas both drugs reduced LV hypertrophy and collagen accumulation to the same extent. Long-term FAD286/spironolactone prevented CHF-related enhancement in LV ACE and reduction in LV ACE-2, but only FAD286 prevented the reduction in LV AT(2) receptors. FAD286, but not long-term spironolactone, reduced the CHF-related enhancements in LV reactive oxygen species, reduced-oxidized glutathione ratio, and aortic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity. FAD286 normalized the CHF-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation.

Conclusion: In experimental CHF, FAD286 and spironolactone improve LV haemodynamics, remodelling, and function, but only FAD286 persistently normalizes LV 'redox status'. These results suggest that aldosterone synthase inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CHF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehn277DOI Listing
September 2008

NADPH oxidase inhibition prevents cocaine-induced up-regulation of xanthine oxidoreductase and cardiac dysfunction.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2007 Feb 10;42(2):326-32. Epub 2007 Jan 10.

INSERM U644, UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, University of Rouen, 22 boulevard Gambetta, F-76183 Rouen, France.

Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of cocaine-induced cardiomyopathy. In the present study, we aimed to determine the enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, namely NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in male Wistar rats treated for 7 days with cocaine (2x7.5 mg/kg/day, ip) or cocaine with a NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin, 50 mg/kg/day, po) or a XOR inhibitor (allopurinol, 50 mg/kg/day, po). Cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction is associated with an increase in NADPH oxidase and XOR activities (59% and 29%, respectively) and a decrease in catalase activity. Apocynin or allopurinol treatment prevents the cocaine-induced cardiac alteration by restoration of cardiac output, stroke volume and fractional shortening. This is associated with a reduction of the myocardial production of superoxide anions and an enhancement of catalase activity. Surprisingly, apocynin treatment prevents XOR up-regulation supporting the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in modulating ROS production by XOR. These data suggest that NADPH and xanthine oxidase act synergically to form myocardial ROS and clearly demonstrate that their inhibition may be critical in preventing the initiation and progression of cocaine-induced LV dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2006.11.011DOI Listing
February 2007

Triple ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition in heart failure: a comparison with ACE and dual ECE-NEP inhibition.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2005 Sep;46(3):390-7

INSERM U644, IFRMP no. 23, Rouen University Medical School, Rouen, France and Novarhis Institutes for BioMedical Research, East Hanover, New Jersey, USA.

Mortality remains high in chronic heart failure (CHF) because under ACE inhibitor treatment other neurohumoral systems remain/become (de)activated, such as the endothelin and atrial natriuretic peptide pathways. Dual endothelin-converting enzyme-neutral endopeptidase (ECE-NEP) inhibition exerts beneficial effects in experimental CHF, but whether "triple" ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition is superior to ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition is unknown. We compared, in rats with CHF, ACE-ECE-NEP to ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition in terms of left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and remodeling. Benazepril (2 mg/kg/d) or the ECE-NEP inhibitor CGS26303 (10 mg/kg/d) were administered alone or in combination (subcutaneously for 28 days starting 7 days after coronary ligation). ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition reduced blood pressure more markedly than ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition. All treatments increased cardiac output to the same extent, but ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition reduced LV diameter and LV end-diastolic pressure more markedly than ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition. The reduction of LV weight and collagen accumulation in the "viable" myocardium was most pronounced after ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition. These results, obtained in experimental CHF, illustrate a further improvement of LV hemodynamics and structure after ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition compared with either ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition, but whether this is associated with a further improvement of exercise tolerance and/or survival remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.fjc.0000175457.48031.8bDOI Listing
September 2005

Role of alpha1-adrenoreceptors in cocaine-induced NADPH oxidase expression and cardiac dysfunction.

Cardiovasc Res 2005 Sep;67(4):699-704

INSERM U644, Faculté de médecine-Pharmacie de Rouen, UFR de Medecine et de Pharmacie, 22 boulevard Gambetta, 76183 Rouen, France.

Objective: We assessed whether alpha1-adrenoreceptor (alpha1-AR) stimulation contributes to activation of myocardial NADPH oxidase in a rat model of cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction.

Methods And Results: After 7 days of cocaine injection (2 x 7.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., Coc), NADPH activity assessed by chemiluminescence increases as well as phosphorylation of p47phox, one of the cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase. The alpha1-AR antagonist prazosin (Prz), administered 1 h before each cocaine injection (2 x 1 mg/kg/day, i.p., Coc+Prz), prevents these effects. Moreover, Prz pretreatment reduces left ventricular/body weight (LV/BW) ratio and partially prevents the cocaine-induced alterations in fractional shortening and cardiac index assessed by echocardiography. In order to confirm the involvement of alpha1-AR stimulation in NADPH oxidase up-regulation in vivo, we used phenylephrine (Phe) administration with the same protocol of injections as that used with cocaine (2 x 5 microg/kg/day, i.p.). After Phe administration, as expected, NADPH oxidase activity increases as well as phosphorylation of p47phox. These effects occur in the absence of sustained hemodynamic changes.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the involvement of the alpha1-AR in NADPH oxidase activation and in cocaine-induced LV dysfunction. We suggest that alpha1-AR stimulation, at least in part via NADPH oxidase induction, plays a critical role in the events leading to the cardiomyopathy observed after cocaine abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.04.026DOI Listing
September 2005

Transient reduction in myocardial free oxygen radical levels is involved in the improved cardiac function and structure after long-term allopurinol treatment initiated in established chronic heart failure.

Eur Heart J 2005 Aug 4;26(15):1544-50. Epub 2005 May 4.

INSERM U644, IFRMP no. 23, Faculté de Médecine et Pharmacie, 22 Boulevard Gambetta, 76183 Rouen Cedex, France.

Aims: Oxidative stress, i.e. imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defences, contributes to the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). Acute inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO), which produces ROS, improves mechanical efficiency of the failing heart, but whether long-term XO inhibition exerts beneficial effects in CHF is unknown.

Methods And Results: In rats with established CHF induced by left coronary ligation, we assessed the effects of a 5-day and a 10-week treatment with the XO inhibitor allopurinol (50 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) on haemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) function and structure. Both acute and chronic allopurinol treatment increase cardiac output without modification of arterial pressure, but only chronic allopurinol treatment reduces LV end-diastolic pressure and LV relaxation constant. Chronic allopurinol treatment decreases both LV systolic and diastolic diameters, but acute allopurinol treatment only decreases LV systolic diameter. Moreover, chronic allopurinol decreases LV weight and collagen density. Despite XO inhibition after acute and chronic allopurinol treatment, as both treatments reduce uric acid plasma levels, only acute allopurinol treatment reduces LV ROS determined using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. However, the CHF-enhanced myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels were never modified.

Conclusion: In experimental CHF, long-term allopurinol treatment, initiated in a pathological state of overt CHF, improves LV haemodynamics and function and prevents LV remodelling. These long-term effects are, at least partially, caused by a transient reduction of myocardial ROS shortly after initiation of allopurinol treatment, but whether other mechanism(s), independent of myocardial redox 'status', such as reduced inflammation, are implicated remains to be confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehi305DOI Listing
August 2005

Selenium diet-supplementation improves cocaine-induced myocardial oxidative stress and prevents cardiac dysfunction in rats.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2004 Aug;18(4):431-6

INSERM E9920 (IFRMP n degrees 23) UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, 22 boulevard Gambetta, 76183 Rouen, France.

Chronic cocaine abuse causes cardiac dysfunction and induces oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether an enhanced antioxidant pool, induced by the administration of selenium, may prevent the myocardial dysfunction induced by cocaine. Cocaine was administered for 7 days (15 mg/kg/day, i.p.) to rats pretreated for 4 weeks with selenium (1.16 mg/L/day, p.o.). Cardiac function was evaluated by cardiac index and left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening (FS) measured by echocardiography. The redox ratio and enzymatic activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in the LV myocardium. Cocaine administration induced a cardiac dysfunction, as evidenced by a decrease in cardiac index and LV FS as well as by an increase in LV diameters. Moreover, antioxidant markers and redox ratio were altered in rats after cocaine exposure. Selenite supplementation induced a significant limitation of cardiac index and FS alterations observed after cocaine administration. This improvement in cardiac function was associated with a redox ratio recovery while SOD and GPX activities remained unchanged. Thus, selenite reversed both the oxidative stress and the contractile dysfunction induced by cocaine administration. These results suggest a major role of oxidative stress in the cocaine-induced cardiotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-8206.2004.00255.xDOI Listing
August 2004

Sustained improvement of cardiac function and prevention of cardiac remodeling after long-term dual ECE-NEP inhibition in rats with congestive heart failure.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2004 Apr;43(4):489-94

Rouen University Medical School, France.

Acute inhibition of endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) exerts beneficial hemodynamic effects in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the long-term effects of dual ECE-NEP inhibition are unknown. We evaluated, in rats with CHF, the long-term effects of the dual ECE-NEP inhibitor CGS 26303 (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) on systemic and left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and LV remodeling, and compared them to those induced by the selective NEP inhibitor CGS 24592 (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)), both administered subcutaneously by mini-pump for 30 days starting 7 days after left coronary artery ligation. After 30 days, CGS 26303, but not CGS 24592, reduced systolic blood pressure, while both drugs never affected heart rate. Echocardiographic studies showed that only CGS 26303 diminished LV end-diastolic and systolic diameters and increased LV fractional shortening and cardiac output. Moreover, CGS 26303, but not CGS 24592, reduced LV end-diastolic pressure, while LV dP/dtmax/min was not affected. Both drugs reduced collagen accumulation in the 'viable' part of the LV, but only CGS 26303 reduced LV weight. Thus, long-term treatment with CGS 26303 decreases both preload and afterload, increases cardiac output, and diminishes LV hypertrophy, dilatation, and cardiac fibrosis, suggesting that dual ECE-NEP inhibition might be beneficial in human CHF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005344-200404000-00003DOI Listing
April 2004

Prolonged cardiac dysfunction after withdrawal of chronic cocaine exposure in rats.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2003 Nov;42(5):642-7

INSERM E 9920, IFRMP no. 23, University Medical School, Rouen, France.

Cocaine abuse causes myocardial dysfunction and induces oxidative stress. However, the reversibility of these effects is unknown. We evaluated myocardial function and oxidative stress after cocaine withdrawal, in a rat model of chronic cocaine exposure. Standard echocardiography and Doppler tissue imaging were performed after 4 weeks (W4) of cocaine administration (2 x 7.5 mg/kg/d, i.p.) and 4 weeks after interruption (W8). At these time points, redox state (reduced glutathione GSH, oxidized glutathione GSH, and GSH/GSSG) as well as activities of GSH peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase were determined in the left ventricle (LV). At W4, LV fractional shortening, posterior wall thickening, systolic myocardial ventricular gradient (SMVG), dP/dt(max), and dp/dt(min) were decreased, compared with control values while LV myocardial thickness was increased. At W8, even though dP/dtmax and dp/dt(min) were restored, myocardial function was still impaired as demonstrated by the decrease in posterior wall thickening, and systolic myocardial velocity gradient. At W4, CAT and GPX activities as well as GSH/GSSG ratio were reduced while SOD activity was increased. Antioxidant markers and redox ratio remained altered 4 weeks after the last injection. Thus, these data demonstrate the persistence of LV dysfunction after cocaine withdrawal, which occurs in a context of a deficit in antioxidant defenses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005344-200311000-00010DOI Listing
November 2003

Role of reactive oxygen species in cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction.

Cardiovasc Res 2003 Oct;59(4):834-43

INSERM E9920, Faculté de médecine-Pharmacie de Rouen, IFRMP n degrees 23, University Medical School, 22 boulevard Gambetta, 76183 Rouen, France.

Objective: Contractility alterations and LV hypertrophy after chronic cocaine administration have been shown to be accompanied by an increase in oxidative stress. This study was carried out to investigate whether the production of reactive oxygen species is an early event of primary importance in cocaine-induced myocardial injury or simply occurs as a consequence of the ventricular dysfunction itself.

Methods And Results: After 2 days of cocaine administration to rats, no differences were observed in echocardiographic parameters between the cocaine-treated group and the control group. However, an increase in oxidative stress in the myocardium was indicated by an increase in lipid peroxidation (+35%, cocaine vs. control), an increase in antioxidant enzymes (catalase +110%, glutathione peroxidase +40% and superoxide dismutase +38%) and of NADPH-driven superoxide production (assessed by chemiluminescence). Furthermore, higher gp91phox and p22phox mRNA expression, measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, was found in the cocaine group. On day 8, cocaine administration induced a cardiac dysfunction, characterized by a decrease in cardiac index (-30%, cocaine vs. controls) and left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening (-23%, cocaine vs. controls). This LV dysfunction was prevented by antioxidant treatment (100 mg/kg/day vitamin C and 100 U/kg/day vitamin E). Moreover, in these animals, antioxidant treatment decreased lipid peroxides and decreased the activity of NADPH oxidase, associated with the downregulation of gp91phox.

Conclusion: These data indicate that cocaine administration induces early NADPH-driven O2-. release which may play an important role in the development and progression of the LV dysfunction observed after chronic cocaine abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6363(03)00499-1DOI Listing
October 2003