Publications by authors named "Christelle Jozet-Alves"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cuttlefish show flexible and future-dependent foraging cognition.

Biol Lett 2020 02 5;16(2):20190743. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Normandie Univ, Unicaen, CNRS, EthoS, 14000 Caen, France.

Some animals optimize their foraging activity by learning and memorizing food availability, in terms of quantity and quality, and adapt their feeding behaviour accordingly. Here, we investigated whether cuttlefish flexibly adapt their foraging behaviour according to the availability of their preferred prey. In Experiment 1, cuttlefish switched from a selective to an opportunistic foraging strategy (or ) when the availability of their preferred prey at night was predictable versus unpredictable. In Experiment 2, cuttlefish exhibited day-to-day foraging flexibility, in response to experiencing changes in the proximate future (i.e. preferred prey available on alternate nights). In Experiment 1, the number of crabs eaten during the day decreased when shrimp (i.e. preferred food) were predictably available at night, while the consumption of crabs during the day was maintained when shrimp availability was unpredictable. Cuttlefish quickly shifted from one strategy to the other, when experimental conditions were reversed. In Experiment 2, cuttlefish only reduced their consumption of crabs during the daytime when shrimps were predictably available the following night. Their daytime foraging behaviour appeared dependent on shrimps' future availability. Overall, cuttlefish can adopt dynamic and flexible foraging behaviours including selective, opportunistic and future-dependent strategies, in response to changing foraging conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2019.0743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058941PMC
February 2020

Hidden in the sand: Alteration of burying behaviour in shore crabs and cuttlefish by antidepressant exposure.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Dec 11;186:109738. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Normandie Univ, UNILEHAVRE, FR CNRS 3730 SCALE, UMR-I02, Environmental Stress and Biomonitoring of Aquatic Environments (SEBIO), 76600, Le Havre, France. Electronic address:

Pharmaceuticals such as antidepressants are constantly released into the aquatic environment. Consequently, fluoxetine (FLX) and venlafaxine (VEN), the active molecules of Prozac© and Effexor©, are detected up to several µg.L in freshwater and marine coastal waters. Both compounds act on the serotoninergic system, which may result in behavioural impairment, especially in juvenile animals presumed to be more susceptible to low concentrations than adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether environmental concentrations of FLX alone or combined with VEN modulate innate burying behaviour in two juvenile marine invertebrates, i.e. Sepia officinalis and Carcinus maenas. Juvenile cuttlefish were exposed from hatching to 30 days post-hatching to either FLX alone (i.e. 5 ng.L) or in mixture with VEN (i.e. either 2.5 ng.L or 5 ng.L of each antidepressant). Juvenile crabs (<2 cm carapace width) were exposed for a period of 22 days to 5 ng.L of FLX and a mixture of 5 ng.L of FLX and VEN each. Several parameters of sand-digging behaviour were analysed weekly in both species. The occurrence of sand-digging behaviour decreased in cuttlefish exposed to a mixture of FLX and VEN at the lowest concentration (2.5 ng.L each). Because sand-digging behaviour improved in controls, this decrease was likely to be related to a modification of maturation and/or learning processes. At the mixture of 5 ng.L VEN and FLX each, a better body covering was observed in juvenile crabs. In both species, innate behaviour was modified under exposure to mixtures of FLX and VEN at environmentally realistic concentrations. These alterations were observed at an early developmental stage, when animals are particularly prone to predation. Hence, modified maturation of behavioural traits and, putatively, learning processes by exposure to pseudo-persistent antidepressants may affect the survival of these two species in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109738DOI Listing
December 2019

Fighting and mating success in giant Australian cuttlefish is influenced by behavioural lateralization.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 03;286(1898):20182507

3 Marine Biological Laboratory , Woods Hole, MA 02543 , USA.

Behavioural lateralization is widespread. Yet, a fundamental question remains, how can lateralization be evolutionary stable when individuals lateralized in one direction often significantly outnumber individuals lateralized in the opposite direction? A recently developed game theory model predicts that fitness consequences which occur during intraspecific interactions may be driving population-level lateralization as an evolutionary stable strategy. This model predicts that: (i) minority-type individuals exist because they are more likely to adopt unpredictable fighting behaviours during competitive interactions (e.g. fighting); and (ii) majority-type individuals exist because there is a fitness advantage in having their biases synchronized with other conspecifics during interactions that require coordination (e.g. mating). We tested these predictions by investigating biases in giant Australian cuttlefish during fighting and mating interactions. During fighting, most male cuttlefish favoured the left eye and these males showed higher contest escalation; but minority-type individuals with a right-eye bias achieved higher fighting success. During mating interactions, most male cuttlefish favoured the left eye to inspect females. Furthermore, most male cuttlefish approached the female's right side during a mating attempt and these males achieved higher mating success. Our data support the hypothesis that population-level biases are an evolutionary consequence of the fitness advantages involved in intraspecific interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458318PMC
March 2019

Visual asymmetries in cuttlefish during brightness matching for camouflage.

Curr Biol 2018 09;28(17):R925-R926

Normandie Univ., UNICAEN, Univ Rennes, CNRS, UMR EthoS 6552, Caen, France.

Many animals use camouflage to avoid detection by predators. Camouflage can take several forms, one of which includes brightness matching, a form of crypsis, which occurs when an individual resembles the brightness of their surrounding habitat. Most animals have evolved skin patterning that is fixed and specific to their environment, typically limiting their camouflage abilities to a particular habitat [1]. By contrast, crypsis in cuttlefish is dynamic because they can change their body patterns rapidly (270-730 milliseconds) in response to the visual environment through neural control of pigmented organs known as chromatophores [2,3]. Cuttlefish respond to conflicting visual cues, that is, to different visual information on their left and right sides, with mixed body patterns [4]. This response may be modulated by perceptual asymmetries in visual processing, since cuttlefish exhibit biases when processing visual information, termed visual lateralization [5]. Visual lateralization occurs when information in one visual field is prioritized over the other visual field during a specific behavior, but this phenomenon and its potential effect on camouflage behavior have never before been investigated. We report here that juvenile cuttlefish have a right eye preference for brightness matching, as the substrate perceived in their right visual field was prioritized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.07.019DOI Listing
September 2018

Characterizing age-related decline of recognition memory and brain activation profile in mice.

Exp Gerontol 2018 06 8;106:222-231. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Université de Caen Normandie, UFR SANTE, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, INSERM UMR 1075, COMETE-MOBILITES "Vieillissement, Pathologie, Santé", 14032 Caen, France. Electronic address:

Episodic memory decline is one of the earlier deficits occurring during normal aging in humans. The question of spatial versus non-spatial sensitivity to age-related memory decline is of importance for a full understanding of these changes. Here, we characterized the effect of normal aging on both non-spatial (object) and spatial (object location) memory performances as well as on associated neuronal activation in mice. Novel-object (NOR) and object-location (OLR) recognition tests, respectively assessing the identity and spatial features of object memory, were examined at different ages. We show that memory performances in both tests were altered by aging as early as 15 months of age: NOR memory was partially impaired whereas OLR memory was found to be fully disrupted at 15 months of age. Brain activation profiles were assessed for both tests using immunohistochemical detection of c-Fos (neuronal activation marker) in 3and 15 month-old mice. Normal performances in NOR task by 3 month-old mice were associated to an activation of the hippocampus and a trend towards an activation in the perirhinal cortex, in a way that did significantly differ with 15 month-old mice. During OLR task, brain activation took place in the hippocampus in 3 month-old but not significantly in 15 month-old mice, which were fully impaired at this task. These differential alterations of the object- and object-location recognition memory may be linked to differential alteration of the neuronal networks supporting these tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2018.03.006DOI Listing
June 2018

Maternal and Embryonic Stress Influence Offspring Behavior in the Cuttlefish .

Front Physiol 2017 1;8:981. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Normandie Univ., UNICAEN, Rennes 1 Univ., UR1, CNRS, UMR 6552 ETHOS, Caen, France.

Stress experienced during prenatal development-either applied to reproducing females (maternal stress), directly to developing offspring (embryonic stress) or in combination-is associated with a range of post-natal behavioral effects in numerous organisms. We conducted an experiment to discern if maternal and embryonic stressors affect the behavior of hatchlings of the cuttlefish , a species with features that allow for the examination of these stress types in isolation. Separating the impact of stress transmitted through the mother vs. stress experienced by the embryo itself will help clarify the behavioral findings in viviparous species for which it is impossible to disentangle these effects. We also compared the effect of a naturally-occurring (predator cue) and an "artificial" (bright, randomly-occurring LED light) embryonic stressor. This allowed us to test the hypothesis that a threat commonly faced by a species (natural threat) would be met with a genetically-programmed and adaptive response while a novel one would confound innate defense mechanisms and lead to maladaptive effects. We found that the maternal stressor was associated with significant differences in body patterning and activity patterns. By contrast, embryonic exposure to stressors increased the proportion of individuals that pursued prey. From these results, it appears that in cuttlefish, maternal and embryonic stressors affect different post-natal behavior in offspring. In addition, the effect of the artificial stressor suggests that organisms can sometimes react adaptively to a stressor even if it is not one that has been encountered during the evolutionary history of the species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5717421PMC
December 2017

Lateralization of Eye Use in Cuttlefish: Opposite Direction for Anti-Predatory and Predatory Behaviors.

Front Physiol 2016 12;7:620. Epub 2016 Dec 12.

Normandie University (UNICAEN) Caen, France.

Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, , to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e., vigilant scanning). To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of each optic lobe (i.e., brain structures implicated in visual processing). These results are discussed in relation to the role of lateralized brain function and the evolution of population level lateralization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5149545PMC
December 2016

Deletion of the serotonin receptor type 7 disrupts the acquisition of allocentric but not egocentric navigation strategies in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2017 03 8;320:179-185. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, GMPc, F-14032, Caen, France. Electronic address:

Spatial navigation is achieved through both egocentric (body-centered) and allocentric (externally-centered) strategies but decline with age, especially allocentric strategies. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these strategies would allow the development of new treatments to mitigate this deterioration. Among them, the modulation of 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) may constitute a potential strategy. Indeed, this receptor is known to play a role in spatial navigation, however its precise role in egocentric and allocentric strategies remains unclear. Here, we first examined the effect of 5-HT genetic invalidation (knock-out (KO) mice) in two versions of a water cross-maze task in which only egocentric or allocentric strategies were efficient to solve the task. Our results demonstrated that KO mice are able to learn an allocentric strategy. However, contrary to wild-type mice (WT mice), the acquisition rate was slower compared to the task requiring the acquisition of an egocentric strategy. Mice were then trained in a third version of the water maze, allowing the use of both egocentric and allocentric strategies. When facing conflicting spatial information, both KO and WT mice preferentially used an egocentric strategy. However, only WT mice displayed a greater latency to achieve the task. This suggests that WT mice are able to learn both information in parallel, but not KO mice (i.e. only learning an egocentric strategy). Altogether, these results provide evidence for the essential role of the 5HTR in the acquisition of an allocentric strategy and in the ability to learn concomitantly both strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2016.12.006DOI Listing
March 2017

Spatial learning in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: preference for vertical over horizontal information.

J Exp Biol 2016 Sep;219(Pt 18):2928-2933

Eilat Campus, Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel.

The world is three-dimensional; hence, even surface-bound animals need to learn vertical spatial information. Separate encoding of vertical and horizontal spatial information seems to be the common strategy regardless of the locomotory style of animals. However, a difference seems to exist in the way freely moving species, such as fish, learn and integrate spatial information as opposed to surface-bound species, which prioritize the horizontal dimension and encode it with a higher resolution. Thus, the locomotory style of an animal may shape how spatial information is learned and prioritized. An alternative hypothesis relates the preference for vertical information to the ability to sense hydrostatic pressure, a prominent cue unique to this dimension. Cuttlefish are mostly benthic animals, but they can move freely in a volume. Therefore, they present an optimal model to examine these hypotheses. We tested whether cuttlefish could separately recall the vertical and horizontal components of a learned two-dimensional target, and whether they have a preference for vertical or horizontal information. Sepia officinalis cuttlefish were trained to select one of two visual cues set along a 45 deg diagonal. The animals were then tested with the two visual cues arranged in a horizontal, vertical or opposite 45 deg configuration. We found that cuttlefish use vertical and horizontal spatial cues separately, and that they prefer vertical information to horizontal information. We propose that, as in fish, the availability of hydrostatic pressure, combined with the ecological value of vertical movements, determines the importance of vertical information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.129080DOI Listing
September 2016

The antidepressant venlafaxine may act as a neurodevelopmental toxicant in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

Neurotoxicology 2016 07 6;55:142-153. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

Normandie Université, CS F-14032 Caen, France; GMPc (Groupe Mémoire et Plasticité comportementale), EA 4259, Campus Horowitz, Université de Caen Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, CS F-14032 Caen cedex, France. Electronic address:

The Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI) antidepressant venlafaxine (VEN, Effexor(®)) has become one of the most common antidepressants detected in North American and European streams. Mammalian research has established that VEN exposure is associated with a range of structural, neurochemical, and functional alterations of the brain in adults and newborns. However, the neurodevelopmental effects of VEN on non-target organisms have never been investigated. The aim of our research was to decrease this gap in knowledge by characterizing the effects of VEN exposure on a cephalopod mollusk, the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. This species inhabits VEN-contaminated waters and possesses an unusually sophisticated brain. These characteristics render it a unique invertebrate species for studying the neurodevelopmental effects of VEN. Cuttlefish were exposed to environmentally-relevant concentrations of VEN (Measured concentrations ≈5 and 100ngL(-)(1)) or to filtered natural seawater (control) in a closed-loop system with regular water changes during the first 20days after hatching. We evaluated brain maturation as well as neurochemical changes and behavioral performances during this critical period of development. Our results show that both VEN-exposed groups exhibited a decrease in norepinephrine levels, along with a reduction in the relative number of glutamate NMDA-like receptors binding sites in the group exposed to 5ngL(-1) of VEN after 20days of exposure. Brain regional changes in cellular proliferation were observed in VEN-exposed groups in the vertical lobe (i.e. a key structure involved in cognitive processes) and in the optic lobes (i.e. main visual processing centers) in the absence of significant change in their volume. Along with these neurodevelopmental changes, 20days of exposure to 100ngL(-1) of VEN was associated with a decrease in camouflage ability. Overall, our study suggests that VEN is a neurodevelopmental toxicant in non-target aquatic organisms at environmentally-relevant concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2016.05.023DOI Listing
July 2016

An HPLC-ECD method for monoamines and metabolites quantification in cuttlefish (cephalopod) brain tissue.

Biomed Chromatogr 2016 Aug 12;30(8):1175-83. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Normandie Université, CS F-14032 Caen, France.

The cuttlefish belongs to the mollusk class Cephalopoda, considered as the most advanced marine invertebrates and thus widely used as models to study the biology of complex behaviors and cognition, as well as their related neurochemical mechanisms. Surprisingly, methods to quantify the biogenic monoamines and their metabolites in cuttlefish brain remain sparse and measure a limited number of analytes. This work aims to validate an HPLC-ECD method for the simultaneous quantification of dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine and their main metabolites in cuttlefish brain. In comparison and in order to develop a method suitable to answer both ecological and biomedical questions, the validation was also carried out on a phylogenetically remote species: mouse (mammals). The method was shown to be accurate, precise, selective, repeatable and sensitive over a wide range of concentrations for 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, serotonin, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and norepinephrine in the both extracts of cuttlefish and mouse brain, though with low precision and recovery for 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethylene glycol. Homovanillic acid, accurately studied in rodents, was not detectable in the brain of cuttlefish. Overall, we described here the first fully validated HPLC method for the routine measurement of both monoamines and metabolites in cuttlefish brain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.3663DOI Listing
August 2016

Pre-hatching fluoxetine-induced neurochemical, neurodevelopmental, and immunological changes in newly hatched cuttlefish.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Mar 14;23(6):5030-45. Epub 2015 May 14.

Normandie Université, CS F-14032, Caen, France.

Embryonic and early postembryonic development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (a cephalopod mollusk) occurs in coastal waters, an environment subject to considerable pressure from xenobiotic pollutants such as pharmaceutical residues. Given the role of serotonin in brain development and its interaction with neurodevelopmental functions, this study focused on fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, antidepressant). The goal was to determine the effects of subchronic waterborne FLX exposure (1 and 10 μg L(-1)) during the last 15 days of embryonic development on neurochemical, neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and immunological endpoints at hatching. Our results showed for the first time that organic contaminants, such as FLX, could pass through the eggshell during embryonic development, leading to a substantial accumulation of this molecule in hatchlings. We also found that FLX embryonic exposure (1 and 10 μg L(-1)) (1) modulated dopaminergic but not serotonergic neurotransmission, (2) decreased cell proliferation in key brain structures for cognitive and visual processing, (3) did not induce a conspicuous change in camouflage quality, and (4) decreased lysozyme activity. In the long term, these alterations observed during a critical period of development may impair complex behaviors of the juvenile cuttlefish and thus lead to a decrease in their survival. Finally, we suggest a different mode of action by FLX between vertebrate and non-vertebrate species and raise questions regarding the vulnerability of early life stages of cuttlefish to the pharmaceutical contamination found in coastal waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4591-7DOI Listing
March 2016

Time decay of object, place and temporal order memory in a paradigm assessing simultaneously episodic-like memory components in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2015 Jun 28;286:80-4. Epub 2015 Feb 28.

Normandie Universités, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Groupe Mémoire et Plasticité comportementale (GMPc), EA 4259, F-14032 Caen, France. Electronic address:

A common trait of numerous memory disorders is the impairment of episodic memory. Episodic memory is a delay-dependant memory, especially associating three components, the "what", "where" and "when" of a unique event. To investigate underlying mechanisms of such memory, several tests, mainly based on object exploration behaviour, have been set up in rodents. Recently, a three-trial object recognition task has been proposed to evaluate simultaneously the different components of episodic-like memory in rodents. However, to date, the time course of each memory component in this paradigm is not known. We characterised here the time course of memory decay in adult mice during the three-trial object recognition task, with inter-trial interval (ITI) ranging from 1h to 4h. We found that, with 1h and 2h, but not 4h ITI, mice spent more time to explore the displaced "old object" relative to the displaced "recent object", reflecting memory for "what and when". Concomitantly, animals exhibited more exploration time for the displaced "old object" relative to the stationary "old object", reflecting memory for "what and where". These results provide strong evidence that mice establish an integrated memory for unique experience consisting of the "what", "where" and "when" that can persist until 2h ITI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2015.02.043DOI Listing
June 2015

Spatial memory deficit across aging: current insights of the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

Front Behav Neurosci 2014 14;8:448. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Groupe Mémoire et Plasticité Comportementale (GMPc), EA 4259 Caen, France.

Elderly persons often face biological, psychological or social changes over time that may cause discomfort or morbidity. While some cognitive domains remain stable over time, others undergo a decline. Spatial navigation is a complex cognitive function essential for independence, safety and quality of life. While egocentric (body-centered) navigation is quite preserved during aging, allocentric (externally-centered) navigation-based on a cognitive map using distant landmarks-declines with age. Recent preclinical studies showed that serotonergic 5-HT7 receptors are localized in brain regions associated with allocentric spatial navigation processing. Behavioral assessments with pharmacological or genetic tools have confirmed the role of 5-HT7 receptors in allocentric navigation. Moreover, few data suggested a selective age-related decrease in the expression of 5-HT7 receptors in pivotal brain structures implicated in allocentric navigation such as the hippocampal CA3 region. We aim to provide a short overview of the potential role of 5-HT7 receptors in spatial navigation, and to argue for their interests as therapeutic targets against age-related cognitive decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4294164PMC
February 2015

Evidence of episodic-like memory in cuttlefish.

Curr Biol 2013 Dec;23(23):R1033-5

Normandie University, France; UCBN, Groupe Mémoire et Plasticité comportementale, Esplanade de la Paix, F-14032 Caen, France. Electronic address:

The recollection of past experiences allows us to recall what happened during a particular event, and where and when it occurred [1]. Since the first study on episodic-like memory in scrub-jays [2], there has been widespread acceptance of the idea that tests in animals should integrate the 'what', 'where' and 'when' components of a unique event that occurred in the past [3,4]. This is referred to as episodic-like memory rather than episodic memory per se, in acknowledgement of the lack of evidence for, or against, the phenomenological aspects that accompany episodic recollection in humans. So far, evidence for episodic-like memory has only been found in some birds and mammals. We show here that cuttlefish, cephalopod mollusks, keep track of what they have eaten, and where and how long ago they ate, in order to match their foraging behavior with the time of replenishing of different foods. Foraging in cuttlefish fulfils the criteria of 'what', 'where' and 'when' of unique events and thus provides behavioral evidence of episodic-like memory in an invertebrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.10.021DOI Listing
December 2013

Embryonic exposure to predator odour modulates visual lateralization in cuttlefish.

Proc Biol Sci 2013 Feb 12;280(1752):20122575. Epub 2012 Dec 12.

GMPc, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen, France.

Predation pressure acts on the behaviour and morphology of prey species. In fish, the degree of lateralization varies between high- and low-predation populations. While lateralization appears to be widespread in invertebrates, we do not know whether heredity and early experience interact during development as in vertebrates. Here we show, for the first time, that an exposure to predator odour prior to hatching modulates visual lateralization in newly hatched cuttlefish. Only cuttlefish that have been exposed to predator odour display a left-turning bias when tested with blank seawater in a T-shaped apparatus. Exposure to predator odour all the incubation long could appear as an acute predictor of a high-predation surrounding environment. In addition, cuttlefish of all groups display a left-turning preference when tested with predator odour in the apparatus. This suggests the ability of cuttlefish to innately recognize predator odour. To our knowledge, this is the first clear demonstration that lateralization is vulnerable to ecological challenges encountered during embryonic life, and that environmental stimulation of the embryo through the olfactory system could influence the development of subsequent visual lateralization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.2575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3574315PMC
February 2013

Cerebral correlates of visual lateralization in Sepia.

Behav Brain Res 2012 Sep 4;234(1):20-5. Epub 2012 Jun 4.

Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Groupe Mémoire et Plasticité comportementale, F-14032 Caen cedex, France.

The common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (cephalopod mollusc) has recently become a relevant model for studying the setting-up of brain asymmetry among invertebrates. As the animals age from 3 to 30 days post hatching, they progressively develop a left-turning bias resulting from an eye-use preference. The aim of this study is to investigate whether anatomical (vertical, peduncle, inferior buccal, and optic lobes) or neurochemical (monoamines in optic lobes) brain asymmetries are present in the cuttlefish brain at 3 or at 30 post hatching days; and whether these correlate with side-turning preferences. We here find brain and behavioral asymmetry only at 30 post hatching days. Cuttlefish displayed a significant population bias towards a larger right peduncle lobe, and higher monoamine concentration in the left optic lobe (i.e. serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline). None of these brain asymmetries were correlated to the studied side-turning bias. However, we found individual variation in the magnitude of the vertical and optic lobes asymmetry. A striking correlation was found with the behavioral results: the larger the right optic lobe and the right part of the vertical lobe, the stronger the bias to turn leftwards. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a relationship at the individual level between brain and behavioral asymmetries in invertebrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2012.05.042DOI Listing
September 2012

Cuttlefish rely on both polarized light and landmarks for orientation.

Anim Cogn 2012 Jul 30;15(4):591-6. Epub 2012 Mar 30.

Groupe Mémoire et Plasticité comportementale, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, EA 4259, Caen cedex, France.

Cuttlefish are sensitive to linear polarization of light, a sensitivity that they use in predation and possibly in intraspecific communication. It has also been shown that cuttlefish are able to solve a maze using visual landmarks. In this study, cuttlefish were trained to solve a Y-maze with the e-vector of a polarized light and landmarks as redundant spatial information. The results showed that cuttlefish can use the e-vector orientation and landmarks in parallel to orient and that they are able to use either type of cue when the other one is missing. When they faced conflicting spatial information in the experimental apparatus, the majority of cuttlefish followed the e-vector rather than landmarks. Differences in response latencies in the different conditions of testing (training with both types of cue, tests with single cue or with conflicting information) were observed and discussed in terms of decision making. The ability to use near field and far field information may enable animals to interpret the partially occluded underwater light field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10071-012-0487-9DOI Listing
July 2012

Does kainic acid induce partial brain lesion in an invertebrate model: sepia officinalis? Comparison with electrolytic lesion.

Brain Res 2008 Oct 8;1238:44-52. Epub 2008 Aug 8.

Groupe Mémoire et Plasticité comportementale, Esplanade de la Paix, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, 14032 Caen cedex, France.

The present study investigates the feasibility of excitotoxic lesions in the cuttlefish in the mapping of brain functions in Cephalopods. Adult animals were injected locally with a neurotoxin, kainic acid. The brain region receiving the neurotoxin was the vertical lobe, a key brain structure for learning and memory processes. Brain damage induced by these injections was evaluated using different histological stainings: hematoxilin-eosin, Fink-Heimer and DAPI. The results were compared with histological changes after electrolytic lesion of the vertical lobe. Neurodegeneration was revealed in and around the injection site: an intense area of proliferative cells, degenerating terminal axon ramifications and cell death. In comparison with electrolytic lesion, excitotoxic lesion displays important advantages, since fibres of passage are not destroyed by kainic acid injection, which induces only a restricted lesion and so is an appropriate method of investigating the role of the vertical lobe or other brain regions in a Cephalopod model, Sepia officinalis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.08.002DOI Listing
October 2008

Sex differences in spatial cognition in an invertebrate: the cuttlefish.

Proc Biol Sci 2008 Sep;275(1646):2049-54

Groupe Mémoire et Plasticité comportementale, Université de Caen, 14032 Caen cedex, France.

Evidence of sex differences in spatial cognition have been reported in a wide range of vertebrate species. Several evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences. The one best supported is the range size hypothesis that links spatial ability to range size. Our study aimed to determine whether male cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis; cephalopod mollusc) range over a larger area than females and whether this difference is associated with a cognitive dimorphism in orientation abilities. First, we assessed the distance travelled by sexually immature and mature cuttlefish of both sexes when placed in an open field (test 1). Second, cuttlefish were trained to solve a spatial task in a T-maze, and the spatial strategy preferentially used (right/left turn or visual cues) was determined (test 2). Our results showed that sexually mature males travelled a longer distance in test 1, and were more likely to use visual cues to orient in test 2, compared with the other three groups. This paper demonstrates for the first time a cognitive dimorphism between sexes in an invertebrate. The data conform to the predictions of the range size hypothesis. Comparative studies with other invertebrate species might lead to a better understanding of the evolution of cognitive dimorphism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.0501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2596364PMC
September 2008