Publications by authors named "Chris Clegg"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Systems scenarios: a tool for facilitating the socio-technical design of work systems.

Ergonomics 2017 Oct 19;60(10):1319-1335. Epub 2017 Feb 19.

a Socio-Technical Centre, Leeds University Business School , University of Leeds , Leeds , UK.

The socio-technical systems approach to design is well documented. Recognising the benefits of this approach, organisations are increasingly trying to work with systems, rather than their component parts. However, few tools attempt to analyse the complexity inherent in such systems, in ways that generate useful, practical outputs. In this paper, we outline the 'System Scenarios Tool' (SST), which is a novel, applied methodology that can be used by designers, end-users, consultants or researchers to help design or re-design work systems. The paper introduces the SST using examples of its application, and describes the potential benefits of its use, before reflecting on its limitations. Finally, we discuss potential opportunities for the tool, and describe sets of circumstances in which it might be used. Practitioner Summary: The paper presents a novel, applied methodological tool, named the 'Systems Scenarios Tool'. We believe this tool can be used as a point of reference by designers, end-users, consultants or researchers, to help design or re-design work systems. Included in the paper are two worked examples, demonstrating the tool's application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2017.1288272DOI Listing
October 2017

Interleukin-21 enhances rituximab activity in a cynomolgus monkey model of B cell depletion and in mouse B cell lymphoma models.

PLoS One 2013 25;8(6):e67256. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Department of Pre-clinical Development, ZymoGenetics, Incorporated, a Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting CD20 on B cells, is currently used to treat many subtypes of B cell lymphomas. However, treatment is not curative and response rates are variable. Recombinant interleukin-21 (rIL-21) is a cytokine that enhances immune effector function and affects both primary and transformed B cell differentiation. We hypothesized that the combination of rIL-21 plus rituximab would be a more efficacious treatment for B cell malignancies than rituximab alone. We cultured human and cynomolgus monkey NK cells with rIL-21 and found that their activity was increased and proteins associated with antibody dependent cytotoxicity were up-regulated. Studies in cynomolgus monkeys modeled the effects of rIL-21 on rituximab activity against CD20 B cells. In these studies, rIL-21 activated innate immune effectors, increased ADCC and mobilized B cells into peripheral blood. When rIL-21 was combined with rituximab, deeper and more durable B cell depletion was observed. In another series of experiments, IL-21 was shown to have direct antiproliferative activity against a subset of human lymphoma cell lines, and combination of murine IL-21 with rituximab yielded significant survival benefits over either agent alone in xenogeneic mouse tumor models of disseminated lymphoma. Therefore, our results do suggest that the therapeutic efficacy of rituximab may be improved when used in combination with rIL-21.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0067256PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3692496PMC
February 2014

Advancing socio-technical systems thinking: a call for bravery.

Appl Ergon 2014 Mar 7;45(2):171-80. Epub 2013 May 7.

Socio-Technical Centre, Leeds University Business School, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. Electronic address:

Socio-technical systems thinking has predominantly been applied to the domains of new technology and work design over the past 60 years. Whilst it has made an impact, we argue that we need to be braver, encouraging the approach to evolve and extend its reach. In particular, we need to: extend our conceptualization of what constitutes a system; apply our thinking to a much wider range of complex problems and global challenges; and engage in more predictive work. To illustrate our agenda in novel domains, we provide examples of socio-technical perspectives on the management of crowd events and environmental sustainability. We also outline a research and development agenda to take the area forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2013.02.009DOI Listing
March 2014

Function allocation in complex systems: reframing an old problem.

Ergonomics 2013 8;56(7):1051-69. Epub 2013 May 8.

Institute of Work Psychology, Management School, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.

Unlabelled: In this article, we offer a new, macroergonomics perspective on the long-debated issue of function allocation. We believe thinking in this domain needs to be realigned, moving away from the traditional microergonomics conceptualisation, concerned predominantly with task-based decisions, and towards a macroergonomics approach, viewing function allocation choices as central to effective systems design. We frame our arguments within a systems perspective, advocating that function allocation issues need to be on the agenda of all individuals with a wider interest in the human and organisational aspects of complex work systems, including people who commission, sponsor, design, implement and use such systems. We also argue that allocation decisions should form a transparent, explicit stage early in the systems design and development process, involve multiple stakeholders (including end-users), be evidence-based, framed within the language of risk and utilise iterative methods (e.g. scenarios planning techniques).

Practitioner Summary: This article presents a macroergonomics approach to function allocation, advocating its importance in effective systems design. Adopting a systems mindset, we argue function allocation should form an explicit stage early in the design process, involve multiple stakeholders, be evidence-based, framed within the language of risk and utilise iterative methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2013.790482DOI Listing
March 2014

Assessing the value of human factors initiatives.

Appl Ergon 2008 May 21;39(3):305-15. Epub 2007 Dec 21.

Centre for Organizational Strategy, Learning and Change, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

This paper examines the effectiveness of human factors initiatives and addresses some difficulties reported in calculating the value of such interventions. Company representatives and researchers applied a novel probabilistic assessment tool to estimate the financial impact of two macro-ergonomic projects. Key benefits of the company intranet project include reduced administrative and operational costs compared to a paper-based system; time savings for users asking for, providing and receiving information; and improved system usability and higher levels of usage. The communities of practice project demonstrates value through more efficient distribution and retrieval of information; reduced duplication by re-using technical knowledge to solve similar problems and improved sharing of good working practices, lessons and resources. The strengths of the tool include transparency, being quick and easy to learn and the collaborative workshop format, involving researches and key representatives from the organization. It makes a useful contribution to the challenge of assessing the financial value of ergonomic interventions, and, by exploiting its diagnostic and planning capabilities, could be extended to other domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2007.10.003DOI Listing
May 2008

Interlaboratory comparison of extraction efficiency of pesticides from surface and laboratory water using solid-phase extraction disks.

J Agric Food Chem 2003 Jun;51(13):3748-52

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M University System, College Station, 2474 TAMU, College Station 77843, USA.

A continuation of an earlier interlaboratory comparison was conducted (1) to assess solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Empore disks to extract atrazine, bromacil, metolachlor, and chlorpyrifos from various water sources accompanied by different sample shipping and quantitative techniques and (2) to compare quantitative results of individual laboratories with results of one common laboratory. Three replicates of a composite surface water (SW) sample were fortified with the analytes along with three replicates of deionized water (DW). A nonfortified DW sample and a nonfortified SW sample were also extracted. All samples were extracted using Empore C(18) disks. After extraction, part of the samples were eluted and analyzed in-house. Duplicate samples were evaporated in a 2-mL vial, shipped dry to a central laboratory (SDC), redissolved, and analyzed. Overall, samples analyzed in-house had higher recoveries than SDC samples. Laboratory x analysis type and laboratory x water source interactions were significant for all four compounds. Seven laboratories participated in this interlaboratory comparison program. No differences in atrazine recoveries were observed from in-house samples analyzed by laboratories A, B, D, and G compared with the recovery of SDC samples. In-house atrazine recoveries from laboratories C and F were higher when compared with recovery from SDC samples. However, laboratory E had lower recoveries from in-house samples compared with SDC samples. For each laboratory, lower recoveries were observed for chlorpyrifos from the SDC samples compared with samples analyzed in-house. Bromacil recovery was <65% at two of the seven laboratories in the study. Bromacil recoveries for the remaining laboratories were >75%. Three laboratories showed no differences in metolachlor recovery; two laboratories had higher recoveries for samples analyzed in-house, and two other laboratories showed higher metolachlor recovery for SDC samples. Laboratory G had a higher recovery in SW for all four compounds compared with DW. Other laboratories that had significant differences in pesticide recovery between the two water sources showed higher recovery in DW than in the SW regardless of the compound. In comparison to earlier work, recovery of these compounds using SPE disks as a temporary storage matrix may be more effective than shipping dried samples in a vial. Problems with analytes such as chlorpyrifos are unavoidable, and it should not be assumed that an extraction procedure using SPE disks will be adequate for all compounds and transferrable across all chromatographic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf026040zDOI Listing
June 2003

Serological reactivity of baculovirus-expressed Ebola virus VP35 and nucleoproteins.

Microbes Infect 2003 Apr;5(5):379-85

Institute of Virology, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molenwaterplein 40, 3015GD, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Ebola virus (EBOV) is a member of the family Filoviridae and is classified as a biosafety level 4 virus. This classification makes the preparation of antigen and performance of diagnostic assays time-consuming and complicated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the value of EBOV immunoassays based on recombinant nucleoprotein (r-NP) and recombinant VP35 (r-VP35) using large serum panels of African origin and from primates. Furthermore, we investigated whether the results obtained with EBOV r-VP35 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) could improve on the findings obtained with the EBOV r-NP ELISA. The full-length EBOV NP and VP35 of the EBOV subtype Zaire were expressed as histidine-tagged recombinant proteins in the baculovirus expression system. The antigenic reactivity and specificity of these recombinant proteins were determined by Western blotting and ELISA using EBOV specific monoclonal antibodies. The results obtained with the r-NP and r-VP35 ELISAs were compared with the results obtained in an indirect immunofluorescence assay based on native EBOV subtype Zaire. EBOV specific monoclonal antibodies reacted specifically with the respective proteins in both Western blot and ELISA. Five hundred and twenty six samples from humans and primates were tested with r-NP and r-VP35 ELISAs. Monkey serum samples positive for EBOV subtype Reston and Zaire were both positive in the EBOV r-NP ELISA, whereas only the EBOV Zaire infected monkeys were positive in the r-VP35 ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity values of the EBOV recombinants' ELISAs compared to those of the immunofluorescence assay were 92% and 99% for r-NP and 44% and 100% for r-VP35. r-NP ELISA proved to be a sensitive and specific assay for EBOV diagnosis and for epidemiological studies for both EBOV subtypes Reston and Zaire. The use of r-VP35 in an ELISA format has no additional value for EBOV serodiagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1286-4579(03)00051-0DOI Listing
April 2003

A sociotechnical method for designing work systems.

Hum Factors 2002 ;44(3):376-91

Institute of Work Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

The paper describes a new method for allocating work between and among humans and machines. The method consists of a series of stages, which cover how the overall work system should be organized and designed; how tasks within the work system should be allocated (human-human allocations); and how tasks involving the use of technology should be allocated (human-machine allocations). The method makes use of a series of decision criteria that allow end users to consider a range of factors relevant to function allocation, including aspects of job, organizational, and technological design. The method is described in detail using an example drawn from a workshop involving the redesign of a naval command and control (C2) subsystem. We also report preliminary details of the evaluation of the method, based on the views of participants at the workshop. A final section outlines the contribution of the work in terms of current theoretical developments within the domain of function allocation. The method has been applied to the domain of naval C2 systems; however, it is also designed for generic use within function allocation and sociotechnical work systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1518/0018720024497628DOI Listing
March 2003

Interlaboratory comparison of pesticide recovery from water using solid-phase extraction disks and gas chromatography.

J AOAC Int 2002 Nov-Dec;85(6):1324-30

Virginia State University, Agricultural Research Station, Petersburg, VA 23806, USA.

An interlaboratory study was conducted to assess the suitability of C18 solid-phase extraction disks to retain and ship different pesticides from water samples. Surface and deionized water samples were fortified with various pesticides and extracted using C18 disks. Pesticides were eluted from disks and analyzed in-house, or disks were sent to another laboratory where they were eluted and analyzed. Along with the disks, a standard pesticide solution in methanol was also shipped to be used for fortification, extraction, and analysis. The highest recovery from deionized or surface water using shipped disks was obtained for cyanazine (>97%), followed by metalaxyl (>96%), and atrazine (>92%). Although <40% of the bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and chlorothalonil fortified in surface water was recovered from shipped disks, recoveries from deionized water were >70%. From in-house eluted disks, bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos were recovered at 118 and 105%, whereas chlorothalonil showed 71% recovery, indicating that poor recovery from surface water was due to loss during shipping rather than low retention by the C18 disks. There was no consistent relationship between recovery from C18 disk and physicochemical properties for the pesticides included in this study. For most of the 13 pesticides tested, there were no differences in recovery between in-house extracted disks and shipped disks, indicating the suitability of disks to concentrate and transport pesticides extracted from water samples.
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May 2003

IL-28, IL-29 and their class II cytokine receptor IL-28R.

Nat Immunol 2003 Jan 2;4(1):63-8. Epub 2002 Dec 2.

ZymoGenetics, Inc., 1201 Eastlake Avenue E., Seattle, WA 98102, USA.

Cytokines play a critical role in modulating the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here, we have identified from the human genomic sequence a family of three cytokines, designated interleukin 28A (IL-28A), IL-28B and IL-29, that are distantly related to type I interferons (IFNs) and the IL-10 family. We found that like type I IFNs, IL-28 and IL-29 were induced by viral infection and showed antiviral activity. However, IL-28 and IL-29 interacted with a heterodimeric class II cytokine receptor that consisted of IL-10 receptor beta (IL-10Rbeta) and an orphan class II receptor chain, designated IL-28Ralpha. This newly described cytokine family may serve as an alternative to type I IFNs in providing immunity to viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni873DOI Listing
January 2003

Navigating the territory of job design.

Appl Ergon 2002 May;33(3):197-205

Institute of Work Psychology, University of Sheffield, UK.

Assuming that work contexts are changing and becoming ever more diverse, questions have been raised about the current state and relevance of job design theory. In this paper we review the field of job design from three paradigmatic perspectives, namely, functionalism, interpretivism and critical theory. We point out that the core of job design theory, across all paradigms, has traditionally been concerned with the outcomes of job design, the role of key factors such as control, demand, and skill, and how jobs can be changed. By outlining two scenarios about how work is changing, we argue that, although job design still has a lot to offer (its traditional core concerns are still relevant), it must develop to have a wider appeal and to have more relevance. Finally, we propose how job design can develop as a field. These proposals are based on our belief that job design theory can progress most fully if it draws on a wide range of theories from across different paradigms and from grounded studies of the changing nature of work in diverse occupational contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0003-6870(02)00015-7DOI Listing
May 2002