Publications by authors named "Chong Liu"

612 Publications

Cu and Zn exert a greater influence on antibiotic resistance and its transfer than doxycycline in agricultural soils.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 26;423(Pt B):127042. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, PR China. Electronic address:

Livestock manure is a main source of heavy metals, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in agricultural soils. The co-existence of heavy metals and ARGs needs to be systematically studied, since manure application is greatly encouraged. In this study, we examined soils for alterations in antibiotic resistance where doxycycline, Cu, and Zn were added equivalent to those found in typical pig manure applications. The results indicated that high levels of Cu inhibited soil respiration and urease for the first 10 days. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated that Cu and Zn additions caused profound alterations in bacterial community, metal resistance genes (MRGs) and mobile genetic elements. Among the differential ARGs, efflux pump genes took a significantly high ratio compared with control for the first 5 days, emphasizing their important roles in the profile of antibiotic resistance. Moreover, the number of differential MRGs was < 30 for doxycycline treatment, but 66-87 for Cu and Zn treatments. The number of differential integrative and conjugative elements was 3 for doxycycline treatment, and 6-13 for Cu and Zn treatments. Overall, high Cu and Zn levels caused a greater influence than did doxycycline on bacterial communities and transfer of antibiotic resistance in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127042DOI Listing
August 2021

CircRNA hsa_circ_0006220 acts as a tumor suppressor gene by regulating miR-197-5p/CDH19 in triple-negative breast cancer.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(15):1236

Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most aggressive breast cancer (BC) subtypes. Circular ribonucleic acids (circRNAs) are a class of novel stable and conserved forms of ribonucleic acids (RNAs). circRNAs have been documented to be involved in multiple diseases, especially malignancies, through a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism. However, few studies have been conducted on the function of circRNAs in TNBC. Previously, hsa_circ_0006220 was found to be downregulated in BC tissues. The present study sought to explore the mechanism of hsa_circ_0006220 in TNBC progression.

Methods: A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to validate the expression of hsa_circ_0006220 in TNBC tissues and cells. In addition, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), wound-healing and Transwell assays were conducted to measure the inhibition effects of hsa_circ_0006220 on TNBC cells . Further, a dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to confirm the interaction between hsa_circ_0006220 and miR-197-5p. A mimic and an inhibitor of miR-197-5p were constructed to confirm the downstream mechanism of hsa_circ_0006220 in TNBC cells.

Results: Hsa_circ_0006220 was more downregulated in TNBC than other subtypes of BC tissues and cell lines. data showed that hsa_circ_0006220 remarkably inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of TNBC cells. Further, hsa_circ_0006220 was confirmed to be a sponge of miR-197-5p, and to indirectly regulate CDH19 expression. A rescue assay indicated the biological function of the hsa_circ_0006220/miR-197-5p/CDH19 pathway in TNBC cells.

Conclusions: hsa_circ_0006220 plays an inhibitory role in TNBC progression. It might be a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for TNBC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421961PMC
August 2021

Effect of characteristics of different wheat flours on the quality of fermented hollow noodles.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 19;9(9):4927-4937. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

College of Food Science and Engineering Henan University of Technology Zhengzhou P. R. China.

Hollow noodles, also known as Kongxin noodles in China, are traditionally hand-made noodles produced by spontaneous fermentation. It is easy to cook, nutrient-rich, and delicious. However, it is difficult to realize industrial production by spontaneous fermentation due to its complexity. More recently, new techniques have emerged for producing such noodles industrially using commercial yeasts. However, there are no reports on how to choose the raw materials for making fermented hollow noodles. Therefore, the suitability of eleven local varieties of wheat flour was determined by evaluating their physicochemical, rheological properties, and pasting properties. Flour and dough properties of wheat flour were also correlated with the quality characteristics of hollow noodles. The correlation coefficient data indicated that the color score was negatively correlated with ash content and positively correlated with starch content. Different from ordinary dried noodles, a negative correlation was observed between cooking time (CT) and protein content. Water absorption (NWA) of hollow noodles was negatively affected by extensograph properties. Water absorption of flour (FWA) and extensibility (E) were found to be highly correlated to hollow rate (Hol-R), indicating that these two indexes could predict the fermentation status of hollow noodles. Results showed that wheat flours with higher swelling index of glutenin (SIG), FWA, E, and pasting temperature (PT) had better dough fermentation power and stability and thus were beneficial to the production of high-quality hollow noodles. This study provides a simple method for the industrial production of hollow noodles and provides a basis for the selection of raw materials for their production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441268PMC
September 2021

Silver nanoparticles boost charge-extraction efficiency in microbial fuel cells.

Science 2021 09 16;373(6561):1336-1340. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abf3427DOI Listing
September 2021

Extreme spectral asymmetry of Akhmediev breathers and Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence in a Manakov system.

Phys Rev E 2021 Aug;104(2-1):024215

Optical Sciences Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia.

The dynamics of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) recurrence in a Manakov system is studied analytically. Exact Akhmediev breather (AB) solutions for this system are found that cannot be reduced to the ABs of a single-component nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Expansion-contraction cycle of the corresponding spectra with an infinite number of sidebands is calculated analytically using a residue theorem. A distinctive feature of these spectra is the asymmetry between positive and negative spectral modes. A practically important consequence of the spectral asymmetry is a nearly complete energy transfer from the central mode to one of the lowest-order (left or right) sidebands. Numerical simulations started with modulation instability of plane waves confirm the findings based on the exact solutions. It is also shown that the full growth-decay cycle of the AB leads to the nonlinear phase shift between the initial and final states in both components of the Manakov system. This finding shows that the final state of the FPU recurrence described by the vector ABs is not quite the same as the initial state. Our results are applicable and can be observed in a wide range of two-component physical systems such as two-component waves in optical fibers, two-directional waves in crossing seas, and two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.104.024215DOI Listing
August 2021

The Downregulation of eIF3a Contributes to Vemurafenib Resistance in Melanoma by Activating ERK via PPP2R1B.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:720619. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Vemurafenib, a BRAF V600E inhibitor, provides therapeutic benefits for patients with melanoma, but the frequent emergence of drug resistance remains a challenge. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying vemurafenib resistance may generate novel therapeutic strategies for patients with melanoma. Here, we showed that eIF3a, a translational regulatory protein, was an important mediator involved in vemurafenib resistance. eIF3a was expressed at significantly lower levels in vemurafenib-resistant A375 melanoma cells (A375R) than in parental A375 cells. Overexpression of eIF3a enhanced the sensitivity to BRAF inhibitors by reducing p-ERK levels Furthermore, eIF3a controlled ERK activity by regulating the expression of the phosphatase PPP2R1B via a translation mechanism, thus determining the sensitivity of melanoma cells to vemurafenib. In addition, a positive correlation between eIF3a and PPP2R1B expression was also observed in tumor samples from the Human Protein Atlas and TCGA databases. In conclusion, our studies reveal a previously unknown molecular mechanism of BRAF inhibitor resistance, which may provide a new strategy for predicting vemurafenib responses in clinical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.720619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430041PMC
August 2021

Exact Analytic Spectra of Asymmetric Modulation Instability in Systems with Self-Steepening Effect.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Aug;127(9):094102

Optical Sciences Group, Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600, Australia.

Nonlinear waves become asymmetric when asymmetric physical effects are present within the system. One example is the self-steepening effect. When exactly balanced with dispersion, it leads to a fully integrable system governed by the Chen-Lee-Liu equation. The latter provides a natural basis for the analysis of asymmetric wave dynamics just as nonlinear Schrödinger or Korteweg-de Vries equations provide the basis for analyzing solitons with symmetric profile. In this work, we found periodic wave trains of the Chen-Lee-Liu equation evolved from fully developed modulation instability and analyzed a highly nontrivial spectral evolution of such waves in analytic form that shows strong asymmetry of its components. We present the conceptual basis for finding such spectra that can be used in analyzing asymmetric nonlinear waves in other systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.094102DOI Listing
August 2021

Microscopic Control of Nonequilibrium Systems: When Electrochemistry Meets Nanotechnology.

Authors:
Chong Liu

Nano Lett 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California Nanoscience Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02417DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparative analysis of the dust retention capacity and leaf microstructure of 11 Sophora japonica clones.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(9):e0254627. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

College of Landscape Architecture and Tourism, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071000, China.

We used fresh leaves of Sophora japonica L. variety 'Qingyun 1' (A0) and 10 superior clones of the same species (A1-A10) to explore leaf morphological characteristics and total particle retention per unit leaf area under natural and artificial simulated dust deposition treatments. Our objectives were to explore the relationship between the two methods and to assess particle size distribution, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) heavy metal content, and scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM) characteristics of leaf surface microstructure. Using the membership function method, we evaluated the dust retention capacity of each clone based on the mean degree of membership of its dust retention index. Using correlation analysis, we selected leaf morphological and SEM and AFM indices related significantly to dust retention capacity. Sophora japonica showed excellent overall dust retention capacity, although this capacity differed among clones. A5 had the strongest overall retention capacity, A2 had the strongest retention capacity for PM2.5, A9 had the strongest retention capacity for PM2.5-10, A0 had the strongest retention capacity for PM>10, and A2 had the strongest specific surface area (SSA) and heavy metal adsorption capacity. Overall, A1 had the strongest comprehensive dust retention ability, A5 was intermediate, and A7 had the weakest capacity. Certain leaf morphological and SEM and AFM characteristic indices correlated significantly with the dust retention capacity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254627PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423301PMC
September 2021

Simultaneous hyperaccumulation of rare earth elements, manganese and aluminum in Phytolacca americana in response to soil properties.

Chemosphere 2021 Nov 5;282:131096. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China; Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center for Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Remediation, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

The plant Phytolacca americana L. simultaneously hyperaccumulates manganese (Mn) and rare earth elements (REEs), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, P. americana and the corresponding rhizosphere soil samples were collected from an ion-adsorption REE mine area in China, and the elemental composition and soil properties were analyzed in order to explore the relationship between metal accumulation and soil properties. The results show that P. americana accumulates high concentrations of REEs (up to 1040 mg kg), Mn (up to 10400 mg kg) and aluminum (Al) (up to 5960 mg kg) in leaves. The REE concentrations in leaves were positively correlated with those of Al, Fe and Zn, while light REE concentrations were negatively correlated with P concentrations (p < 0.05). The soil properties explained 81.7%, 72.9% and 67.1% of REEs, Mn and Al accumulated in P. americana, respectively. The variation of REE accumulation in P. americana was primarily explained by plant available P (24.4%), pH (12.9%), TOC (9.4%) and total P (7.7%). The accumulation of Mn was primarily explained by plant available REEs (42.9%) and available Al (13.1%) while Al in P. americana was primarily explained by soil pH (14.4%). This study suggests the potential by regulation of soil properties in improving the efficiency of phytoextraction for REEs by hyperaccumulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131096DOI Listing
November 2021

Transformation of Bulk Pd to Pd Cations in Small-Pore CHA Zeolites Facilitated by NO.

JACS Au 2021 Feb 13;1(2):201-211. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Institute for Catalysis, Hokkaido University, N-21, W-10, Sapporo 001-0021, Japan.

Atomic dispersion of metal species has attracted attention as a unique phenomenon that affects adsorption properties and catalytic activities and that can be used to design so-called single atom materials. In this work, we describe atomic dispersion of bulk Pd into small pores of CHA zeolites. Under 4% NO flow at 600 °C, bulk Pd metal on the outside of CHA zeolites effectively disperses, affording Pd cations on Al sites with concomitant formation of NO, as revealed by microscopic and spectroscopic characterizations combined with mass spectroscopy. In the present method, even commercially available submicrosized Pd black can be used as a Pd source, and importantly, 4.1 wt % of atomic Pd cations, which is the highest loading amount reported so far, can be introduced into CHA zeolites. The structural evolution of bulk Pd metal is also investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), as well as thermodynamic analysis using density functional theory (DFT) calculations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.0c00112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395613PMC
February 2021

Trimester-specific associations of maternal exposure to disinfection by-products, oxidative stress, and neonatal neurobehavioral development.

Environ Int 2021 Aug 25;157:106838. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Toxicological studies suggest that maternal exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) can impair fetal neurodevelopment. However, evidence from epidemiological studies is scarce and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

Objective: To explore the trimester-specific associations between maternal blood trihalomethane (THM) and urinary haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations and neonatal neurobehavioral development, and the potential mediating role of oxidative stress (OS).

Methods: We included 438 pregnant Chinese women from the Xiaogan Disinfection By-Products (XGDBP) birth cohort. Biospecimens were repeatedly collected across trimesters and measured for blood THMs, urinary HAAs, and urinary OS biomarker concentrations. On the third day after birth, the Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA) test was administered to newborns. Associations of trimester-specific DBP measurements and OS biomarkers with neonatal NBNA scores were assessed using linear regression models with generalized estimating equations. The potential mediating role of maternal OS biomarkers was also investigated using mediation analyses.

Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, blood bromodichloromethane (BDCM) concentrations in the first trimester were inversely associated with NBNA scores [percent change comparing the extreme BDCM tertiles = -28.1% (95% CI: -55.2%, -0.88%); p for trend = 0.043]. Besides, third-trimester urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) concentrations were inversely associated with NBNA scores [percent change comparing the extreme TCAA tertiles = -32.9% (95% CI: -64.7%, -1.0%); p for trend = 0.046]. These inverse associations differed across pregnancy trimesters (Type 3p-value = 0.066 and 0.053, respectively) and were stronger in male infants and mothers aged ≥25 years. There was no evidence of mediating effect by 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA), or 8-iso-prostaglandin F (8-isoPGF).

Conclusions: Higher prenatal BDCM and TCAA concentrations during specific pregnancy trimesters were associated with lower NBNA scores. However, additional research is required to investigate underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106838DOI Listing
August 2021

Early life exposure to air pollution and cell-mediated immune responses in preschoolers.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 20;286(Pt 3):131963. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to air pollution has been linked with altered immune function in adults, but little is known about its effects on early life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to air pollution during prenatal and postnatal windows on cell-mediated immune function in preschoolers.

Methods: Pre-school aged children (2.9 ± 0.5 y old, n = 391) were recruited from a mother-child cohort study in Wuhan, China. We used a spatial-temporal land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 μm (PM) and ≤10 μm (PM), and nitrogen dioxide (NO) during the specific trimesters of pregnancy and the first two postnatal years. We measured peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and plasma cytokines as indicators of cellular immune function. We used multiple informant models to examine the associations of prenatal and postnatal exposures to air pollution with cell-mediated immune function.

Results: Prenatal exposures to PM, PM, and NO during early pregnancy were negatively associated with %CD3 and %CD3CD8 cells, and during late pregnancy were positively associated with %CD3 cells. Postnatal exposures to these air pollutants during 1-y or 2-y childhood were positively associated with IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and TNF-α. We also observed that the associations of prenatal or postnatal air pollution exposures with cellular immune responses varied by child's sex.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution during different critical windows of early life may differentially alter cellular immune responses, and these effects appear to be sex-specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131963DOI Listing
August 2021

Comprehensive analyses of potential key genes in active tuberculosis: A systematic review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(30):e26582

Spine and Osteopathy Ward, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem that brings us numerous difficulties. Diverse genetic factors play a significant role in the progress of TB disease. However, still no key genes for TB susceptibility have been reported. This study aimed to identify the key genes of TB through comprehensive bioinformatics analysis.

Methods: The series microarray datasets from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database were analyzed. We used the online tool GEO2R to filtrate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between TB and health control. Database for annotation can complete gene ontology function analysis as well as Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of DEGs were established by STRING online tool and visualized by Cytoscape software. Molecular Complex Detection can complete the analysis of modules in the PPI networks. Finally, the significant hub genes were confirmed by plug-in Genemania of Cytoscape, and verified by the verification cohort and protein test.

Results: There are a total of 143 genes were confirmed as DEGs, containing 48 up-regulated genes and 50 down-regulated genes. The gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis show that upregulated DEGs were associated with cancer and phylogenetic, whereas downregulated DEGs mainly concentrate on inflammatory immunity. PPI networks show that signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), guanylate binding protein 5 (GBP5), 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1), catenin beta 1 (CTNNB1), and guanylate binding protein 1 (GBP1) were identified as significantly different hub genes.

Conclusion: We conclude that these genes, including TAT1, GBP5, OAS1, CTNNB1, GBP1 are a candidate as potential core genes in TB and treatment of TB in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322549PMC
July 2021

In Vivo Clonal Analysis Reveals Development Heterogeneity of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Derived from Distinct Germinal Zones.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Aug 16:e2102274. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Neurobiology and Department of Neurosurgery of Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, P.R. China.

Mounting evidence supports that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) play important roles in maintaining the integrity of normal brains, and that their dysfunction is the etiology of numerous severe neurological diseases. OPCs exhibit diverse heterogeneity in the adult brain, and distinct germinal zones of the embryonic brain contribute to OPC genesis. However, it remains obscure whether developmental origins shape OPC heterogeneity in the adult brain. Here, an in vivo clonal analysis approach is developed to address this. By combining OPC-specific transgenes, in utero electroporation, and the PiggyBac transposon system, the lineages of individual neonatal OPCs derived from either dorsal or ventral embryonic germinal zones are traced, and the landscape of their trajectories is comprehensively described throughout development. Surprisingly, despite behaving indistinguishably in the brain before weaning, dorsally derived OPCs continuously expand throughout life, but ventrally derived OPCs eventually diminish. Importantly, clonal analysis supports the existence of an intrinsic cellular "clock" to control OPC expansion. Moreover, knockout of NF1 could circumvent the distinction of ventrally derived OPCs in the adult brain. Together, this work shows the importance of in vivo clonal analysis in studying stem/progenitor cell heterogeneity, and reveals that developmental origins play a role in determining OPC fate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202102274DOI Listing
August 2021

Gestational exposure to PM leads to cognitive dysfunction in mice offspring via promoting HMGB1-NLRP3 axis mediated hippocampal inflammation.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 9;223:112617. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Neurologic Disorders and Regeneration Repair Lab of Shandong Higher Education, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China. Electronic address:

PM is recently identified as a kind of material possessing severe biohazard. It can enter human body and exerts pathological effects on lung, eyes, and the central nervous system (CNS). Maternal exposure to PM can affect neural development and cause cognitive decline in offspring, with the underlying mechanisms unclear, however. The inflammasome monitors and responds to biological stressors, with HMGB1-NLRP3 inflammatory axis as an essential pathophysiological player outside the brain. The present work is to investigate its role in cognitive impairment induced by gestational exposure to PM in mice offspring. We found that HMGB1-NLRP3 pathway was activated in the hippocampus of mice offspring by gestational exposure to PM in a dose-dependent manner, with protein levels of HMGB1, NLRP3, and cleaved caspase-1 as approximately three times as high as those of control. And down-regulating HMGB1 during pregnancy could alleviate the resultant impairment on learning and working memory as well as hippocampal neurons, up-regulate the synapse related proteins of SYP and PSD-95 and correct the increased expression of 5-HT2A to comparable levels to control, as well as inhibiting the activation of microglia and decreasing the expression of HMGB1 and Iba1/HMGB1 double positive cells in the hippocampus of mice offspring. Meanwhile, protein levels of NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18, as well as TLR4, phosphorylated NFB, and MAPKs, were almost down-regulated to those of control. Therefore, HMGB1 intervention inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome mediated hippocampal inflammatory response through TLR4/MAPKs/NF-κB signaling pathway, alleviating PM-induced cognitive dysfunction. Further in vitro results suggest that PM can activate microglia and HMGB1-NLRP3 inflammatory axis. Pretreatment with HMGB1 inhibitor significantly reduced the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB, and inhibited the inflammatory response mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome similarly to those in vivo. These results suggest that PM exposure promotes the inflammatory response in hippocampus mediated by HMGB1-NLRP3 inflammatory axis in microglia, resulting in cognitive dysfunction in offspring, which could be alleviated by simultaneous HMGB1 suppression. These findings provide a theoretical basis for preventing cognitive impairment in offspring caused by environmental pollution during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112617DOI Listing
October 2021

Integrative analysis of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA-associated competing endogenous RNA regulatory network involved in EV71 infection.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(7):7440-7457. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Clinical Diagnosis, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Medical University Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) axis has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various viral infections. Generally, the ceRNA network involves long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that act as sponges for miRNA to regulate mRNA expression. However, no information is available regarding the involvement of ceRNA networks in Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) infections. In the present study, data obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was analyzed using various bioinformatics tools. EV71 infection in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells was associated with differential expression of six lncRNAs, 28 miRNAs, and 349 mRNAs. Gene function enrichment analysis suggested induction of cytoplasmic vesicle process upon EV71 infection. The ceRNA networks were constructed, in which 20 hub genes were predicted by protein-protein interaction. To confirm the MALAT1/miR-194-5p/DUSP1 ceRNA regulatory axis in EV71 infection, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and luciferase reporter assay were performed. The results of the study also revealed the involvement of the MALAT1/miR-194-5p axis in apoptosis induced by EV71 infection, while no association with autophagy was observed. Thus, the present study provided novel insights into the pathogenic mechanism of EV71 infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340214PMC
July 2021

Long Noncoding RNA MALAT1 Interacts with miR-124-3p to Modulate Osteosarcoma Progression by Targeting SphK1.

J Oncol 2021 29;2021:8390165. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Spine Osteopathic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530022, Guangxi, China.

Introduction: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in a variety of biological functions, including tumor proliferation, apoptosis, progression, and metastasis. lncRNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is overexpressed in various cancers, as well as osteosarcoma (OS); however, its underlying mechanism in OS is poorly understood. This investigation aims to elucidate the mechanisms of MALAT1 in OS proliferation and migration and to provide theoretical grounding for further targeted therapy in OS.

Methods: In the present study, we applied qRT-PCR to assess the MALAT1 expression in OS tissues and cell lines. The effects of MALAT1 and miR-124-3p on OS cell proliferation and migration were studied by CCK-8 and scratch assays. Cell cycle and apoptosis were tested using a flow cytometer. The competing relationship between MALAT1 and miR-124-3p was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay.

Results: MALAT1 was overexpressed in OS cell lines and tissue specimens, and knockdown of MALAT1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and increased cell apoptosis and the percentage of G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, MALAT1 could directly bind to miR-124-3p and inhibit miR-124-3p expression. Moreover, MALAT1 overexpression significantly relieved the inhibition on OS cell proliferation mediated by miR-124-3p overexpression, which involved the derepression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1).

Conclusions: We propose that lncRNA MALAT1 interacts with miR-124-3p to modulate OS progression by targeting SphK1. Hence, we identified a novel MALAT1/miR-124-3p/SphK1 signaling pathway in the regulation of OS biological behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8390165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8349266PMC
July 2021

: A Treasure House of Structurally Diverse Secondary Metabolites With Medicinal Importance.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:723828. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

School of Life Sciences, Ludong University, Yantai, China.

Fungi play an irreplaceable role in drug discovery in the course of human history, as they possess unique abilities to synthesize diverse specialized metabolites with significant medicinal potential. are well-studied filamentous fungi generally observed in nature, which are widely marketed as biocontrol agents. The secondary metabolites produced by have gained extensive attention since they possess attractive chemical structures with remarkable biological activities. A large number of metabolites have been isolated from species in recent years. A previous review by Reino et al. summarized 186 compounds isolated from as well as their biological activities up to 2008. To update the relevant list of reviews of secondary metabolites produced from sp., we provide a comprehensive overview in regard to the newly described metabolites of from the beginning of 2009 to the end of 2020, with emphasis on their chemistry and various bioactivities. A total of 203 compounds with considerable bioactivities are included in this review, which is worth expecting for the discovery of new drug leads and agrochemicals in the foreseeable future. Moreover, new strategies for discovering secondary metabolites of in recent years are also discussed herein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.723828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342961PMC
July 2021

Generalized fractional grey system models: The memory effects perspective.

ISA Trans 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

NUS Business School, National University of Singapore, The Logistics Institute Asia Pacific, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

In recent years, grey models based on fractional-order accumulation and/or derivatives have attracted considerable research interest because they offer better performance in handling limited samples with uncertainty than integer-order grey models; however, there remains room for improvement. This paper considers a more flexible and general structure for the fractional grey model by incorporating a generalized fractional-order derivative (GFOD) that complies by memory effects, resulting in the development of a generalized fractional grey model (denoted as GFGM(1,1)). Specifically, we comprehensively analyse the modelling mechanism of the proposed GFGM(1,1) model, involving model parameter estimation and time response function derivation, and discuss the link between the proposed approach and existing special cases. Then, to further improve the efficacy of the proposed approach, four mainstream metaheuristic algorithms are employed to ascertain the orders of fractional accumulation and derivatives. Finally, we carry out a series of simulation studies and a real-world application case to demonstrate the applicability and advantage of the our approach. The numerical results show that GFGM(1,1) outperforms other benchmarks, and some significant insights are obtained from the numerical experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.07.037DOI Listing
July 2021

Dysfunctional Brain Dynamics of Parkinson's Disease and the Effect of Acute Deep Brain Stimulation.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:697909. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) can effectively alleviate PD symptoms. Although previous studies have detected network features of PD and DBS, few studies have considered their dynamic characteristics. We tested two hypotheses. (1) Reduced brain dynamics, as evidenced by slowed microstate dynamic change, is a characteristic of PD and is related to the movement disorders of patients with PD. (2) Therapeutic acute DBS can partially reverse slow brain dynamics in PD to healthy levels. We used electroencephalography (EEG) microstate analysis based on high density (256-channel) EEG to detect the effects of PD and DBS on brain dynamic changes on a sub-second timescale. We compared 21 healthy controls (HCs) with 20 patients with PD who were in either DBS-OFF or DBS-ON states. Assessment of movement disorder using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III was correlated with microstate parameters. Compared with HCs, patients with PD displayed a longer mean microstate duration with reduced occurrence per second, which were significantly associated with movement disorders. In patients with PD, some parameters of microstate analysis were restored toward healthy levels after DBS. Resting-state EEG microstate analysis is an important tool for investigating brain dynamic changes in PD and DBS. PD can slow down brain dynamic change, and therapeutic acute DBS can partially reverse this change toward a healthy level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.697909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8331088PMC
July 2021

De Novo Approach to Encapsulating Biocatalysts into Synthetic Matrixes: From Enzymes to Microbial Electrocatalysts.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Suzhou Institute for Advanced Research, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China.

Biocatalysts hold great promise in chemical and electrochemical reactions. However, biocatalysts are prone to inhospitable physiochemical conditions. Encapsulating biocatalysts into a synthetic host matrix can improve their stability and activity, and broaden their operational conditions. In this Review, we summarize the emerging de novo approaches to encapsulating biocatalysts into synthetic matrixes. Here, de novo means that embedding of biocatalysts and construction of matrixes take place simultaneously. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the de novo approach. On the basis of the nature of the biocatalysts and the synthetic frameworks, we specifically focus on two aspects: (1) encapsulation of enzymes (in vitro) in metal-organic frameworks and (2) encapsulation of microbial electrocatalysts (in vivo) on the electrode. For both cases, we discuss how the encapsulation improves biocatalysts' performance (stability, viability, activity, and etc.). We also highlight the benefit of encapsulation in facilitating the transport of charge carriers in microbial electrocatalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09708DOI Listing
August 2021

MicroRNA 200a inhibits liver fibrosis of .

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):4736-4746

Gastroenterology Department, Hunan Aerospace Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, China.

MicroRNA 200a (miR-200a) can inhibit the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) through the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway, and improve fibrotic lesions. However, to date, there is no study exploring the role of miR-200a in schistosomiasis liver fibrosis (SLF). In this study, 64 healthy female Balb/c mice were selected and randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (non-infected schistosomiasis group), schistosomiasis model group, Lenti-NC group (lentivirus-negative control group), and Lenti-miR-200a group (lentivirus experimental group). Fluorescence quantitative PCR detection was used to measure the expression level of RNA. HE and Masson staining were used to observe the pathological changes of mouse liver tissue. Furthermore, ELISA was used to detect the serum concentrations of inflammation factors. We found that the expression level of miR-200a in liver tissues gradually decreased with the development of SLF. However, fibrosis factors (α-SMA and TGF-β2) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) in liver tissues and serum increased and the expression level of Colla I reached its peak in the 6th week of infection. Besides, compared with the schistosomiasis group and Lenti-NC group, the Lenti-NC group had lower levels of α-SMA, TGF-β2 and Colla I (P > 0.05). Furthermore, inflammatory cells and blue collagen fibers appeared and they increased with the development of infection in the schistosomiasis group and Lenti-NC group, but these changes reduced significantly in Lenti-miR-200a group. Our study demonstrated that upregulation of miR-200a might contribute to inhibiting schistosomiasis liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1950441DOI Listing
December 2021

Diffuse intrathyroidal dissemination of papillary thyroid carcinoma with no stromal fibrosis at presentation: A pattern of aggressive differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Aug 23;224:153510. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210029, China. Electronic address:

Background: Multifocal Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a very common condition. In certain cases, it is possible to find tens to hundreds of foci with a diffuse intrathyroidal spread in the whole thyroid with no stromal fibrosis. Herein, PTC with such features was nominated as diffuse disseminate variant (DDV) PTC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the histopathological characteristics, molecular features, and biological behavior of DDV and compare the characteristics of DDV to diffuse sclerosing variant (DSV) PTC.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-four DDV and 23 DSV cases were identified from consecutive surgical specimens diagnosed with PTC between 2014 and 2019. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to investigate the mutation spectrum of DDV and DSV.

Results: DDV was commonly diagnosed in young patients and exhibited high rates of LNM (100 %), ETE (61.8 %), and LVI (44.1 %); however, they did not differ from DSV (P >  0.05). Male patients were more frequently diagnosed with DDV than with DSV (P <  0.001). The size of the largest tumor was significantly greater in DDV than in DSV patients (P =  0.008). In addition, BRAF mutation was significantly higher in the DDV than in the DSV group (P <  0.001). The RET/PTC rearrangement was more frequent in DSV than in DDV patients; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P =  0.106). Moreover, DDV had a higher rate of recurrence compared to DSV treated with the same protocol (total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment) (47.1 % and 8.7 %, P =  0.002).

Conclusions: DDV should be regarded as a novel aggressive variant of PTC with distinct clinicopathological characteristics, aggressive biological behaviors, and a high recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2021.153510DOI Listing
August 2021

High-order replica bands in monolayer FeSe/SrTiO revealed by polarization-dependent photoemission spectroscopy.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 28;12(1):4573. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Quantum Matter Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

The mechanism of the enhanced superconductivity in monolayer FeSe/SrTiO has been enthusiastically studied and debated over the past decade. One specific observation has been taken to be of central importance: the replica bands in the photoemission spectrum. Although suggestive of electron-phonon interaction in the material, the essence of these spectroscopic features remains highly controversial. In this work, we conduct angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements on monolayer FeSe/SrTiO using linearly polarized photons. This configuration enables unambiguous characterization of the valence electronic structure with a suppression of the spectral background. We consistently observe high-order replica bands derived from various Fe 3d bands, similar to those observed on bare SrTiO. The intensity of the replica bands is unexpectedly high and different between d and d bands. Our results provide new insights on the electronic structure of this high-temperature superconductor and the physical origin of the photoemission replica bands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24783-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319137PMC
July 2021

Urinary biomarkers of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts and ovarian reserve: A cross-sectional study in China.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 21;421:126683. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, PR China. Electronic address:

Experimental studies have demonstrated that disinfection byproducts (DBPs) can cause ovarian toxicity including inhibition of antral follicle growth and disruption of steroidogenesis, but there is a paucity of human evidence. We aimed to investigate whether urinary biomarkers of exposure to drinking water DBPs were associated with ovarian reserve. The present study included 956 women attending an infertility clinic in Wuhan, China from December 2018 to January 2020. Antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian volume (OV), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured as indicators of ovarian reserve. Urinary dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) were assessed as potential biomarkers of drinking water DBP exposures. Multivariate linear and Poisson regression models were applied to estimate the associations of urinary DCAA and TCAA concentrations with indicators of ovarian reserve. Elevated urinary DCAA and TCAA levels were monotonically associated with reduced total AFC (- 5.98%; 95% CI: - 10.30%, - 1.44% in DCAA and - 12.98%; 95% CI: - 17.00%, - 8.76% in TCAA comparing the extreme tertiles; both P for trends ≤ 0.01), and the former was only observed in right AFC but not in left AFC, whereas the latter was estimated for both right and left AFC. Moreover, elevated urinary TCAA levels were monotonically associated with decreased AMH (- 14.09%; 95% CI: - 24.79%, - 1.86% comparing the extreme tertiles; P for trend = 0.03). These negative associations were still observed for the exposure biomarkers modeled as continuous variables. Our findings suggest that exposure to drinking water DBPs may be associated with decreased ovarian reserve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126683DOI Listing
July 2021

Acacetin Protects Myocardial Cells against Hypoxia-Reoxygenation Injury through Activation of Autophagy.

J Immunol Res 2021 29;2021:9979843. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Xinjiang Institute of Materia Medica, Uygur, Xinjiang Province 830004, China.

Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. We previously demonstrated that acacetin protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rats, although the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acacetin on autophagy during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury by exposing H9c2 myocardial cells to H/R with or without acacetin pretreatment during hypoxia. Our results show that acacetin significantly increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, enhanced antioxidant capacity, and suppressed protein apoptosis of rat cardiomyocytes H9c2 cells following H/R injury. In addition, lentiviral infection of H9c2 cardiomyocytes revealed that acacetin pretreatment significantly enhanced the fluorescence intensity of autophagy proteins Beclin 1, LC3-II, and p62. These results indicate that acacetin protected H9c2 cardiomyocytes from H/R damage by enhancing autophagy. Moreover, we found that application of acacetin increased activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, whereas cotreatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reversed the inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy induced by acacetin. In conclusion, acacetin mitigated H/R injury by promoting autophagy through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9979843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263275PMC
June 2021

Influence of hemolysis on serum procalcitonin measured by electrochemiluminescence in an emergency room.

Anal Methods 2021 08 13;13(30):3410-3413. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: To investigate the effect of hemolysis on serum procalcitonin (PCT) detected by electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and to explore the possibility of establishment of a correction equation.

Methods: Fifty-one blood samples from 17 patients were collected. Hemolytic samples, of which the final concentrations of hemoglobin (Hb) were 5, 10, 15 and 20 g L, were prepared by adding lysed homologous RBCs to serum, and then the PCT levels were detected and compared.

Results: with the increasing degree of sample hemolysis, PCT bias elevated from -13.12% to -38.86% as the hemolysis degree increased from 5 g L to 20 g L, respectively. There was a linear correlation of PCT levels between the original and hemolytic samples with the same hemolytic degree (r > 0.97). Using the correction equation logPCT = 0.962(logPCT) +0.251(logHb) - 0.126, the corrected PCT values from the hemolytic samples showed acceptable consistency with the original values (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Hemolysis has a negative interference on PCT values assayed by ECL. The serum PCT level is correlated negatively with the Hb level in the blood sample. The established correction equation could reduce inappropriate antibiotics application and improve the experience of patients in the emergency department.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ay00442eDOI Listing
August 2021

High-Fat Diet Induced Gut Microbiota Alterations Associating With Ghrelin/Jak2/Stat3 Up-Regulation to Promote Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Development.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 24;9:615928. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Urology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The role of high-fat diet (HFD) induced gut microbiota alteration and Ghrelin as well as their correlation in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were explored in our study. The gut microbiota was analyzed by 16s rRNA sequencing. Ghrelin levels in serum, along with Ghrelin and Ghrelin receptor in prostate tissue of mice and patients with BPH were measured. The effect of Ghrelin on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and induction of BPH in mice was explored. Our results indicated that BPH mice have the highest ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes induced by HFD, as well as Ghrelin level in serum and prostate tissue was significantly increased compared with control. Elevated Ghrelin content in the serum and prostate tissue of BPH patients was also observed. Ghrelin promotes cell proliferation while inhibiting cell apoptosis of prostate cells. The effect of Ghrelin on enlargement of the prostate was found almost equivalent to that of testosterone propionate (TP) which may be attenuated by Ghrelin receptor antagonist YIL-781. Ghrelin could up-regulate Jak2/pJak2/Stat3/pStat3 expression and . Our results suggested that Gut microbiota may associate with Ghrelin which plays an important role in activation of Jak2/Stat3 in BPH development. Gut microbiota and Ghrelin might be pathogenic factors for BPH and could be used as a target for mediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.615928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264431PMC
June 2021

Glycolysis- and immune-related novel prognostic biomarkers of Ewing's sarcoma: glucuronic acid epimerase and triosephosphate isomerase 1.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 07 7;13(13):17516-17535. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

The First Clinical Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi Province, China.

Introduction: Owing to the poor prognosis of Ewing's sarcoma, reliable prognostic biomarkers are highly warranted for clinical diagnosis of the disease.

Materials And Methods: A combination of the weighted correlation network analysis and differentially expression analysis was used for initial screening; glycolysis-related genes were extracted and subjected to univariate Cox, LASSO regression, and multivariate Cox analyses to construct prognostic models. The immune cell composition of each sample was analysed using CIBERSORT software. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for assessing the differential expression of modelled genes in Ewing's sarcoma and paraneoplastic tissues.

Results: A logistic regression model constructed for the prognosis of Ewing's sarcoma exhibited that the patient survival rate in the high-risk group is much lower than in the low-risk group. CIBERSORT analysis exhibited a strong correlation of Ewing's sarcoma with naïve B cells, CD8 T cells, activated NK cells, and M0 macrophages (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the study findings.

Conclusions: and can be used as prognostic biomarkers to predict the prognosis of Ewing's sarcoma, and a close association of Ewing's sarcoma with naïve B cells, CD8 T cells, activated NK cells, and M0 macrophages provides a novel approach to the disease immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312448PMC
July 2021
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