Publications by authors named "Chong A Kim"

66 Publications

Long-term impact of early initiation of enzyme replacement therapy in 34 MPS VI patients: A resurvey study.

Mol Genet Metab 2021 05 27;133(1):94-99. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Serviço de Genética Médica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil.

Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) present with a wide range of disease severity and clinical manifestations, with significant functional impairment and shortened lifespan. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase has been shown to improve clinical and biochemical parameters including patient survival, quality of life and growth. The present study is a resurvey of 34 Brazilian MPS VI patients with rapidly progressive disease (classical phenotype) who initiated ERT with galsulfase under five years of age and had been on ERT until data collection in 2019, with few exceptions (n = 4 patients who died before 2019). Anthropometric measures, urinary glycosaminoglycans, and data regarding cardiac, orthopedic, neurologic, sleep apnea, hearing and ophthalmologic outcomes were filled in by specialists. Pubertal development, clinical complications, hospitalizations, and surgeries were also assessed. In this resurvey study, treatment with galsulfase has shown to be safe and well tolerated in MPS VI patients who initiated ERT under the age of 5 years and who have been undergoing ERT for approximately 10 years. Mortality rate suggests that early initiation of ERT may have a positive impact on patients' survival, improving but not preventing disease progression and death. MPS VI patients on ERT also showed improved growth velocity and the pubertal development was normal in all surviving patients. Follow-up data on pneumonia and hospitalization suggest that early ERT may have a protective effect against major respiratory complications. Cardiac valve disease progressed since their prior evaluation and spinal cord compression was observed in a large number of patients, suggesting that these disease complications were not modified by ERT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2021.02.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Phenotype-genotype analysis of 242 individuals with RASopathies: 18-year experience of a tertiary center in Brazil.

Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2020 12 31;184(4):896-911. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Unidade de Genética, Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

We report the clinical and molecular data of a large cohort comprising 242 individuals with RASopathies, from a single Tertiary Center in Brazil, the largest study from Latin America. Noonan syndrome represented 76% of the subjects, with heterozygous variants in nine different genes, mainly PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, LZTR1, and RIT1, detected by Sanger and next-generation sequencing. The latter was applied to 126 individuals, with a positive yield of 63% in genes of the RAS/MAPK cascade. We present evidence that there are some allelic differences in PTPN11 across distinct populations. We highlight the clinical aspects that pose more medical concerns, such as the cardiac anomalies, bleeding diathesis and proliferative lesions. The genotype-phenotype analysis between the RASopathies showed statistically significant differences in some cardinal features, such as craniofacial and cardiac anomalies, the latter also statistically significant for different genes in Noonan syndrome. We present two individuals with a Noonan syndrome phenotype, one with an atypical, structural cardiac defect, harboring variants in genes mainly associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and discuss the role of these variants in their phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.c.31851DOI Listing
December 2020

Lymphoproliferative disorder with polyautoimmunity and hypogammaglobulinemia: An unusual presentation of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

Clin Immunol 2020 11 11;220:108590. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Translational Research Laboratory, Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, PE, Brazil.

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) has a heterogeneous presentation that includes multiple congenital anomalies and immunodeficiency, one of the most striking features. Usually, it is characterized by T cell lymphopenia, B cell dysfunction and autoimmunity. Here, we describe an unusual case of 22q11.2DS in a patient with lymphoproliferative disorder, polyautoimmunity and hypogammaglobulinemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2020.108590DOI Listing
November 2020

Targeted massively parallel sequencing for congenital generalized lipodystrophy.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2020 Aug 28. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Objective: Our aim is to establish genetic diagnosis of congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) using targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS), also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Subjects And Methods: Nine unrelated individuals with a clinical diagnosis of CGL were recruited. We used a customized panel to capture genes related to genetic lipodystrophies. DNA libraries were generated, sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq, and bioinformatics analysis was performed.

Results: An accurate genetic diagnosis was stated for all nine patients. Four had pathogenic variants in AGPAT2 and three in BSCL2. Three large homozygous deletions in AGPAT2 were identified by copy-number variant analysis.

Conclusions: Although we have found allelic variants in only 2 genes related to CGL, the panel was able to identify different variants including deletions that would have been missed by Sanger sequencing. We believe that MPS is a valuable tool for the genetic diagnosis of multi-genes related diseases, including CGL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20945/2359-3997000000278DOI Listing
August 2020

Loss of TNR causes a nonprogressive neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and transient opisthotonus.

Genet Med 2020 06 26;22(6):1061-1068. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Institute of Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Technical University München, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: TNR, encoding Tenascin-R, is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein involved in neurite outgrowth and neural cell adhesion, proliferation and migration, axonal guidance, myelination, and synaptic plasticity. Tenascin-R is exclusively expressed in the central nervous system with highest expression after birth. The protein is crucial in the formation of perineuronal nets that ensheath interneurons. However, the role of Tenascin-R in human pathology is largely unknown. We aimed to establish TNR as a human disease gene and unravel the associated clinical spectrum.

Methods: Exome sequencing and an online matchmaking tool were used to identify patients with biallelic variants in TNR.

Results: We identified 13 individuals from 8 unrelated families with biallelic variants in TNR sharing a phenotype consisting of spastic para- or tetraparesis, axial muscular hypotonia, developmental delay, and transient opisthotonus. Four homozygous loss-of-function and four different missense variants were identified.

Conclusion: We establish TNR as a disease gene for an autosomal recessive nonprogressive neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and transient opisthotonus and highlight the role of central nervous system extracellular matrix proteins in the pathogenicity of spastic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0768-7DOI Listing
June 2020

Gene expression profile suggesting immunological dysregulation in two Brazilian Bloom's syndrome cases.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 04 19;8(4):e1133. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Laboratorio de Citogenomica, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Bloom syndrome (BS) is a rare autosomal recessive chromosome instability disorder. The main clinical manifestations are growth deficiency, telangiectasic facial erythema, immunodeficiency, and increased risk to develop neoplasias at early age. Cytogenetic test for sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) is used as a diagnostic marker for BS. In addition, most patients also present mutations in the BLM gene, related to defects in the DNA repair mechanism. However, the molecular mechanism behind the pathogenicity of BS is still not completely understood.

Methods: We describe two patients confirmed with BS by SCE and molecular analysis. Also, we performed the gene expression profile by the RNA-seq methodology in mRNA transcripts for differential gene expression analysis using as a biological condition for comparison BS versus health controls.

Results: We detected 216 differentially expressed genes related to immunological pathways such as positive regulation and activation of B cells, immune effector process and absence of difference of DNA repair genes expression. In addition; we also observed differentially expressed genes associated with apoptosis control, such as BCL2L1, CASP7, CDKN1A, E2F2, ITPR, CD274, TNFAIP6, TNFRSF25, TNFRSF13C, and TNFRSF17.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the combination of altered expression of genes involved in signaling pathways of immune response and apoptosis control may contribute directly to the main characteristics observed in BS, such as recurrent infections, growth failure, and high risk of cancer. Transcriptome studies of other instability syndromes could allow a more accurate analysis of the relevant gene interactions associated with the destabilization of the genome. This is a first description of the profile of differential gene expression related to immunological aspects detected in patients with BS by RNA-seq.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196489PMC
April 2020

Growth and Clinical Characteristics of Children with Floating-Harbor Syndrome: Analysis of Current Original Data and a Review of the Literature.

Horm Res Paediatr 2019 12;92(2):115-123. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Unidade de Endocrinologia Genetica, Laboratorio de Endocrinologia Celular e Molecular LIM25, Disciplina de Endocrinologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, Brazil,

Background: Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare condition characterized by dysmorphic facial features, short stature, and expressive language delay.

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of patients with FHS and review the literature about the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy.

Methods: Anthropometric and laboratory data from 7 patients with FHS were described. The molecular diagnosis was established by multigene analysis. Moreover, we reviewed the literature concerning patients with FHS treated with rhGH.

Results: All 7 patients were born small for gestational age. At first evaluation, 6 patients had a height standard deviation score (SDS) ≤-2 and 1 had short stature in relation to their target height. Bone age was usually delayed, which rapidly advanced during puberty. Nonspecific skeletal abnormalities were frequently noticed, and normal to elevated plasma IGF-I levels were observed in all except 1 patient with growth hormone deficiency. Information about 20 patients with FHS treated with rhGH was analyzed (4 from our cohort and 16 from the literature). The median height changes during the treatment period (approx. 2.9 years) were 1.1 SDS (range from -0.4 to 3.1). Nontreated patients had an adult height SDS of -4.1 ± 1.2 (n = 10) versus -2.6 ± 0.8 SDS (n = 7, p 0.012) for treated patients.

Conclusion: We observed a laboratory profile compatible with IGF-1 insensitivity in some patients with FHS. Nevertheless, our study suggests that children with FHS may be considered as candidates for rhGH therapy. Further studies are necessary to establish the real benefit and safety of rhGH therapy in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000503782DOI Listing
May 2020

Breakpoint delineation in 5p- patients leads to new insights about microcephaly and the typical high-pitched cry.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 02 30;8(2):e957. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Laboratório de Citogenômica, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) is a rare syndrome caused by a partial or complete deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The main clinical features include a high-pitched cry, facial asymmetry, microcephaly, round face at birth, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, delayed growth and development.

Methods: We studied 14 Brazilian patients with CdCS using genomic array in order to better define the 5p breakpoints and recognize copy number variations (CNVs) that contribute to clinical manifestations associated with the syndrome.

Results: Array confirmed terminal deletions in 13 patients and an interstitial deletion in one patient. It was also possible to map the breakpoints and associate a genomic region of 4.7 Mb to the development of head circumference and cat-like cry. We also found other CNVs concomitant to the 5p deletion including a 9p duplication, a 17q deletion, and a 22q deletion in three different patients.

Conclusion: With advancements of molecular cytogenomic methods in the last two decades, it was possible to evidence cryptic alterations and improve the genotype-phenotype correlation. In this work, we describe a new genomic region associated with microcephaly and cat-like cry and highlight the importance of precise delineation of 5p deletion breakpoints and detection of other CNVs in CdCS patients to improve genotype-phenotype correlation to perform a complete clinical and molecular diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005617PMC
February 2020

Primary immunodeficiency with chronic enteropathy and developmental delay in a boy arising from a novel homozygous RIPK1 variant.

J Hum Genet 2019 Sep 18;64(9):955-960. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Identification of genetic causes of primary monogenic immunodeficiencies would strengthen the current understanding of their immunopathology. Pathogenic variants in genes in association with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) signaling, including OTULIN, TNFAIP3, RBCK1, and RNF31 cause human congenital autoinflammatory diseases with/without immunodeficiency. RIPK1, encoding a receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 1, is present in protein complexes mediating signal transduction including TNF receptor 1. Biallelic loss-of-function variants in RIPK1 were recently reported in individuals with primary immunodeficiency with intestinal bowel disease and arthritis. Here, we report a novel homozygous RIPK1 variant in a boy with immunodeficiency and chronic enteropathy. Our patient exhibited severe motor delay and mild intellectual disability, which were previously unknown. The present results are expected to deepen the current understanding of clinical features based on RIPK1 abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-019-0631-3DOI Listing
September 2019

Impact of Growth Hormone Therapy on Adult Height in Patients with PTPN11 Mutations Related to Noonan Syndrome.

Horm Res Paediatr 2019 27;91(4):252-261. Epub 2019 May 27.

Unidade de Endocrinologia-Genetica, LIM/25, Disciplina de Endocrinologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment in patients with Noonan syndrome (NS).

Materials And Methods: Forty-two patients (35 PTPN11+) were treated with rhGH, and 17 were followed-up until adult height. The outcomes were changes in growth velocity (GV) and height standard deviation scores (SDS) for normal (height-CDC SDS) and Noonan standards (height-NS SDS).

Results: The pretreatment chronological age was 10.3 ± 3.5 years. Height-CDC SDS and height-NS SDS were -3.1 ± 0.7 and -0.5 ± 0.6, respectively. PTPN11+ patients had a better growth response than PTPN11- patients. GV SDS increased from -1.2 ± 1.8 to 3.1 ± 2.8 after the first year of therapy in PTPN11+ patients, and from -1.9 ± 2.6 to -0.1 ± 2.6 in PTPN11- patients. The gain in height-CDC SDS during the first year was higher in PTPN11+ than PTPN11- (0.6 ± 0.4 vs. 0.1 ± 0.2, p = 0.008). Similarly, the gain was observed in height-NS SDS (0.6 ± 0.3 vs. 0.2 ± 0.2, respectively, p < 0.001). Among the patients that reached adult height (n = 17), AH-CDC SDS and AH-NS SDS were -2.1 ± 0.7 and 0.7 ± 0.8, respectively. The total increase in height SDS was 1.3 ± 0.7 and 1.5 ± 0.6 for normal and NS standards, respectively.

Conclusions: This study supports the advantage of rhGH therapy on adult height in PTPN11+ patients. In comparison, PTPN11- patients showed a poor response to rhGH. However, this PTPN11- group was small, preventing an adequate comparison among different genotypes and no guarantee of response to therapy in genes besides PTPN11.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500264DOI Listing
January 2020

Mosaic Trisomy 12 Associated with Overgrowth Detected in Fibroblast Cell Lines.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2019 2;157(3):153-157. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Mosaic trisomy 12 is a rare anomaly, and only 9 cases of live births with this condition have been reported in the literature. The clinical phenotype is variable, including neuropsychomotor developmental delay, congenital heart disease, microcephaly, cutaneous spots, facial asymmetry, prominent ears, hypotonia, retinopathy, and sensorineural hearing loss. A 2-year-old female presented with neuropsychomotor developmental delay, prominent forehead, dolichocephaly, patchy skin pigmentation, and unexpected overgrowth at birth. Cytogenetic analysis of her peripheral blood showed normal results, suggesting the presence of a chromosomal alteration in other tissues. Further studies using G-banding and FISH performed on fibroblasts from both hyper- and hypopigmented regions identified a 47,XX,+12/46,XX karyotype. To the best of our knowledge, no patients with mosaic trisomy 12 associated with overgrowth have been reported to date. Congenital overgrowth and neonatal overgrowth have been frequently linked to Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS; OMIM 601803). This case suggests the possibility of an association of genes present in the 12p region with fetal overgrowth, considering that chromosomal duplications could lead to an increase in the production of aberrant transcripts and disturbing gene dosage effects. This case highlights the importance of cytogenetic analysis in different tissues to provide relevant information to the specific genotype/phenotype correlation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000498836DOI Listing
May 2019

Novel fibronectin mutations and expansion of the phenotype in spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with "corner fractures".

Bone 2019 04 30;121:163-171. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

CHU Sainte Justine Research Centre and Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada. Electronic address:

Heterozygous pathogenic variants in the FN1 gene, encoding fibronectin (FN), have recently been shown to be associated with a skeletal disorder in some individuals affected by spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with "corner fractures" (SMD-CF). The most striking feature characterizing SMD-CF is irregularly shaped metaphyses giving the appearance of "corner fractures". An array of secondary features, including developmental coxa vara, ovoid vertebral bodies and severe scoliosis, may also be present. FN is an important extracellular matrix component for bone and cartilage development. Here we report five patients affected by this subtype of SMD-CF caused by five novel FN1 missense mutations: p.Cys123Tyr, p.Cys169Tyr, p.Cys213Tyr, p.Cys231Trp and p.Cys258Tyr. All individuals shared a substitution of a cysteine residue, disrupting disulfide bonds in the FN type-I assembly domains located in the N-terminal assembly region. The abnormal metaphyseal ossification and "corner fracture" appearances were the most remarkable clinical feature in these patients. In addition, generalized skeletal fragility with low-trauma bilateral femoral fractures was identified in one patient. Interestingly, the distal femoral changes in this patient healed with skeletal maturation. Our report expands the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of the FN1-related SMD-CF and emphasizes the importance of FN in bone formation and possibly also in the maintenance of bone strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2018.12.020DOI Listing
April 2019

Large deletion in PIGL: a common mutational mechanism in CHIME syndrome?

Genet Mol Biol 2018 Jan-Mar;41(1):85-91. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Genetics Unit, Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

CHIME syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder caused by mutations in PIGL. PIGL is an endoplasmic reticulum localized enzyme that catalyzes the second step of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis, which plays a role in the anchorage of cell-surface proteins including receptors, enzymes, and adhesion molecules. Germline mutations in other members of GPI and Post GPI Attachment to Proteins (PGAP) family genes have been described and constitute a group of diseases within the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Patients in this group often present alkaline phosphatase serum levels abnormalities and neurological symptoms. We report a CHIME syndrome patient who harbors a missense mutation c.500T > C (p.Leu167Pro) and a large deletion involving the 5' untranslated region and part of exon 1 of PIGL. In CHIME syndrome, a recurrent missense mutation c.500T > C (p.Leu167Pro) is found in the majority of patients, associated with a null mutation in the other allele, including an overrepresentation of large deletions. The latter are not detected by the standard analysis in sequencing techniques, including next-generation sequencing. Thus, in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of CHIME syndrome in which only one mutation is found, an active search for a large deletion should be sought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-4685-GMB-2017-0172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5901507PMC
February 2018

CBS mutations are good predictors for B6-responsiveness: A study based on the analysis of 35 Brazilian Classical Homocystinuria patients.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2018 03 20;6(2):160-170. Epub 2018 Jan 20.

Post-Graduation Program in Genetics and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Background: Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is a monogenic disease caused by the deficient activity of cystathionine β-synthase (CβS). The objective of this study was to identify the CBS mutations in Brazilian patients with HCU.

Methods: gDNA samples were obtained for 35 patients (30 families) with biochemically confirmed diagnosis of HCU. All exons and exon-intron boundaries of CBS gene were sequenced. Gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR was performed in six patients. Novel missense point mutations were expressed in E. coli by site-directed mutagenesis.

Results: Parental consanguinity was reported in 16 families, and pyridoxine responsiveness in five (15%) patients. Among individuals from the same family, all presented the same phenotype. Both pathogenic mutations were identified in 29/30 patients. Twenty-one different mutations were detected in nine exons and three introns; being six common mutations. Most prevalent were p.Ile278Thr (18.2%), p.Trp323Ter (11.3%), p.Thr191Met (11.3%), and c.828+1G>A (11.3%). Eight novel mutations were found [c.2T>C, c.209+1delG, c.284T>C, c.329A>T, c.444delG, c.864_868delGAG c.989_991delAGG, and c.1223+5G>T]. Enzyme activity in E. coli-expressed mutations was 1.5% for c.329A>T and 17.5% for c.284T>C. qRT-PCR analysis revealed reduced gene expression in all evaluated genotypes: [c.209+1delG; c.572C>T]; [c.2T>C; c.828+1G>A]; [c.828+1G>A; c.1126G>A]; [c.833T>C; c.989_991delAGG]; [c.1058C>T; c.146C>T]; and [c.444delG; c.444delG]. The expected phenotype according to the genotype (pyridoxine responsiveness) matched in all cases.

Conclusions: Most patients studied were pyridoxine nonresponsive and presented early manifestations, suggesting severe phenotypes. Many private mutations were observed, but the four most prevalent mutations together accounted for over 50% of mutated alleles. A good genotype-phenotype relationship was observed within families and for the four most common mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5902399PMC
March 2018

Patients with a Kabuki syndrome phenotype demonstrate DNA methylation abnormalities.

Eur J Hum Genet 2017 12 7;25(12):1335-1344. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Kabuki syndrome is a monogenic disorder caused by loss of function variants in either of two genes encoding histone-modifying enzymes. We performed targeted sequencing in a cohort of 27 probands with a clinical diagnosis of Kabuki syndrome. Of these, 12 had causative variants in the two known Kabuki syndrome genes. In 2, we identified presumptive loss of function de novo variants in KMT2A (missense and splice site variants), a gene that encodes another histone modifying enzyme previously exclusively associated with Wiedermann-Steiner syndrome. Although Kabuki syndrome is a disorder of histone modification, we also find alterations in DNA methylation among individuals with a Kabuki syndrome diagnosis relative to matched normal controls, regardless of whether they carry a variant in KMT2A or KMT2D or not. Furthermore, we observed characteristic global abnormalities of DNA methylation that distinguished patients with a loss of function variant in KMT2D or missense or splice site variants in either KMT2D or KMT2A from normal controls. Our results provide new insights into the relationship of genotype to epigenotype and phenotype and indicate cross-talk between histone and DNA methylation machineries exposed by inborn errors of the epigenetic apparatus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-017-0023-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865196PMC
December 2017

Recurrent Copy Number Variants Associated with Syndromic Short Stature of Unknown Cause.

Horm Res Paediatr 2018 9;89(1):13-21. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Unidade de Endocrinologia Genetica, Laboratorio de Endocrinologia Celular e Molecular LIM25, Disciplina de Endocrinologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background/aims: Genetic imbalances are responsible for many cases of short stature of unknown etiology. This study aims to identify recurrent pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) in patients with syndromic short stature of unknown cause.

Methods: We selected 229 children with short stature and dysmorphic features, developmental delay, and/or intellectual disability, but without a recognized syndrome. All patients were evaluated by chromosomal microarray (array-based comparative genomic hybridization/single nucleotide polymorphism array). Additionally, we searched databases and previous studies to recover recurrent pathogenic CNVs associated with short stature.

Results: We identified 32 pathogenic/probably pathogenic CNVs in 229 patients. By reviewing the literature, we selected 4 previous studies which evaluated CNVs in cohorts of patients with short stature. Taken together, there were 671 patients with short stature of unknown cause evaluated by chromosomal microarray. Pathogenic/probably pathogenic CNVs were identified in 87 patients (13%). Seven recurrent CNVs, 22q11.21, 15q26, 1p36.33, Xp22.33, 17p13.3, 1q21.1, 2q24.2, were observed. They are responsible for about 40% of all pathogenic/probably pathogenic genomic imbalances found in short stature patients of unknown cause.

Conclusion: CNVs seem to play a significant role in patients with short stature. Chromosomal microarray should be used as a diagnostic tool for evaluation of growth disorders, especially for syndromic short stature of unknown cause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000481777DOI Listing
October 2018

GNPTAB missense mutations cause loss of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase activity in mucolipidosis type II through distinct mechanisms.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2017 11 14;92:90-94. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

BRAIN Laboratory, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Post Graduate Program in Genetics and Molecular Biology of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Medical Genetics Service of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

Mucolipidoses (ML) II and III alpha/beta are lysosomal storage diseases caused by pathogenic mutations in GNPTAB encoding the α⁄β-subunit precursor of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase. To determine genotype-phenotype correlation and functional analysis of mutant GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, 13 Brazilian patients clinically and biochemical diagnosed for MLII or III alpha/beta were studied. By sequencing of genomic GNPTAB of the MLII and MLIII alpha/beta patients we identified six novel mutations: p.D76G, p.S385L, p.Q278Kfs*3, p.H588Qfs*27, p.N642Lfs*10 and p.Y1111*. Expression analysis by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the mutant α⁄β-subunit precursor p.D76G is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum whereas the mutant p.S385L is correctly transported to the cis-Golgi apparatus and proteolytically processed. Both mutations lead to complete loss of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase activity, consistent with the severe clinical MLII phenotype of the patients. Our study expands the genotypic spectrum of MLII and provides novel insights into structural requirements to ensure GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2017.09.006DOI Listing
November 2017

Autosomal dominant frontometaphyseal dysplasia: Delineation of the clinical phenotype.

Am J Med Genet A 2017 Jul 12;173(7):1739-1746. Epub 2017 May 12.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene FLNA in approximately 50% of patients. Recently we characterized an autosomal dominant form of FMD (AD-FMD) caused by mutations in MAP3K7, which accounts for the condition in the majority of patients who lack a FLNA mutation. We previously also described a patient with a de novo variant in TAB2, which we hypothesized was causative of another form of AD-FMD. In this study, a cohort of 20 individuals with AD-FMD is clinically evaluated. This cohort consists of 15 individuals with the recently described, recurrent mutation (c.1454C>T) in MAP3K7, as well as three individuals with missense mutations that result in substitutions in the N-terminal kinase domain of TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), encoded by MAP3K7. Additionally, two individuals have missense variants in the gene TAB2, which encodes a protein with a close functional relationship to TAK1, TAK1-associated binding protein 2 (TAB2). Although the X-linked and autosomal dominant forms of FMD are very similar, there are distinctions to be made between the two conditions. Individuals with AD-FMD have characteristic facial features, and are more likely to be deaf, have scoliosis and cervical fusions, and have a cleft palate. Furthermore, there are features only found in AD-FMD in our review of the literature including valgus deformity of the feet and predisposition to keloid scarring. Finally, intellectual disability is present in a small number of subjects with AD-FMD but has not been described in association with X-linked FMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38267DOI Listing
July 2017

Herpetiform keratitis and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis: warning signs for Richner-Hanhart syndrome.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2017 05 10;40(3):461-462. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Clinical Genetics Unit, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Eneas Carvalho de Aguiar, 647, São Paulo, 05403-000, SP, Brasil.

Richner-Hanhart syndrome (RHS, tyrosinemia type II) is a rare, autosomal recessive inborn error of tyrosine metabolism caused by tyrosine aminotransferase deficiency. It is characterized by photophobia due to keratitis, painful palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, variable mental retardation, and elevated serum tyrosine levels. Patients are often misdiagnosed with herpes simplex keratitis. We report on a a boy from Brazil who presented with bilateral keratitis secondary to RHS, which had earlier been misdiagnosed as herpes simplex keratitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-016-9996-zDOI Listing
May 2017

Long-term follow-up of a female with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450-oxidoreductase deficiency.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2016 Oct 10;60(5):500-504. Epub 2016 Oct 10.

Laboratório de Hormônios e Genética Molecular - LIM/42, Unidade de Adrenal, Disciplina de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that is caused by POR gene mutations. The POR gene encodes a flavor protein that transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 type II (including 21-hydroxylase, 17α-hydroxylase 17,20 lyase and aromatase), which is fundamental for their enzymatic activity. POR mutations cause variable impairments in steroidogenic enzyme activities that result in wide phenotypic variability ranging from 46,XX or 46,XY disorders of sexual differentiation, glucocorticoid deficiency, with or without skeletal malformations similar to Antley-Bixler syndrome to asymptomatic newborns diagnosed during neonatal screening test. Little is known about the PORD long-term evolution. We described a 46,XX patient with mild atypical genitalia associated with severe bone malformation, who was diagnosed after 13 years due to sexual infantilism. She developed large ovarian cysts and late onset adrenal insufficiency during follow-up, both of each regressed after hormone replacement therapies. We also described a late surgical approach for the correction of facial hypoplasia in a POR patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2359-3997000000213DOI Listing
October 2016

Subtelomeric Copy Number Variations: The Importance of 4p/4q Deletions in Patients with Congenital Anomalies and Developmental Disability.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2016 24;149(4):241-246. Epub 2016 Sep 24.

Department of Pathology, Cytogenomics Laboratory, Instituto da Criança, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The most prevalent structural variations in the human genome are copy number variations (CNVs), which appear predominantly in the subtelomeric regions. Variable sizes of 4p/4q CNVs have been associated with several different psychiatric findings and developmental disability (DD). We analyzed 105 patients with congenital anomalies (CA) and developmental and/or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID) using MLPA subtelomeric specific kits (P036 /P070) and 4 of them using microarrays. We found abnormal subtelomeric CNVs in 15 patients (14.3%), including 8 patients with subtelomeric deletions at 4p/4q (53.3%). Additional genomic changes were observed at 1p36, 2q37.3, 5p15.3, 5q35.3, 8p23.3, 13q11, 14q32.3, 15q11.2, and Xq28/Yq12. This indicates the prevalence of independent deletions at 4p/4q, involving PIGG, TRIML2, and FRG1. Furthermore, we identified 15 genes with changes in copy number that contribute to neurological development and/or function, among them CRMP1, SORCS2, SLC25A4, and HELT. Our results highlight the association of genes with changes in copy number at 4p and 4q subtelomeric regions and the DD phenotype. Cytogenomic characterization of additional cases with distal deletions should help clarifying the role of subtelomeric CNVs in neurological diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000448905DOI Listing
January 2017

Mutations in MAP3K7 that Alter the Activity of the TAK1 Signaling Complex Cause Frontometaphyseal Dysplasia.

Am J Hum Genet 2016 08 15;99(2):392-406. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is a progressive sclerosing skeletal dysplasia affecting the long bones and skull. The cause of FMD in some individuals is gain-of-function mutations in FLNA, although how these mutations result in a hyperostotic phenotype remains unknown. Approximately one half of individuals with FMD have no identified mutation in FLNA and are phenotypically very similar to individuals with FLNA mutations, except for an increased tendency to form keloid scars. Using whole-exome sequencing and targeted Sanger sequencing in 19 FMD-affected individuals with no identifiable FLNA mutation, we identified mutations in two genes-MAP3K7, encoding transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-activated kinase (TAK1), and TAB2, encoding TAK1-associated binding protein 2 (TAB2). Four mutations were found in MAP3K7, including one highly recurrent (n = 15) de novo mutation (c.1454C>T [ p.Pro485Leu]) proximal to the coiled-coil domain of TAK1 and three missense mutations affecting the kinase domain (c.208G>C [p.Glu70Gln], c.299T>A [p.Val100Glu], and c.502G>C [p.Gly168Arg]). Notably, the subjects with the latter three mutations had a milder FMD phenotype. An additional de novo mutation was found in TAB2 (c.1705G>A, p.Glu569Lys). The recurrent mutation does not destabilize TAK1, or impair its ability to homodimerize or bind TAB2, but it does increase TAK1 autophosphorylation and alter the activity of more than one signaling pathway regulated by the TAK1 kinase complex. These findings show that dysregulation of the TAK1 complex produces a close phenocopy of FMD caused by FLNA mutations. Furthermore, they suggest that the pathogenesis of some of the filaminopathies caused by FLNA mutations might be mediated by misregulation of signaling coordinated through the TAK1 signaling complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.05.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4974064PMC
August 2016

Atypical 581-kb 22q11.21 Deletion in a Patient with Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum Phenotype.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2015 27;147(2-3):130-4. Epub 2016 Feb 27.

Genetics Division, Department of Morphology and Genetics, Universidade Federal de Sx00E3;o Paulo, Sx00E3;o Paulo, Brazil.

The oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) is defined as a group of malformations involving the ears, mouth, mandible, eyes, and cervical spine. Establishing an accurate clinical diagnosis of OAVS is a challenge for clinical geneticists, not only because these patients display heterogeneous phenotypes, but also because its etiology encompasses environmental factors, unknown genetic factors and different chromosome aberrations. To date, several chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with the syndrome, most frequently involving chromosome 22. In the literature, six 22q11.2 microdeletions have been described within the same region, suggesting possible OAVS candidate genes in this segment. Here, we report on a patient with an ∼581-kb 22q11.21 deletion, detected by genomic array and MLPA. This is the 7th case described with OAVS and 22q deletion, suggesting that the 22q11.2 region may be related to the regulation of body symmetry and facial development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000444228DOI Listing
August 2016

Cytogenomic delineation and clinical follow-up of 10 Brazilian patients with Pallister-Killian syndrome.

Mol Cytogenet 2015 26;8:43. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Unidade de Genética, Departamento de Pediatria, Instituto da Criança-HCFMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil.

Background: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a sporadic genetic disorder caused by the presence of a tissue-specific mosaicism for isochromosome 12p - i(12) (p10) and is characterized by facial dysmorphism including coarse facies, upslanting palpebral fissures, bitemporal alopecia, pigmentary skin anomalies, developmental delay, hypotonia and seizures. Although typical clinical features of PKS commonly exist, clinicians often do not raise the possibility of this diagnosis.

Results: We reviewed the medical records of 10 patients with confirmed PKS followed in our service (since 1990 to 2015). Age at diagnosis varied from prenatal to 3 years and clinical features were consistent with those described in the literature. In all patients, peripheral blood karyotypes were normal and cytogenomic study was performed in order to confirm the diagnosis. Three of these patients had PKS diagnosis confirmed by buccal smear MLPA.

Conclusion: An early conclusion from our results demonstrated that MLPA on buccal smears is a good and non-invasive method to detect extra copies of 12p and should be considered as the first exam, before a skin biopsy for a fibroblast karyotype is performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13039-015-0142-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4481077PMC
June 2015

Lipoid proteinosis: rare case confirmed by ECM1 mutation detection.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2014 Dec 2;78(12):2314-5. Epub 2014 Oct 2.

Genetics Unit, Child's Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.09.025DOI Listing
December 2014

Investigation of selected genomic deletions and duplications in a cohort of 338 patients presenting with syndromic obesity by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification using synthetic probes.

Mol Cytogenet 2014 31;7(1):75. Epub 2014 Oct 31.

Human Genome and Stem Cell Center, Department of Genetics and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biosciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Certain rare syndromes with developmental delay or intellectual disability caused by genomic copy number variants (CNVs), either deletions or duplications, are associated with higher rates of obesity. Current strategies to diagnose these syndromes typically rely on phenotype-driven investigation. However, the strong phenotypic overlap between syndromic forms of obesity poses challenges to accurate diagnosis, and many different individual cytogenetic and molecular approaches may be required. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) enables the simultaneous analysis of multiple targeted loci in a single test, and serves as an important screening tool for large cohorts of patients in whom deletions and duplications involving specific loci are suspected. Our aim was to design a synthetic probe set for MLPA analysis to investigate in a cohort of 338 patients with syndromic obesity deletions and duplications in genomic regions that can cause this phenotype.

Results: We identified 18 patients harboring copy number imbalances; 18 deletions and 5 duplications. The alterations in ten patients were delineated by chromosomal microarrays, and in the remaining cases by additional MLPA probes incorporated into commercial kits. Nine patients showed deletions in regions of known microdeletion syndromes with obesity as a clinical feature: in 2q37 (4 cases), 9q34 (1 case) and 17p11.2 (4 cases). Four patients harbored CNVs in the DiGeorge syndrome locus at 22q11.2. Two other patients had deletions within the 22q11.2 'distal' locus associated with a variable clinical phenotype and obesity in some individuals. The other three patients had a recurrent CNV of one of three susceptibility loci: at 1q21.1 'distal', 16p11.2 'distal', and 16p11.2 'proximal'.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the utility of an MLPA-based first line screening test to the evaluation of obese patients presenting with syndromic features. The overall detection rate with the synthetic MLPA probe set was about 5.3% (18 out of 338). Our experience leads us to suggest that MLPA could serve as an effective alternative first line screening test to chromosomal microarrays for diagnosis of syndromic obesity, allowing for a number of loci (e.g., 1p36, 2p25, 2q37, 6q16, 9q34, 11p14, 16p11.2, 17p11.2), known to be clinically relevant for this patient population, to be interrogated simultaneously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13039-014-0075-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4236449PMC
November 2014

Congenital Heart Disease as a Warning Sign for the Diagnosis of the 22q11.2 Deletion.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2014 Nov 10;103(5):382-390. Epub 2014 Oct 10.

Instituto da Criança, HC, FMUSP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: To alert for the diagnosis of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Objective: To describe the main CHDs, as well as phenotypic, metabolic and immunological findings in a series of 60 patients diagnosed with 22q11.2DS. Methods: The study included 60 patients with 22q11.2DS evaluated between 2007 and 2013 (M:F=1.3, age range 14 days to 20 years and 3 months) at a pediatric reference center for primary immunodeficiencies. The diagnosis was established by detection of the 22q11.2 microdeletion using FISH (n = 18) and/or MLPA (n = 42), in association with clinical and laboratory information. Associated CHDs, progression of phenotypic facial features, hypocalcemia and immunological changes were analyzed. Results: CHDs were detected in 77% of the patients and the most frequent type was tetralogy of Fallot (38.3%). Surgical correction of CHD was performed in 34 patients. Craniofacial dysmorphisms were detected in 41 patients: elongated face (60%) and/or elongated nose (53.3%), narrow palpebral fissure (50%), dysplastic, overfolded ears (48.3%), thin lips (41.6%), elongated fingers (38.3%) and short stature (36.6%). Hypocalcemia was detected in 64.2% and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in 25.9%. Decrease in total lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 counts were present in 40%, 53.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Hypogammaglobulinemia was detected in one patient and decreased concentrations of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in two other patients. Conclusion: Suspicion for 22q11.2DS should be raised in all patients with CHD associated with hypocalcemia and/or facial dysmorphisms, considering that many of these changes may evolve with age. The 22q11.2 microdeletion should be confirmed by molecular testing in all patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4262098PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/abc.20140145DOI Listing
November 2014

Further evidence of the importance of RIT1 in Noonan syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2014 Nov 13;164A(11):2952-7. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

Unidade de Genética do Instituto da Criança, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo/SP, Brazil; Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo/SP, Brazil.

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder consisting of short stature, short and/or webbed neck, distinctive facial features, cardiac abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and coagulation defects. NS exhibits genetic heterogeneity, associated with mutated genes that participate in RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction. Recently, a new gene (RIT1) was discovered as the causative gene in 17 of 180 Japanese individuals who were negative for the previously known genes for NS and were studied using exome sequencing (four patients), followed by Sanger sequencing (13 patients). The present study used the same technique in 70 Brazilian patients with NS and identified six with RIT1 missense mutations. Thus, we confirm that RIT1 is responsible for approximately 10% of the patients negative for mutations in the previously known genes. The phenotype includes a high frequency of high birth weight, relative macrocephaly, left ventricular hypertrophy, and ectodermal findings, such as curly hair, hyperpigmentation, and wrinkled palms and soles. Short stature and pectus deformity were less frequent. The majority of patients with a RIT1 mutation did not show apparent intellectual disability. Because of the relatively high frequency of mutations in RIT1 among patients with NS and its occurrence in different populations, we suggest that it should be added to the list of genes included in panels for the molecular diagnosis of NS through targeted next-generation sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36722DOI Listing
November 2014

Congenital genitourinary abnormalities in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome.

J Pediatr Urol 2014 Oct 13;10(5):804-9. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Division of Urology, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a gene deletion on chromosome 7q11.23. Patients with WBS usually show a group of features such as developmental delay, cardiovascular anomalies, mental retardation, and characteristic facial appearance. Abdominal wall defects, external genitalia anomalies, and structural abnormalities of the urinary tract have been scarcely evaluated and were the focus of our study.

Materials And Methods: We prospectively evaluated 41 boys and 38 girls with WBS, with a mean age of 8.8 ± 4.1 (range 3-19 years). All patients were examined for the evaluation of inguinal and umbilical hernias and genital anomalies. All patients were offered a radiological evaluation, including urinary tract ultrasound, voiding cystourethrogram, and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA scan).

Results: Of the 41 boys, 30 (73.1%) had abnormalities on physical examination, including bilateral undescended testis in 13 (31.7%), retractile testis in four (9.7%), hypospadias in four (9.7%), and unilateral cryptorchidism in three (7.3%) patients. Of the 38 female subjects, 17 (44.7%) had at least one abnormality, including umbilical hernia in 11 (28.9%), unilateral inguinal hernia in four (10.5%), and bilateral inguinal hernia in three (7.8%) patients. Uroradiological abnormalities were found in 41 patients (51.9%). On sonography, six (7.6%) patients had unilateral hydronephrosis, three (3.8%) had a duplicated collecting system, and two (2.5%) had kidney stones. On DMSA, performed in 36 patients, four (11.1%) had unilateral renal scarring and two (5.5%) had bilateral renal scarring. Cystourethrography was obtained from 56 patients, of whom 27 (48.2%) had bladder diverticulum, 18 (32.1%) had bladder wall trabeculation, and three (5.3%) had vesicoureteral reflux. We found no association of urological abnormalities with cardiovascular defects.

Conclusions: Patients with WBS have a high prevalence of abdominal wall, external genitalia, and urological abnormalities, emphasizing the importance of proper physical examination and radiological investigation in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2014.01.013DOI Listing
October 2014

Mutations in PCYT1A cause spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with cone-rod dystrophy.

Am J Hum Genet 2014 Jan;94(1):113-9

Unidade de Genética, Instituto da Criança, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05403-000, Brazil; Centro de Estudos do Genoma Humano, Instituto de Biociências da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090, Brazil.

Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with cone-rod dystrophy is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by severe short stature, progressive lower-limb bowing, flattened vertebral bodies, metaphyseal involvement, and visual impairment caused by cone-rod dystrophy. Whole-exome sequencing of four individuals affected by this disorder from two Brazilian families identified two previously unreported homozygous mutations in PCYT1A. This gene encodes the alpha isoform of the phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1 choline enzyme, which is responsible for converting phosphocholine into cytidine diphosphate-choline, a key intermediate step in the phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis pathway. A different enzymatic defect in this pathway has been previously associated with a muscular dystrophy with mitochondrial structural abnormalities that does not have cartilage and/or bone or retinal involvement. Thus, the deregulation of the phosphatidylcholine pathway may play a role in multiple genetic diseases in humans, and further studies are necessary to uncover its precise pathogenic mechanisms and the entirety of its phenotypic spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.11.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3882913PMC
January 2014