Publications by authors named "Chloe F Moss"

3 Publications

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Aberrant ribonucleotide incorporation and multiple deletions in mitochondrial DNA of the murine MPV17 disease model.

Nucleic Acids Res 2017 Dec;45(22):12808-12815

MRC Laboratory, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK.

All DNA polymerases misincorporate ribonucleotides despite their preference for deoxyribonucleotides, and analysis of cultured cells indicates that mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tolerates such replication errors. However, it is not clear to what extent misincorporation occurs in tissues, or whether this plays a role in human disease. Here, we show that mtDNA of solid tissues contains many more embedded ribonucleotides than that of cultured cells, consistent with the high ratio of ribonucleotide to deoxynucleotide triphosphates in tissues, and that riboadenosines account for three-quarters of them. The pattern of embedded ribonucleotides changes in a mouse model of Mpv17 deficiency, which displays a marked increase in rGMPs in mtDNA. However, while the mitochondrial dGTP is low in the Mpv17-/- liver, the brain shows no change in the overall dGTP pool, leading us to suggest that Mpv17 determines the local concentration or quality of dGTP. Embedded rGMPs are expected to distort the mtDNA and impede its replication, and elevated rGMP incorporation is associated with early-onset mtDNA depletion in liver and late-onset multiple deletions in brain of Mpv17-/- mice. These findings suggest aberrant ribonucleotide incorporation is a primary mtDNA abnormality that can result in pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkx1009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5728394PMC
December 2017

Pathological ribonuclease H1 causes R-loop depletion and aberrant DNA segregation in mitochondria.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 07 8;113(30):E4276-85. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Medical Research Council, Mill Hill Laboratory, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom;

The genetic information in mammalian mitochondrial DNA is densely packed; there are no introns and only one sizeable noncoding, or control, region containing key cis-elements for its replication and expression. Many molecules of mitochondrial DNA bear a third strand of DNA, known as "7S DNA," which forms a displacement (D-) loop in the control region. Here we show that many other molecules contain RNA as a third strand. The RNA of these R-loops maps to the control region of the mitochondrial DNA and is complementary to 7S DNA. Ribonuclease H1 is essential for mitochondrial DNA replication; it degrades RNA hybridized to DNA, so the R-loop is a potential substrate. In cells with a pathological variant of ribonuclease H1 associated with mitochondrial disease, R-loops are of low abundance, and there is mitochondrial DNA aggregation. These findings implicate ribonuclease H1 and RNA in the physical segregation of mitochondrial DNA, perturbation of which represents a previously unidentified disease mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1600537113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4968715PMC
July 2016

MPV17 Loss Causes Deoxynucleotide Insufficiency and Slow DNA Replication in Mitochondria.

PLoS Genet 2016 Jan 13;12(1):e1005779. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

MRC Mill Hill Laboratory, London, United Kingdom.

MPV17 is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein whose dysfunction causes mitochondrial DNA abnormalities and disease by an unknown mechanism. Perturbations of deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools are a recognized cause of mitochondrial genomic instability; therefore, we determined DNA copy number and dNTP levels in mitochondria of two models of MPV17 deficiency. In Mpv17 ablated mice, liver mitochondria showed substantial decreases in the levels of dGTP and dTTP and severe mitochondrial DNA depletion, whereas the dNTP pool was not significantly altered in kidney and brain mitochondria that had near normal levels of DNA. The shortage of mitochondrial dNTPs in Mpv17-/- liver slows the DNA replication in the organelle, as evidenced by the elevated level of replication intermediates. Quiescent fibroblasts of MPV17-mutant patients recapitulate key features of the primary affected tissue of the Mpv17-/- mice, displaying virtual absence of the protein, decreased dNTP levels and mitochondrial DNA depletion. Notably, the mitochondrial DNA loss in the patients' quiescent fibroblasts was prevented and rescued by deoxynucleoside supplementation. Thus, our study establishes dNTP insufficiency in the mitochondria as the cause of mitochondrial DNA depletion in MPV17 deficiency, and identifies deoxynucleoside supplementation as a potential therapeutic strategy for MPV17-related disease. Moreover, changes in the expression of factors involved in mitochondrial deoxynucleotide homeostasis indicate a remodeling of nucleotide metabolism in MPV17 disease models, which suggests mitochondria lacking functional MPV17 have a restricted purine mitochondrial salvage pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711891PMC
January 2016