Publications by authors named "Chiu-Wen Chen"

87 Publications

Genetic modification for enhancing bacterial cellulose production and its applications.

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):6793-6807

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is higher in demand due to its excellent properties which is attributed to its purity and nano size. is a model organism where BC production has been studied in detail because of its higher cellulose production capacity. BC production mechanism shows involvement of a series of sequential reactions with enzymes for biosynthesis of cellulose. It is necessary to know the mechanism to understand the involvement of regulatory proteins which could be the probable targets for genetic modification to enhance or regulate yield of BC and to alter BC properties as well. For the industrial production of BC, controlled synthesis is desired so as to save energy, hence genetic manipulation opens up avenues for upregulating or controlling the cellulose synthesis in the bacterium by targeting genes involved in cellulose biosynthesis. In this review article genetic modification has been presented as a tool to introduce desired changes at genetic level resulting in improved yield or properties. There has been a lack of studies on genetic modification for BC production due to limited availability of information on whole genome and genetic toolkits; however, in last few years, the number of studies has been increased on this aspect as whole genome sequencing of several strains are being done. In this review article, we have presented the mechanisms and the targets for genetic modifications in order to achieve desired changes in the BC production titer as well as its characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1968989DOI Listing
December 2021

Evaluation of Chemical Compositions, Antioxidant Capacity and Intracellular Antioxidant Action in Fish Bone Fermented with .

Molecules 2021 Aug 31;26(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 80778, Taiwan.

Fish bones (FBs) are aquatic by-products that are sources of antioxidant-active peptides, calcium dietary supplements, and biomedical materials. Usually, fermentation of these by-products via microorganisms brings desirable changes, enhancing their value. This study investigates the value addition of FB when fermented with (MP) for different time intervals, such as 3 days (F3) and 6 days (F6). The results indicate that the soluble protein, peptide, amino acid and total phenol content, as well as the antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and relative reducing power), of F3 and F6 were significantly increased after fermentation. Furthermore, the ROS contents of F3 and F6 were reduced to a greater extent than that of hydrogen peroxide (HO) in Clone-9 cells. The MMP integrity, as well as the SOD, CAT, and GPx activity, of F3 and F6 were also increased significantly compared to the HO in Clone-9 cells. Notably, F3 and F6 displayed significant reductions in ROS content, as well as elevate, SOD activity and MMP integrity in Clone-9 cells, when compared with the native FB. These results indicate that the FBs fermented with MP for 3 days (F3), and 6 days (F6) have antioxidant capacity, with possible applications as natural food supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434028PMC
August 2021

The Anti-Obesity Effects of Lemon Fermented Products in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and in a Rat Model with High-Calorie Diet-Induced Obesity.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 16;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan.

Lemon () has antioxidant, immunoregulatory, and blood lipid-lowering properties. This study aimed to determine the effect of the lemon fermented product (LFP) which is lemon fermented with OPC1 to prevent obesity. The inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is examined using a Wistar rat model fed a high-fat diet to verify the anti-obesity efficacy and mechanism of LFP. Here, it was observed that LFP reduced cell proliferation and inhibited the lipid accumulation (8.3%) of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, LFP reduced body weight (9.7%) and fat tissue weight (25.7%) of rats; reduced serum TG (17.0%), FFA (17.9%), glucose (29.3%) and ketone body (6.8%); and increased serum HDL-C (17.6%) and lipase activity (17.8%). LFP regulated the mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, HSL, ATGL, FAS, and AMPK). Therefore, LFP reduces body weight and lipid accumulation by regulating the mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. Overall, our results implicate LFP as a potential dietary supplement for the prevention of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13082809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398352PMC
August 2021

Synthesizing Various Organic Polyacid Compounds for Modifying Forward Osmosis Membranes to Enhance Separation Performance.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Aug 6;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Fisheries Production and Management, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 811213, Taiwan.

In order to overcome the challenges of low permeate flux (J) and the accompanying reverse solute flux (J) during the forward osmosis (FO) membrane separation process, we synthesized four hybrid materials of polyacid-based organic compounds and incorporated them into the selective polyamide (PA) layer to make novel thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) FO membranes. The J and J of each membrane were evaluated and used along with membrane selectivity (J/J) as indicators of membrane separation performance. The fabricated and modified membranes were also characterized for ridge and valley surface morphologies with increasing hydrophilicity and finger-shaped parallel channels in the PSf substrate. Moreover, two highly hydrophilic nanoparticles of graphene oxide (GO) and titanium oxide (TiO) were introduced with the hybrid materials for PA modification, which can further enhance the J of the TFN membranes. The highest J of the TFN membranes achieved 12.1 L/m-h using 0.1% curcumin-acetoguanamine @ cerium polyacid (CATCP) and 0.0175% GO. The characteristic peaks of the hybrid materials were detected on the membrane surface using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, evidencing successful incorporation of the hybrid materials during membrane modification. Here, we present the novel TFN membranes using hybrid materials for separation applications. The reactions for synthesizing the hybrid materials and for incorporating them with PA layer are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11080597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399665PMC
August 2021

Efficacy and cytotoxicity of engineered ferromanganese-bearing sludge-derived biochar for percarbonate-induced phthalate ester degradation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 18;422:126922. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a group of ubiquitous organic environmental contaminants. Engineered ferromanganese-bearing sludge-derived biochar (SDB), synthesized using one-step pyrolysis in the temperature range between 300 and 900 °C, was used to enable Fenton-like processes that decontaminated PAE-laden sediments. SDB was thoroughly characterized using scanning electron microscopyenergy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis. The maximum PAE degradation was remarkable at 90% in 12 h at pH 6.0 in the presence of 1.7 g L of SDB 900. The highly-effective PAE degradation was mainly attributed to the synergism between FeO and MnO, which strengthened the activation of percarbonate (PC) via electron transfer, hydroxy addition, and hydrogen abstraction through radical (HO•) and nonradical (O) oxidation mechanisms, thereby facilitating PAE catalytic degradation over SDB in real sediments, which clearly proved the efficacy of ferromanganese-bearing SDB and PC for the remediation of contaminated sediments. The cytotoxicity exhibited by human skin keratinocyte cells exposure to high SDB concentration (100-400 µg mL) for 24-48 h was low indicating insignificant cellular toxicity and oxidative damages. This study provides a new strategy for freshwater sludge treatment and reutilization, which enables a water-cycle-based circular economy and waste-to-resource recycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126922DOI Listing
August 2021

Corrigendum to 'Heterologous expression of bacterial CotA-laccase, characterization and its application for biodegradation of malachite green' [Bioresource Technology 340 (2021) Start page-End page/125708].

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 20;341:125792. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan ROC. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125792DOI Listing
August 2021

Heterologous expression of bacterial CotA-laccase, characterization and its application for biodegradation of malachite green.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Nov 3;340:125708. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Malachite green (MG) is used as fungicide/parasiticide in aquaculture, its persistence is detrimental as it exhibits carcinogenic effects to aquatic organisms. Bacterial laccase evaluated as the best enzyme at extreme condition for aquatic MG removal. Study aims to increase laccase concentration, CotA-laccase from Bacillus subtilis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Optimal catalysis for purified CotA-laccase were at pH 5.0, 60 °C, and 1 mM of (2,2-azino-di-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-sulphonate-(6)]) with Km and Kcat 0.087 mM and 37.64 S respectively. MG biodegradation by CotA-laccase in clam and tilapia pond wastewaters and cytotoxic effect of biodegraded products in grouper fin-1 cells were determined. MG degradation by CotA-laccase was equally efficient, exhibiting upto 90-94% decolorization at freshwater and saline conditions and treated solution was non-toxic to GF-1 cells. Thus, recombinant-CotA-laccase could be an environmentally-friendly enzyme for aquaculture to remove MG, thereby effective to reduce its accumulation in aquatic organisms and ensuring safe aquaculture products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125708DOI Listing
November 2021

A poly-(L-serine)/reduced graphene oxide-Nafion supported on glassy carbon (PLS/rGO-Nafion/GCE) electrode for the detection of naproxen in aqueous solutions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.

A new electrode was constructed via the anodic electropolymerization of poly-(L-serine) (PLS) on an rGO-Nafion-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the detection of the emerging organic contaminant naproxen (NPX). The morphology, crystal phase, and surface elements of the electrode were investigated with SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, ATR-FTIR, zeta potential, C-H-O, and XPS analyses. Results of the surface analysis showed a porous structure resembling graphene sheets inside the Nafion/GCE architecture. Various electrochemical parameters, including scan rate, pH, and NPX concentration, were studied to evaluate the performance of the electrode. The synergistic effect of PLS and rGO-Nafion greatly facilitated the catalytic oxidation of NPX on PLS/rGO-Nafion/GCE. Electrochemical NPX oxidation was a one-electron transfer and adsorption limited process. The optimal working potential was 0.92 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The oxidation current of NPX increased with the increase in the concentration of analyte and scan rate but decreased with pH. The modified electrode exhibited excellent linearity with respect to NPX concentration in the range of 4.3 to 87 μM and limit of detection of 0.23 μM (S/N = 3). The PLS/rGO-Nafion/GCE is a fast, sensitive, reliable, and economical electrode for the detection of NPX in water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15511-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood collected from coastal aquaculture ponds in Taiwan and human health risk assessment.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 21;421:126708. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The level and distribution of 16 USEPA Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in aquaculture farmed fish (Mugil cephalus and Oreochromis mossambicus) and shellfish (Corbicula fluminea Formosa and Meretrix lusoria) were determined in Taiwan and then assessed cancer and non-cancer risks for those consuming these kinds of seafood. Results indicated that C. fluminea Formosa accumulated the highest average concentration of total PAHs (43.0 ± 11.3 ng/g wet weight) while M. lusoria contained the lowest concentration (20.0 ± 5.8 ng/g) among all species. The low-molecular-weight PAHs were dominant for both fish and shellfish, which consistent with other studies. Notably, parts of high-molecular-weight PAHs were found in shellfish whereas that was little in fish. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of all PAHs were smaller than 1 and the incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) for Benzo[a]pyrene were below 1 × 10, suggesting that PAHs in the collected seafood could pose a low hazard to residents. Although the results indicated that the studied seafood is safe for human consumption, children and seniors post relatively higher risks, suggesting that it needs to continue monitoring and control the PAHs concentration in seafood and the associated environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126708DOI Listing
July 2021

The sorption of persistent organic pollutants in microplastics from the coastal environment.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 20;420:126658. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of Ocean Technology and Marine Affairs, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

Microplastic (MP) pellets were sampled from six sandy beaches around Taiwan in order to investigate the concentrations and compositions of POPs, including: PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, PBDEs, PCBs, PBBs, and their congeners. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs on the surface (C) of MP pellets from the six sampling sites were from 1.9 to 14.6 pg∙g, while the overall concentrations within MPs (C) were from 95.0 to 1110.6 pg∙g. As PCDD/Fs were adsorbed into the inner part of MPs, a ratio of the total concentrations to surficial concentration of MPs (C/C) was as high as 355.2 times. The C/C of other POPs were also significant, such as PBDEs being found up to 8068 times, which could be attributed to artificial addition during manufacturing processes as flame-retardant substances. Primary compositions of PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, and PBDEs on the MPs in our POP congener analysis were all found containing species with higher number of chlorine or bromine, which were adsorbed on the MP surface more easily due to their relative higher K.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126658DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of polyethylene microplastics on oxidative stress and histopathology damages in Litopenaeus vannamei.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 17;288:117800. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, 81157, Taiwan. Electronic address:

There has been a significant increase in the microplastic (MP) polluting the ocean in recent time which is regarded as toxic for living organisms. In this study, Fluorescent red polyethylene microspheres (FRPE) were administered intramuscularly to Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles at the concentration of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 μg (g shrimp), and the survival rate was recorded. Analysis of the hepatopancreas for antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression were done after seven days. Further tissue morphology and accumulation of FRPE was analysed. The results showed that FRPE at 0.5 and 1.0 μg (g shrimp) reduce the survival rate of L. vannamei. FRPE at 0.5 and 1.0 μg (g shrimp) reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; FRPE at different concentrations reduced catalase (CAT) activity; FRPE at 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 μg (g shrimp) increased the lipid peroxide thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) content. FRPE at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 μg (g shrimp) significantly affect the performance of SOD and CAT genes; FRPE at 0.2 and 0.5 μg (g shrimp) significantly improves GPx gene performance; FRPE at 1.0 μg (g shrimp) significantly reduced the expression of GPx genes. Analysis of tissue morphology shows that FRPE cause muscle, midgut gland, and hepatopancreas, and gill damage at different concentrations. In the results of accumulation of microplastic, FRPE accumulated in gill tissue at 0.2 and 0.5 μg (g shrimp); FRPE accumulated in gill, muscle and hepatopancreas tissue at 1.0 μg (g shrimp). Based on the above results, FRPE at 0.5 and 1.0 μg (g shrimp) can regulate the antioxidant enzymes of L. vannamei, increase lipid peroxide content, cause tissue damage by accumulating in the tissues. The rate of survival decreased in L. vannamei, and the impact of FRPE at 1.0 μg (g shrimp) was significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117800DOI Listing
July 2021

Remediation of contaminated dredged harbor sediments by combining hydrodynamic cavitation, hydrocyclone, and persulfate oxidation process.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 6;420:126594. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

A pilot-scale hybrid treatment system consisting of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), hydrocyclone separator (HS), and sodium persulfate (PS), was employed for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from dredged harbor sediments. The effectiveness of PAH degradation was studied by varying the inlet pressure (0-2.0 bar), PS dosage (or Σ[PAH] to [PS] mole ratio of 1:1-1:10) at HS inflow velocity of 2.85 m/s, slurry concentration of 10%, and reaction time of 60 min. The degradation rate of PAH in the overflow (OF) sediment was significantly lower than that of the underflow (UF) sediment. After an inlet pressure increase of 0.5 bar and ΣPAH: [PS] molar ratio of 1: 10, the PAH removal was 87% and 55% in the UF and OF, respectively, by the combined HC-PS-HS unit. Without PS, the PAHs removal was 46% and 40% in the UF and OF, respectively. The removal efficiency for 6-, 5-, 4-, 3-, and 2-ring PAHs was 100%, 93%, 93%, 92%, and 82% in the UF and 55%, 61%, 67%, 47%, and 36% in the OF by the combined HC-PS-HS system. FEEM spectroscopy clarified that aromatic protein-based components (tryptophan- and tyrosine-like combined) were gradually degraded and transformed into soluble microbial metabolites when organic matter content declined during the combined HC-PS-HS treatment. This study provides new insights into the combined HC-PS-HS system for PAH degradation in dredged sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126594DOI Listing
July 2021

Modifying thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes using various SiO nanoparticles for aquaculture wastewater recovery.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 18;281:130796. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, 80,778, Taiwan.

This paper describes the fabrication, modification, and evaluation of the performance of thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes for lab-scale aquaculture wastewater recovery using various fumed silica (SiO) nanoparticles. The active polyamide (PA) layers of these membranes were novelly modified using different types of pretreated SiO nanoparticles [virgin SiO, dried SiO, and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-modified SiO] and concentrations (0.05, 0,1, 0,2, and 0.4 wt%) to improve the membrane hydrophilicity with minimum particle agglomeration. Results show that the APTES-SiO modified membrane had the highest water flux and selectivity, followed by the dried-SiO modified membrane. The APTES coupling agent notably reduced the SiO aggregation on the membrane surface and improved membrane hydrophilicity. Consequently, high permeate flux and an acceptable reverse solute flux were observed. The optimal SiO concentration for PA modification was 0.1 wt% for all the nanoparticle types. The virgin and APTES-SiO modified membranes were used for aquaculture wastewater recovery. The water recovery rate reached 47% in 84 h when using the APTES-SiO modified membrane, while it reached only 26% in 108 h when using the virgin membrane. With a suitable design of the filtration apparatus and choice of draw solution (DS), the prepared novel TFC-FO membrane containing APTES-modified SiO can be used for recycling aquaculture wastewater into the DS, which can then be reused for other purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130796DOI Listing
October 2021

Degradation of organic contaminants in marine sediments by peroxymonosulfate over LaFeO nanoparticles supported on water caltrop shell-derived biochar and the associated microbial community responses.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 3;420:126553. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Sediment is an important final repository of persistent organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, a novel catalyst of LaFeO nanoparticles supported on biochar was synthesized from water caltrop shell by chemical precipitation. The composite (LFBC) was used as peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activator to oxidize PAHs in real marine sediments. Systematic surface characterization confirmed the immobilization of well crystalline nano LaFeO particles onto the biochar surface. Under optimal conditions, i.e., [PMS] = 3 × 10 M, [LFBC] = 0.75 g/L, pH 6.0, and seawater, the total PAH degradation efficiency was 90%, while that of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-ring PAHs was 52%, 61%, 66%, 56%, and 29%, respectively, in 24 h. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation better predicted the PAHs degradation kinetics over LFBC by PMS. Interactions between surface oxygen species at LaFeO defective sites and the graphitized biochar network facilitated the PAHs degradation. Furthermore, changes in the bacterial community during the LFBC/PMS treatment were highlighted to assess the sustainable development of the sediment ecosystem. The LFBC/PMS process enhanced the biological richness and diversity of sediment eco-systems. The major phylum was Proteobacteria initially, while Hyphomonas was the genera after LFBC/PMS treatment of the sediment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126553DOI Listing
July 2021

Novel application of microalgae platform for biodesalination process: A review.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 29;337:125343. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City 81157 Taiwan. Electronic address:

Freshwater demand is rising worldwide due to largely increasing population and industrialization. Latest focus is to explore the Ocean and saline effluent from industries to produce freshwater in a sustainable way via algal desalination. Current physicochemical desalination technology is not only an energy-intensive and expensive process but also gives severe environmental impact from brine and GHGs emissions. Therefore, it is neither environmentally-friendly nor feasible to countries with limited resources. Biodesalination could be an attractive technology with recent breakthroughs in algal bioprocess with fast growth rate under highly saline conditions to effectively remove salts optimally 50-67% from saline water. Algal desalination mainly occurs through biosorption and bioaccumulation which governs by biotic and abiotic factors e.g., strain, temperature, pH, light and nutrients etc. This review provides a current scenario of this novel technology by an in-depth assessment of technological advancement, social impact, possible risks and scope for policy implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125343DOI Listing
October 2021

Emerging prospects of macro- and microalgae as prebiotic.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Jun 5;20(1):112. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, 81157, Taiwan.

Macro- and microalgae-based foods are becoming popular due to their high nutritious value. The algal biomass is enriched with polysaccharides, protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins and minerals. However, the most promising fraction is polysaccharides (PS) or their derivatives (as dietary fibers) which are not entirely fermented by colonic bacteria hence act as potential prebiotic. Primarily, algae become famous as prominent protein sources. Recently, these are widely adopted as functional food (e.g., desserts, dairy products, oil-derivatives, pastas etc.) or animal feed (for poultry, cattle, fish etc.). Besides prebiotic and balanced amino acids source, algae derived compounds implied as therapeutics due to comprising bioactive properties to elicit immunomodulatory, antioxidative, anticancerous, anticoagulant, hepato-protective, and antihypertensive responses. Despite the above potentials, broader research determinations are inevitable to explore these algal compounds until microalgae become a business reality for broader and specific applications in all health domains. However, scale up of algal bioprocess remains a major challenge until commercial affordability is accomplished which can be possible by discovering their hidden potentials and increasing their value and application prospects. This review provides an overview of the significance of algae consumption for several health benefits in humans and animals mainly as prebiotics, however their functional food and animal feed potential are briefly covered. Moreover, their potential to develop an algal-based food industry to meet the people's requirements not only as a sustainable food solution with several health benefits but also as therapeutics is inevitable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01601-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180151PMC
June 2021

Adsorption characteristics of tetracycline onto particulate polyethylene in dilute aqueous solutions.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 21;285:117398. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, 81157, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The presence of ultrafine plastics particles and its potential to concentrate and transport organic contaminants in aquatic environments have become a major concern in recent years. Specifically, the uptake of hazardous chemicals by plastics particles may affect the distribution and bioavailability of the chemicals. In this study, the adsorption of tetracycline (TC), an antibiotic frequently found in aquatic environments, on high-density polyethylene (PE) particles with the average size of 45 μm, was investigated. The PE particles were characterized for surface acidity for the first time. Results showed that pH controls the surface charge of PE particles. TC adsorption onto PE particles was rapid as expected following the pseudo-second-order rate law (r > 0.99). Polar forces in addition to specific chemical interactions, such as hydrogen bonding and hydrophophilicity controlled TC adsorption onto PE particles. Parameters, including pH, dissolved organic matter, ionic strength, major cations and anions affected TC adsorption onto PE micro-particles. Results indicated that PE particles can function as a carrier of antibiotics in the aquatic environment, which potentially imposes ecosystem and human health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117398DOI Listing
September 2021

Role and significance of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) in lignocellulose deconstruction.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Sep 10;335:125261. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) emerged a decade ago and have been described as biomass deconstruction boosters as they play an extremely important role in unravelling the enzymatic biomass hydrolysis scheme. These are oxidative enzymes requiring partners to donate electrons during catalytic action on cellulose backbone. Commercial cellulase preparations are mostly from the robust fungal sources, hence LPMOs from fungi (AA9) have been discussed. Characterisation of LPMOs suffers due to multiple complications which has been discussed and challenges in detection of LPMOs in secretomes has also been highlighted. This review focuses on the significance of LPMOs on biomass hydrolysis due to which it has become a key component of cellulolytic cocktail available commercially for biomass deconstruction and its routine analysis challenge has also been discussed. It has also outlined a few key points that help in expressing catalytic active recombinant AA9 LPMOs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125261DOI Listing
September 2021

Hydrodynamic cavitation activation of persulfate for the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments.

Environ Pollut 2021 Oct 28;286:117245. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) coupled with persulfate (PS)-based that resulted in the synergistic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated marine sediments. The effects of HC injection pressure and Σ[PAH]: [PS] on the rate and extent of PAH degradation were studied in the pressure range of 0.5-2.0 bar, PS concentration rage of 2 × 10 to 2 × 10 M or Σ[PAH]: [PS] of 1:10-1000, and reaction time of 20-60 min. A pseudo-first-order rate law fitted PAHs removal kinetics well. The degradation rate constant increased with injection pressure, reaching the maximum level at 0.5 bar, then decreased at injection pressure became greater than 0.5 bar. The results showed that PAH removal was 84% by the combined HC and PS process, whereas, HC alone only achieved a 43% removal of PAHs in marine sediments under the optimal inlet pressure of 0.5 bar at PS concentration of 2 × 10 M in 60 min. The HC‒PS system effectively removed PH, PY, FLU, BaA, and CH at 91, 99, 91, 84, and 90%, respectively. The maximum removal of 6-, 5-, 4-, 3-, and 2-ring PAHs was 89, 87, 84, 76, and 34%, respectively. Major reactive oxygen species (ROSs), namely, SO and HO•, were responsible for PAHs degradation. Results clearly highlighted the feasibility of HC-PS system for the clean-up of PAHs-laden sediments in particular and other recalcitrant organic contaminants in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117245DOI Listing
October 2021

Seasonal variation of diversity, weathering, and inventory of microplastics in coast and harbor sediments.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 26;781:146610. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Spatiotemporal variations in the abundance of microplastics (MPs) in surface sediments along the southwestern coast of Taiwan (including harbor and coastal regions) were investigated and the diversity, degree of weathering, and inventory of MPs in the sediments further quantified. The spatiotemporal variations of MP characteristics were used to assess possible transport routes of MPs. Results indicated that the average MP abundance in the partially-enclosed harbor region was 79.3 MPs in 1 kg dry sediment (item/kg dw), which was 3-5 times higher than that in the coastal region. Average MP abundance during the dry season (36.5 ± 52.2 item/kg dw) was relatively higher than that during the wet season (22.3 ± 23.2 item/kg dw). The dominant MPs were small (0.1-1.0 mm, 90%), colored (62.3%), and consisted mainly of fibers (54.1%) and fragments (40.5%). Analysis by μFTIR revealed the presence of ten types of polymers in the MPs, with the most abundant being polypropylene (35.1%), rayon (33.2%), and polystyrene (10.0%). Values of the microplastic diversity integrated index (MPDII) indicated that MP diversity was greater in the harbor region (MPDII = 0.62) than in the coastal region (MPDII = 0.51-0.54), and greater during the wet season (MPDII = 0.60) than during the dry season (MPDII = 0.50). As indicated by values of the MP carbonyl index (CI), the MPs exhibited a high degree of oxidation (CI >0.31) that appeared unrelated to spatiotemporal variations. In the dry season, MP inventory was 12.2 tons and the wet season inventory was 8.1 tons. The hydrodynamic forces may be an influenced force for the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of the MPs in surface sediments. MPs could accumulate in the surface sediments during the dry season and resuspend in the wet season with the higher rainfall and then migrate towards the deep sea following the water flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146610DOI Listing
August 2021

Adsorption of copper (II) in aqueous solution using biochars derived from Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed.

Bioresour Technol 2021 May 12;328:124829. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City 81157, Taiwan. Electronic address:

There has been growing research interest in exploiting biochar for cost-effective. removal of different pollutants. Heavy metals, especially copper II (Cu II) is highly toxic and nonbiodegradable pollutants, and has been major source of environmental pollution. In this study adsorption of Cu (II) on seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum)-derived biochar was systematically examined. The removal efficiency based on surface property of biochar and type of interactions associated with biochar produced at varying pyrolysis conditions were investigated. The highest removal efficiency of Cu (II) from aqueous media was >99% with 223 mg g Cu (II) adsorption capacity observed by biochar derived at 700 °C and pH 5. Langmuir adsorption isotherm described the adsorption mechanisms of Cu (II) on biochar with cationic and anionic electrostatic attractions, surface precipitation, and pore depositions. Thus, this study shows that waste biomass (seaweed) could be a valuable bioresource for heavy metal remediation from various water bodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124829DOI Listing
May 2021

Distribution and environmental risk assessment of trace metals in sludge from multiple sources in Taiwan.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2021 22;56(4):481-491. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

This study evaluated the level of the contaminant of the heavy metals in sludge from different sources and the ecological risk criteria associated with it was also analyzed to establish its reuse in agriculture. The sludge samples were collected from the water plant (WTP), wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and industrial water treatment plant (IPT) in Taiwan. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure the trace metals in sludge. The pollution level and ecological risk criteria for heavy metals in sludge were also used to evaluate its reuse in agriculture. The result shows the average concentrations of trace metals in sludge for three groups (WTP, WWTP, and ITP). Significant correlations were found between concentrations of Zn-Ag ( < 0.001). The higher values of I showed in ITP, indicated Hg to be a major pollutant. In Taiwan, the regulations did not establish the reuse of sludge in agriculture. However, the concentration level of trace metals in sludge was particularly lower than the regular levels in most groups, like WTP and WWTP groups. The industrial sludge was not recommended for the use in agriculture. The results of this study can be used for regular monitoring to establish a reference for sludge management and application to agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2021.1887687DOI Listing
June 2021

Life time enhanced Fenton-like catalyst by dispersing iron oxides in activated carbon: Preparation and reactivation through carbothermal reaction.

J Hazard Mater 2021 03 8;406:124791. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst prepared by dispersing iron oxides in activated carbon ([email protected]) has frequently been assembled for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). An intriguing but barely emphasized property of [email protected] is that it can be easily reactivated through a simple carbothermal reaction. Importantly, by this manner the life time of [email protected] could be effectively enhanced. We herein reported the synthesis of [email protected] hydrothermally with assistance of several commercially available surfactants and their performance in degrading real dye wastewater were evaluated. In general, as-synthesized [email protected] were noted to equip high Fe content. Deposited FeOx reduced the fraction of micropores but simultaneously introduced additional mesopores and macropores. Elevated magnetite content was observed in [email protected] equipped with high fraction of micropore and mesopore and macropore but fast dye degradation occurred at [email protected] possessing low fraction of micropore along with low mesopores and macropores. Reactivation via carbothermal reaction redistributed the deposited FeOx by increasing micropores while decreasing mesopores and macropores. Importantly, well dispersed FeOx synthesized with the assistance of surfactants exhibited high resistance to the corrosion in the degradation process. For the perspective of circular economy, deep understanding the material chemistry of [email protected] would be of particularly interest for further enhancing its life time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124791DOI Listing
March 2021

Profile and consumption risk assessment of trace elements in megamouth sharks (Megachasma pelagios) captured from the Pacific Ocean to the east of Taiwan.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 26;269:116161. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, 81157, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Focusing on 27 rare filter-feeding megamouth sharks (Megachasma pelagios) captured as a by-catch of drift gillnet fishery in the Pacific Ocean to the east of Taiwan, this study analyzes the concentrations of 24 elements in their muscle, discusses the bioaccumulation of each element and the correlation between different elements, and assesses the potential health risks of consuming megamouth shark muscle. Among the 24 elements, mean concentrations of Ga, Ag, Li, Bi, Hg, Co, and Cd were relatively low ranging from 10 to 10 mg/kg, those of Pb, Ba, Mn, Ni, As, Cr, B, Sr, Cu, and Zn ranged from 10-10 mg/kg, and those of Fe, Ca, Al, K, Mg, Ti, and Na were relatively high ranging from 10 to 10 mg/kg. The toxic element content index was most significantly correlated with the concentration of Cu. Hence, this study recommends that the concentration of Cu could be used as an indicator of metal accumulation in megamouth shark muscle. The log bioconcentration factor (BCF) ranged from less than 0 to 7.85 in shark muscle. For elements with a concentration of less than 100 μg/L in seawater, the log BCF was inversely proportional to their concentration in seawater. According to the correlation analysis, the accumulation of elements in muscle of megamouth sharks is primarily affected by the concentrations of dissolved elements in seawater, except that the accumulation of Hg, As, Cu, Ti, Al, and Fe appears to be mainly affected by feeding behaviors. The assessment of the health risk of consuming megamouth shark muscle showed that its total hazard index was greater than 1. This suggests that the long-term or high-frequency consumption of megamouth shark muscle may cause health hazards due to the accumulation of trace elements, particularly those with a large contribution of health risk, including As, Hg, and Cu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116161DOI Listing
January 2021

Effects of biochar on catalysis treatment of 4-nonylphenol in estuarine sediment and associated microbial community structure.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 17;268(Pt B):115673. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge biochar (SSB) and the removal of hazardous chemicals from esturine sediments by SSB and sodium percarbonate (SPC), exemplified by 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) were studied. SSB synthesized at 500 °C (SSB500) achieved the highest 4-NP degradation efficiency of 73%, at pH 9.0 in 12 h of reaction time. The enhanced 4-NP degradation was attributed to the SSB500 activation activation of SPC that produced sufficient •OH and CO due to electron-transfer interaction on the Fe-Mn redox pairs. The microbial community diversity and composition of the treated sediment were compared using high-throughput sequencing. Results showed SSB/SPC treatment increased the microbial diversity and richness in the sediments. Proteobacteria were the keystone phylum, while Thioalkalispira genera were responsible for 4-NP degradation in the SSB/SPC treatment. Over all, results revealed the change in the bacterial community during the environmental applications of SSB, which provided essential information for better understanding of the monitoring and improvement of sustainable sediment ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115673DOI Listing
January 2021

Biochar derived from red algae for efficient remediation of 4-nonylphenol from marine sediments.

Chemosphere 2020 Sep 29;254:126916. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP), a phenolic endocrine disruptor chemical (EDC), is known to have high toxicity to aquatic organisms and humans. The remediation of 4-NP-contaminated marine sediments was studied using red algae-based biochar (RAB) thermochemically synthesized from Agardhiella subulata with simple pyrolysis process under different temperatures of 300-900 °C in CO atmosphere. The RAB was characterized by XRD, Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements. The calcium in RAB efficiently activated sodium percarbonate (SPC) to generate reactive radicals for the catalytic degradation of 4-NP at pH 9.0. The oxygen-containing functional groups reacted with HO, which increased the generation of reactive radicals under alkaline pH condition. Ca ion was the active species responsible for 4-NP degradation. CaO/CaCO on RAB surface enhanced direct electron transfer, increased HO production, and 4-NP degradation in marine sediments. Langmuir‒Hinshelwood type kinetics well described the 4-NP degradation process. Remediation of contaminated sediments using RAB could be a sustainable approach toward closed-loop biomass cycling in the degradation of 4-NP contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126916DOI Listing
September 2020

Preparation of vaterite calcium carbonate granules from discarded oyster shells as an adsorbent for heavy metal ions removal.

Chemosphere 2020 Sep 29;254:126903. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Rd., Kaohsiung, 80424, Taiwan; Regenerative Medicine and Cell Therapy Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Rd., Kaohsiung, 80708, Taiwan; School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Rd., Kaohsiung, 80708, Taiwan. Electronic address:

We used discarded oyster shells to prepare vaterite calcium carbonate microparticles and explored the removal effects and the underlying mechanism toward several heavy metal ions. The removal efficiency for each ion type was: Pb (99.9%), Cr (99.5%), Fe (99.3%), and Cu (57.1%). With the exception of Cu, vaterite calcium carbonate particles exhibited excellent removal performance on all tested heavy metal ions, with exceptional results for Pb. The factor affecting the removal efficiency of heavy metal ions is shown to involve an ion exchange reaction between calcium and the heavy metal ions resulting in recrystallization. Vaterite calcium carbonate particles prepared by this method have the advantage of low price, easy synthesis, and reduction of environmental waste. Thus, this procedure for synthesizing vaterite CaCO provides an environmentally responsible method for preparing materials that can be economically incorporated into common consumer products such as household drinking water filtration systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126903DOI Listing
September 2020

Activation of percarbonate by water treatment sludge-derived biochar for the remediation of PAH-contaminated sediments.

Environ Pollut 2020 Oct 27;265(Pt B):114914. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Sludge from a groundwater treatment plant was used to prepare biochar by pyrolysis. The Fe-Mn rich biochar was used to activate percarbonate for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated aquatic sediments. Results showed that the sludge-derived biochar (SBC) produced at a pyrolysis temperature of 700 °C was the most effective in activating percarbonate, which exhibited significant oxidative removal of PAHs. PAHs degradation took place via a Fenton-like oxidation manners, contributed from the Fe/Fe and Mn/Mn redox pairs, and achieved the highest degradation efficiency of 87% at pH 6.0. Reactions between oxygenated functional groups of biochar and HO generated of O and HO• radicals in abundance under neutral and alkaline pH was responsible for the catalytic degradation of PAHs. Our results provided new insights into the environmental applications of SBC for the green sustainable remediation of organics-contaminated sediments and aided in reduction of associated environmental and health risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114914DOI Listing
October 2020

CoO-3D ordered mesoporous carbon nitride ([email protected]) composite as peroxymonosulfate activator for the degradation of sulfamethoxazole in water.

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 26;401:123326. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

A facile impregnation method was used to fabricate a hybrid CoO-3D ordered mesoporous carbon nitride ([email protected]) catalyst that effectively activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the degradation of pharmaceutical chemical, exemplified by antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in aqueous solutions. The [email protected]/PMS system exhibited high catalytic reactivity and SMX removal efficiency over a wide pH range with an observed rate constant (k) of 0.314 min. Furthermore, [email protected] was stable with consistently high degree of SMX degradation without having cobalt dissolution and loss of catalytic activity for at least five consecutive cycles. The significant catalysis performance of [email protected] was due to its uniformly distributed mesopores, large specific surface area, and high electron transfer ability at the active CoO sites. Both quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis verified the yield, in abundance, of highly active species, specifically SO and OH from the [email protected] activation of PMS, primarily. Hence, SMX degradation followed a radical chain reaction mechanism. The result of this study revealed a novel prospective of [email protected] composite as PMS activator for the remediation of recalcitrant pollutants in water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123326DOI Listing
January 2021

Detecting phthalate esters in sludge particulates from wastewater treatment plants.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2020 17;55(10):1233-1240. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

This study proposed a method for analysis of 10 phthalate esters compounds from wastewater treatment plant sludges. The analytical efficiency of GC-MS for of target compounds was verified by a standard mixture of phthalate esters. The response factors related to the respective internal standards from a five-point calibration curve quantified the phthalate esters in individual compounds. Based on the literature compiled by environmental agencies, new generation phthalate compounds have been developed, such as di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP), as alternative to conventional phthalates. The analytical results showed that the total PAEs concentration was in the range from 7.4 to 138.6 mg kg dw in these seven analyzed sludge samples. More, di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) contributed to over 99% of PAEs in the sludge. The correlation between total PAEs concentration in household and sewage flow treated at seven WWTPs and concentrations of DEHP, DiNP and DiDP was significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2020.1780850DOI Listing
September 2020
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