Publications by authors named "Chinedum Peace Babalola"

9 Publications

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Whole-genome analysis of Nigerian patients with breast cancer reveals ethnic-driven somatic evolution and distinct genomic subtypes.

Nat Commun 2021 11 26;12(1):6946. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Center for Clinical Cancer Genetics and Global Health, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Black women across the African diaspora experience more aggressive breast cancer with higher mortality rates than white women of European ancestry. Although inter-ethnic germline variation is known, differential somatic evolution has not been investigated in detail. Analysis of deep whole genomes of 97 breast cancers, with RNA-seq in a subset, from women in Nigeria in comparison with The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 76) reveal a higher rate of genomic instability and increased intra-tumoral heterogeneity as well as a unique genomic subtype defined by early clonal GATA3 mutations with a 10.5-year younger age at diagnosis. We also find non-coding mutations in bona fide drivers (ZNF217 and SYPL1) and a previously unreported INDEL signature strongly associated with African ancestry proportion, underscoring the need to expand inclusion of diverse populations in biomedical research. Finally, we demonstrate that characterizing tumors for homologous recombination deficiency has significant clinical relevance in stratifying patients for potentially life-saving therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27079-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8626467PMC
November 2021

Corrigendum: Therapeutic Potentials of Antiviral Plants Used in Traditional African Medicine With COVID-19 in Focus: A Nigerian Perspective.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:721060. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.596855.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.721060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330406PMC
July 2021

Therapeutic Potentials of Antiviral Plants Used in Traditional African Medicine With COVID-19 in Focus: A Nigerian Perspective.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:596855. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by an infectious novel strain of coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which was earlier referred to as 2019-nCoV. The respiratory disease is the most consequential global public health crisis of the 21st century whose level of negative impact increasingly experienced globally has not been recorded since World War II. Up till now, there has been no specific globally authorized antiviral drug, vaccines, supplement or herbal remedy available for the treatment of this lethal disease except preventive measures, supportive care and non-specific treatment options adopted in different countries via divergent approaches to halt the pandemic. However, many of these interventions have been documented to show some level of success particularly the Traditional Chinese Medicine while there is paucity of well reported studies on the impact of the widely embraced Traditional African Medicines (TAM) adopted so far for the prevention, management and treatment of COVID-19. We carried out a detailed review of publicly available data, information and claims on the potentials of indigenous plants used in Sub-Saharan Africa as antiviral remedies with potentials for the prevention and management of COVID-19. In this review, we have provided a holistic report on evidence-based antiviral and promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties of African medicinal plants based on evidence, and experiments alongside the available data on their mechanistic pharmacology. In addition, we have unveiled knowledge gaps, provided an update on the effort of African Scientific community toward demystifying the dreadful SARS-CoV-2 micro-enemy of man and have documented popular anti-COVID-19 herbal claims emanating from the continent for the management of COVID-19 while the risk potentials of herb-drug interaction of antiviral phytomedicines when used in combination with orthodox drugs have also been highlighted. This review exercise may lend enough credence to the potential value of African medicinal plants as possible leads in anti-COVID-19 drug discovery through research and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.596855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108136PMC
April 2021

Herbal supplement (Combi-5) in the management of COVID 19 individual with mild to moderate symptoms: a case report.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 10;18(4):865-867. Epub 2021 May 10.

Plateau State Specialist Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Objective: To explore repurposing known natural products for managing patients with mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19.

Case Presentation: We present a case report of a middle aged woman, who was positive to COVID 19, with mild to moderate symptoms; who self -managed at home using well formulated herbal supplement (Combi-5) taken along with vitamin C and Zinc supplements. She recovered within a short time.

Conclusions: While we may not conclude from this report that Combi-5 was solely responsible for the recovery of the patient, we strongly believe that it played significant role through different mechanisms in facilitating early recovery from the infection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the phytochemical and pharmacological constituents of the supplement; investigate its direct effect(s) on SARS CoV-2 and conduct randomized controlled trial to elucidate its clinical benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2020-0430DOI Listing
May 2021

COVID-19 preparedness: capacity to manufacture vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics in sub-Saharan Africa.

Global Health 2021 03 3;17(1):24. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

, COVID-19 Think Tank, Nigeria.

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic is a biosecurity threat, and many resource-rich countries are stockpiling and/or making plans to secure supplies of vaccine, therapeutics, and diagnostics for their citizens. We review the products that are being investigated for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19; discuss the challenges that countries in sub-Saharan Africa may face with access to COVID-19 vaccine, therapeutics, and diagnostics due to the limited capacity to manufacture them in Africa; and make recommendations on actions to mitigate these challenges and ensure health security in sub-Saharan Africa during this unprecedented pandemic and future public-health crises.

Main Body: Sub-Saharan Africa will not be self-reliant for COVID-19 vaccines when they are developed. It can, however, take advantage of existing initiatives aimed at supporting COVID-19 vaccine access to resource-limited settings such as partnership with AstraZeneca, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness and Innovation, the Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunisation, the Serum Institute of India, and the World Health Organization's COVID-19 Technology Access Pool. Accessing effective COVID-19 therapeutics will also be a major challenge for countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as production of therapeutics is frequently geared towards profitable Western markets and is ill-adapted to sub-Saharan Africa realities. The region can benefit from pooled procurement of COVID-19 therapy by the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the African Union. If the use of convalescent plasma for the treatment of patients who are severely ill is found to be effective, access to the product will be minimally challenging since the region has a pool of recovered patients and human resources that can man supportive laboratories. The region also needs to drive the local development of rapid-test kits and other diagnostics for COVID-19.

Conclusion: Access to vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics for COVID-19 will be a challenge for sub-Saharan Africans. This challenge should be confronted by collaborating with vaccine developers; pooled procurement of COVID-19 therapeutics; and local development of testing and diagnostic materials. The COVID-19 pandemic should be a wake-up call for sub-Saharan Africa to build vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics manufacturing capacity as one of the resources needed to address public-health crises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-021-00668-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927760PMC
March 2021

Considerations for stakeholder engagement and COVID-19 related clinical trials' conduct in sub-Saharan Africa.

Dev World Bioeth 2021 Mar 15;21(1):44-50. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

The aim of this study is to determine how stakeholder engagement can be adapted for the conduct of COVID-19-related clinical trials in sub-Saharan Africa. Nine essential stakeholder engagement practices were reviewed: formative research; stakeholder engagement plan; communications and issues management plan; protocol development; informed consent process; standard of prevention for vaccine research and standard of care for treatment research; policies on trial-related physical, psychological, financial, and/or social harms; trial accrual, follow-up, exit trial closure and results dissemination; and post-trial access to trial products or procedures. The norms, values, and practices of collectivist societies in Sub-Saharan Africa and the low research literacy pose challenges to the conduct of clinical trials. Civil-society organizations, members of community advisory boards and ethics committees, young persons, COVID-19 survivors, researchers, government, and the private sector are assets for the implementation and translation of COVID-19 related clinical trials. Adapting ethics guidelines to the socio-cultural context of the region can facilitate achieving the aim of stakeholder engagement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dewb.12283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461519PMC
March 2021

Implementing oncology clinical trials in Nigeria: a model for capacity building.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Aug 3;20(1):713. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Section of Hematology Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, USA.

Background: There is both higher mortality and morbidity from cancer in low and medium income countries (LMICs) compared with high income countries (HICs). Clinical trial activities and development of more effective and less toxic therapies have led to significant improvements in morbidity and mortality from cancer in HICs. Unfortunately, clinical trials remain low in LMICs due to poor infrastructure and paucity of experienced personnel to execute clinical trials. There is an urgent need to build local capacity for evidence-based treatment for cancer patients in LMICs.

Methods: We conducted a survey at facilities in four Teaching Hospitals in South West Nigeria using a checklist of information on various aspects of clinical trial activities. The gaps identified were addressed using resources sourced in partnership with investigators at HIC institutions.

Results: Deficits in infrastructure were in areas of patient care such as availability of oncology pharmacists, standard laboratories and diagnostic facilities, clinical equipment maintenance and regular calibrations, trained personnel for clinical trial activities, investigational products handling and disposals and lack of standard operating procedures for clinical activities. There were two GCP trained personnel, two study coordinators and one research pharmacist across the four sites. Interventions were instituted to address the observed deficits in all four sites which are now well positioned to undertake clinical trials in oncology. Training on all aspects of clinical trial was also provided.

Conclusions: Partnerships with institutions in HICs can successfully identify, address, and improve deficits in infrastructure for clinical trial in LMICs. The HICs should lead in providing funds, mentorship, and training for LMIC institutions to improve and expand clinical trials in LMIC countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05561-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7397583PMC
August 2020

Causes and remedies for low research productivity among postgraduate scholars and early career researchers on non-communicable diseases in Nigeria.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Jul 15;12(1):403. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Objective: The aim of the descriptive, cross sectional, questionnaire-based study reported here was to explore the causes of low productivity in non-communicable diseases research among postgraduate scholars and early career researchers in Nigeria and identify measures that could facilitate increased research output.

Results: The 89 respondents were masters-level, doctoral scholars and resident doctors who attended a workshop. Majorities of the respondents (over 70%) either agreed or strongly agreed that factors contributing to poor non-communicable diseases research productivity include a dearth of in-country researchers with specialized skills, inability of Nigerian researchers to work in multidisciplinary teams, poor funding for health research, sub-optimal infrastructural facilities, and limited use of research findings by policy makers. Almost all the respondents (over 90%) agreed that potential strategies to facilitate non-communicable diseases research output would include increased funding for research, institutionalization of a sustainable, structured capacity building program for early career researchers, establishment of Regional Centers for Research Excellence, and increased use of research evidence to guide government policy actions and programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4458-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6628473PMC
July 2019

Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Other Factors Influencing CNS Penetration of Antiretrovirals.

AIDS Res Treat 2016 29;2016:2587094. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Center for Global Health, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 645 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 900, Chicago, IL, USA.

Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow. In this review, we provide an overview of the various factors influencing CNS penetration of ARV drugs with an emphasis on those commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. We also summarize some key associations between ARV drug penetration, CNS efficacy, and neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2587094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5061948PMC
September 2016
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