Publications by authors named "Chin-Hee Song"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-related Factor 2 Knockout Suppresses the Development of Aggressive Colorectal Cancer Formation Induced by Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treatment in Female Mice.

J Cancer Prev 2021 Mar;26(1):41-53

Laboratory of Immunology, Division of Biotechnology Review and Research-III, Office of Biotechnology Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Colon tumors develop more frequently in male than in female. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays differential roles in the stage of tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 on colitis-associated tumorigenesis using Nrf2 knockout (KO) female mice. Azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 KO female mice were sacrificed at week 2 and 16 after AOM injection. Severity of colitis, tumor incidence, and levels of inflammatory mediators were evaluated in AOM/DSS-treated WT and Nrf2 KO mice. Furthermore, qRT-PCR, Western blot abnalysis, and ELISA were performed in colon tissues. At week 2, AOM/DSS-induced colon tissue damages were significantly greater in Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. At week 16, tumor numbers (> 2 mm size) were significantly lower in both the proximal and distal colon in Nrf2 KO compared to WT. The overall incidences of adenoma/cancer of the proximal colon and submucosal invasive cancer of the distal colon were reduced by Nrf2 KO. The mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB-related mediators (i.e., iNOS and COX-2) and Nrf2-related antioxidants (i.e., heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit) were significantly lower in the Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. Interestingly, the protein level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) was higher in AOM/DSS-treated Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. Our results support the oncogenic effect of Nrf2 in the later stage of carcinogenesis and upregulation of tumor suppressor 15-PGDH might contribute to the repression of colitis-associated tumorigenesis in Nrf2 KO female mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15430/JCP.2021.26.1.41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020176PMC
March 2021

A new compound targets the AF-1 of androgen receptor and decreases its activity and protein levels in prostate cancer cells.

Am J Cancer Res 2020 1;10(12):4607-4623. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University Gwangju, Korea.

Increased expression levels of constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs) cause alterations in AR signaling, resulting in drug resistance and failed hormone therapy among patients with advanced prostate cancers. Several available compounds targeting the androgen axis and AR signaling have not demonstrated efficacy in preventing prostate cancer recurrence. Here, we investigated whether a new agent, 6-[6-ethoxy-5-ispropoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2[1H)-yl]-N-[6-methylpyridin-2-yl]nicotinamide (EIQPN), has the potential for treating advanced prostate cancer. EIQPN interacted with the AR-activation fragment-1 (AF-1) domain and blocked its androgen-independent activity, robustly decreased the protein levels of AR and variants in prostate cancer cells by inducing AR protein degradation, and inhibited the androgen-independent proliferation of various AR-positive prostate cancer cells. In xenograft mouse models, EIQPN blocked the tumor growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings indicate that EIQPN could serve as a novel therapeutic agent for advanced recurrent prostate cancers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783748PMC
December 2020

Changes in Cecal Microbiota and Short-chain Fatty Acid During Lifespan of the Rat.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Jan;27(1):134-146

Department of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: The gut microbiota regulates intestinal immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Multiple factors affect the gut microbiota, including age, sex, diet, and use of drugs. In addition, information on gut microbiota differs depending on the samples. The aim of this study is to investigate whether changes in cecal microbiota depend on aging.

Methods: Gut microbiota in cecal contents of 6-, 31-, and 74-week-old and 2-year-old male Fischer-344 rats (corresponding to 5-, 30-, 60-, and 80-year-old humans in terms of age) were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA metagenome sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology. Moreover, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level in cecum and inflammation related factors were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Alpha and beta diversity did not change significantly with age. At the family level, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, which produce SCFAs, showed significant change in 31-week-old rats: Lachnospiraceae significantly increased at 31 weeks of age, compared to other age groups, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. Butyrate levels in cecum were significantly increased in 31-week-old rats, and the expression of inflammation related genes was increased followed aging. Especially, EU622775_s and EU622773_s, which were highly abundance species in 31-week-old rats, showed significant relationship with butyrate concentration. Enzymes required for producing butyrate-acetyl-CoA transferase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, and butyrate kinase-were not predicted by PICRUSt.

Conclusions: Major bacterial taxa in the cecal lumen, such as Lachnospiraceae, well-known SCFAs-producing family, changed in 31-week-old rats. Moreover, unknown species EU622775_s and EU622773_s showed strong association with cecal butyrate level at 31 weeks of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5056/jnm20148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786083PMC
January 2021

17β-Estradiol strongly inhibits azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colorectal cancer development in Nrf2 knockout male mice.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 12 15;182:114279. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University College of Pharmacy, Seoul, South Korea.

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has dual effects on inflammation and cancer progression depending on the microenvironment. Estrogens have a protective effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) development. The aim of this study was to investigate CRC development in Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice. Azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 KO male mice were sacrificed at weeks 2 and 16 after AOM injection with/without 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment during week 1. Disease activity index and colon tissue damage at week 2 showed strong attenuation following E2 administration in WT mice but to a lesser extent in Nrf2 KO male mice. At week 16, E2 significantly diminished AOM/DSS-induced adenoma/cancer incidence at distal colon in the Nrf2 KO group, but not in the WT. Furthermore, mRNA or protein levels of NF-κB-related mediators (i.e., iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-1β) and Nrf2-related antioxidants (i.e., NQO1 and HO-1) were significantly lower in the Nrf2 KO group regardless of E2 treatment compared to the WT. The expression of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) was higher in the Nrf2 KO group than in the WT. In conclusion, estrogen further inhibits CRC by upregulating ERβ-related alternate pathways in the absence of Nrf2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114279DOI Listing
December 2020

17β-Estradiol supplementation changes gut microbiota diversity in intact and colorectal cancer-induced ICR male mice.

Sci Rep 2020 07 23;10(1):12283. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University College of Pharmacy, Seoul, South Korea.

The composition of the gut microbiota is influenced by sex hormones and colorectal cancer (CRC). Previously, we reported that 17β-estradiol (E2) inhibits azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced tumorigenesis in male mice. Here, we investigated whether the composition of the gut microbiota is different between male and female, and is regulated by estrogen as a secondary outcome of previous studies. We established four groups of mice based on the sex and estrogen status [ovariectomized (OVX) female and E2-treated male]. Additionally, three groups of males were established by treating them with AOM/DSS, and E2, after subjecting them to AOM/DSS treatment. The mice were sacrificed at 21 weeks old. The composition of the gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA metagenomics sequencing. We observed a significant increase in the microbial diversity (Chao1 index) in females, males supplemented with E2, and males treated with AOM/DSS/E2 compared with normal males. In normal physiological condition, sex difference and E2 treatment did not affect the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B). However, in AOM/DSS-treated male mice, E2 supplementation showed significantly lower level of the F/B ratio. The ratio of commensal bacteria to opportunistic pathogens was higher in females and E2-treated males compared to normal males and females subjected to OVX. Unexpectedly, this ratio was higher in the AOM/DSS group than that determined in other males and the AOM/DSS/E2 group. Our findings suggest that estrogen alters the gut microbiota in ICR (CrljOri:CD1) mice, particularly AOM/DSS-treated males, by decreasing the F/B ratio and changing Shannon and Simpson index by supply of estrogen. This highlights another possibility that estrogen could cause changes in the gut microbiota, thereby reducing the risk of developing CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69112-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378548PMC
July 2020

Sex-related Alterations of Gut Microbiota in the C57BL/6 Mouse Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Cancer Prev 2019 Sep 30;24(3):173-182. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Background: Gut microbiota is closely associated with development and exacerbation of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate differences in gut microbiota depending on sex and changes of gut microbiota during IBD developments.

Methods: 16s rRNA metagenomic sequencing was performed for fecal materials from 8-week-old wild type (WT) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice of both sexes. Diversity indices, relative abundance of microbiota, and linear discriminant analysis effect size were examined to compare microbial communities between groups. Clustering of groups was performed by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Functional capabilities of microbiota were estimated using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database.

Results: PCoA and UPGMA tree analysis of beta-diversity demonstrated significant differences in gut microbiota between male and female groups of WT mice, but not of IL-10 KO mice. Firmicutes to Bacteroides ratio was higher in male group than that in female group in both WT mice and IL-10 KO mice. Phylum Proteobacteria significantly increased in female IL-10 KO mice than that in female WT mice. At species level, , , and significantly increased in IL-10 KO mice than in WT mice. The relative abundance of beta-glucuronidase (K01195) was higher in female IL-10 KO mice than that in female WT mice by PICRUSt.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that microbiota-host interactions might differ between sexes during development of IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15430/JCP.2019.24.3.173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6786806PMC
September 2019

Expression of Neurotrophic Factors, Tight Junction Proteins, and Cytokines According to the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Subtype and Sex.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 Jan;26(1):106-116

Departments of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoungnam, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Background/aims: Emerging evidence shows that the mechanism of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with neurotrophic factors and tight junction proteins (TJPs). It is known that there are sex differences in the pathophysiology of IBS. The aim of the present study is to determine expression levels of neurotrophic factors, TJPs, and cytokines according to IBS subtype and sex.

Methods: From 59 IBS (33 IBS-constipation, 21 IBS-diarrhea, and 5 IBS-mixed) and 36 control patients, colonic mucosa mRNA expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), nerve growth factor (NGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and various TJPs were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blot was performed to determine levels of zonular occludens-1 (ZO-1). Serum levels of cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: TRPV1, GDNF, and NGF mRNA levels were significantly increased in those with IBS-constipation compared to those in controls (all < 0.05). However, they showed no significant difference between those with IBS-diarrhea and controls. Expression level of TRPV1 correlated with that of GDNF (r = 0.741, < 0.001) and NGF (r = 0.935, < 0.001). ZO-1 RNA expression levels were lower ( = 0.021) in female IBS-diarrhea than those in controls, although they showed no significant differences between male IBS-diarrhea and controls. Serum IL-1β levels in female IBS were significantly higher than those of male IBS, especially in IBS-constipation ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that neurotrophic factors and IL-1β are closely related to IBS-constipation and that decrease of ZO-1 is an important factor in female with IBS-diarrhea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5056/jnm19099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955198PMC
January 2020

17-β estradiol exerts anti-inflammatory effects through activation of Nrf2 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(8):e0221650. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Several reports indicate crosstalk between the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and estrogen, which has a protective effect in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 signaling in the anti-inflammatory effect of estrogen using Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2 KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), a powerful system to test the function of target genes due to their easy accessibility, and rapid growth rates. After inducing inflammation by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the expression of proinflammatory mediators [i.e., NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)] and estrogen receptors were evaluated by Western blot. In wild type (WT) MEFs, E2 treatment ameliorated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and expression of its target protein iNOS. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) expression was decreased by TNF-α-induced inflammation and restored by E2 treatment. When treated to WT MEFs, E2 induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The inhibitory effect of E2 on TNF-α-induced enhancement of iNOS was markedly dampened in Nrf2 KO MEFs. Notably, ERβ expression was significantly diminished in Nrf2 KO MEFs compared to that in WT cells. Promoter Database (EPD) revealed two putative anti-oxidant response elements (AREs) within the mouse ERβ promoter. Furthermore, in WT MEFs, E2 treatment repressed TNF-α-induced expression of iNOS protein and recovered by 4-(2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo(1,5-a)pyrimidin-3-yl)phenol (PHTPP), a selective ERβ antagonist, treatment, but not in Nrf2 KO MEFs. In conclusion, Nrf2 plays a pivotal role in the anti-inflammatory of estrogen by direct regulating the expression of ERβ.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221650PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707591PMC
March 2020

Low-dose ionizing radiation attenuates mast cell migration through suppression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression by Nr4a2.

Int J Radiat Biol 2019 11 9;95(11):1498-1506. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Low-dose Radiation Research Team, Radiation Health Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-dose ionizing radiation attenuates mast cell migration by modulating migration-associated signaling pathways and the expression of chemotactic cytokines. IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 mast cells were exposed with ionizing radiation at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.5 Gy using a Cs γ-irradiator and stimulated with 2,4-dinitrophenol-human serum albumin. Cell migration was determined using a transwell assay system, F-actin distribution using Alex Fluor 488-conjugated phalloidin, expression of various signaling proteins by Western blotting, mRNA expression by RT-PCR. Low-dose ionizing radiation significantly suppressed mast cell migration induced by IgE-mediated mast cell activation. Furthermore, low-dose ionizing radiation altered cell morphology, as reflected by changes in F-actin distribution, and inhibited the activation of PI3K, Btk, Rac1, and Cdc42. These effects were mediated by Nr4a2, an immune-modulating factor. Knockdown of Nr4a2 reduced mast cell migration, inhibited the PI3K and Btk signaling pathways, and reduced expression of the chemotactic cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We further demonstrated that direct blockade of MCP-1 using neutralizing antibodies inhibits mast cell migration. Low-dose ionizing radiation inhibits mast cell migration through the regulation production of MCP-1 by Nr4a2 in the activated mast cell system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2019.1642535DOI Listing
November 2019

Rat Intestinal Acetic Acid and Butyric acid and Effects of Age, Sex, and High-fat Diet on the Intestinal Levels in Rats.

J Cancer Prev 2019 Mar 30;24(1):20-25. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Background: High-fat diet is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of various metabolic disorders related to an inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high-fat diet for intestinal acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations which are related to inflammation-associated colon cancer risk.

Methods: Both male and female rats of 6, 31, 74 and 104-week of age were fed chow diet or high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured weekly during the feeding period. Intestinal acetic acid and butyric acid levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography from luminal contents of ileum and cecum.

Results: Male rats showed greater weight change than female rats in every age. Calorie-adjusted food intake was also higher in male rats compared to female rats. Male rats showed similar intake of food in every age while 31-week old female rats showed increased intake, which was decreased at 74-week and 104-week of age. The ileal acetic acid concentration was increased in male rats fed high-fat diet, while female rats fed high-fat diet showed no significant change in the ileal acetic acid level. On the other hand, butyric acid almost disappeared in high-fat diet fed rats regardless of sex.

Conclusions: High-fat diet increases the intestinal acetic acid concentration while reducing the butyric acid concentration which may account for increased risk of inflammation-associated colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15430/JCP.2019.24.1.20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453582PMC
March 2019

Effects of 17β-estradiol on colorectal cancer development after azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium treatment of ovariectomized mice.

Biochem Pharmacol 2019 06 11;164:139-151. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University College of Pharmacy, Seoul, South Korea.

Estrogen is known to have a protective effect in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Previously, we reported the anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) in azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated male mice. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ovariectomy in a female AOM/DSS mouse model increases colorectal tumorigenesis and whether tumorigenesis is reduced by estrogen supplementation after ovariectomy. Clinical symptoms and histological severity of colitis and the levels of inflammatory mediators were evaluated in the colon of AOM/DSS-treated ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The levels of E2, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and NF-κB-dependent cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6) were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR and Western blot analysis were performed. Ovariectomy did not aggravate AOM/DSS-induced colitis at 2 weeks. At weeks 10 and 16, ovariectomy significantly increased tumor number and incidence rate in only the proximal colon after AOM/DSS treatment (F_AOM/DSS vs OVX_AOM/DSS), and these increases were significantly reduced by E2 supplementation (OVX_AOM/DSS vs OVX_AOM/DSS/E2). However, ovariectomy did not affect CRC development in the distal colon (F_AOM/DSS vs OVX_AOM/DSS). At week 2, E2 administration to AOM/DSS-treated OVX mice attenuated the histological severity of colitis by decreasing the protein and/or mRNA levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and NF-κB-related mediators (i.e., COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6) and by enhancing estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and nuclear Nrf2 protein expression and the mRNA expression of related antioxidant enzyme genes (i.e., HO-1, GCLC, GCLM, and NQO1). Endogenous estrogen in females protects against the development of proximal colon cancer, and exogenous E2 replacement in OVX female mice showed protective effects against AOM/DSS-induced colitis and carcinogenesis. The mechanism could involve modulating ERs-, NF-κB- and Nrf2-mediated pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2019.04.011DOI Listing
June 2019

Effects of 17β-Estradiol on Colonic Permeability and Inflammation in an Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis Mouse Model.

Gut Liver 2018 11;12(6):682-693

Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University College of Pharmacy, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Intestinal barrier dysfunction is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as ulcerative colitis. This dysfunction is caused by increased permeability and the loss of tight junctions in intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether estradiol treatment reduces colonic permeability, tight junction disruption, and inflammation in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colon cancer mouse model.

Methods: The effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated in ICR male mice 4 weeks after AOM/DSS treatment. Histological damage was scored by hematoxylin and eosin staining and the levels of the colonic mucosal cytokine myeloperoxidase (MPO) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To evaluate the effects of E2 on intestinal permeability, tight junctions, and inflammation, we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the expression levels of mucin 2 (MUC2) and mucin 4 (MUC4) were measured as target genes for intestinal permeability, whereas zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), occludin (OCLN), and claudin 4 (CLDN4) served as target genes for the tight junctions.

Results: The colitis-mediated induced damage score and MPO activity were reduced by E2 treatment (p<0.05). In addition, the mRNA expression levels of intestinal barrier-related molecules (i.e., MUC2, ZO-1, OCLN, and CLDN4) were decreased by AOM/DSS-treatment; furthermore, this inhibition was rescued by E2 supplementation. The mRNA and protein expression of inflammation-related genes (i.e., KLF4, NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2) was increased by AOM/DSS-treatment and ameliorated by E2.

Conclusions: E2 acts through the estrogen receptor β signaling pathway to elicit anti-inflammatory effects on intestinal barrier by inducing the expression of MUC2 and tight junction molecules and inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl18221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6254630PMC
November 2018

17β-Estradiol reduces inflammation and modulates antioxidant enzymes in colonic epithelial cells.

Korean J Intern Med 2020 03 22;35(2):310-319. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University College of Pharmacy, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Estrogen is known to have protective effect in colorectal cancer development. The aims of this study are to investigate whether estradiol treatment reduces inflammation in CCD841CoN, a female human colonic epithelial cell line and to uncover underlying mechanisms of estradiol effects.

Methods: 17β-Estradiol (E2) effect was measured by Western blot after inducing inf lammation of CCD841CoN by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Expression levels of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and β (ERβ), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) were also evaluated.

Results: E2 treatment induced expression of ERβ but did not increase that of ERα. E2 treatment for 48 hours significantly elevated the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes, HO-1 and NQO-1. TNF-α treatment significantly increased the level of activated NF-κB (p < 0.05), and this increase was significantly suppressed by treatment of 10 nM of E2 (p < 0.05). E2 treatment ameliorated TNF-α-induced COX-2 expression and decrease of HO-1 expression. 4-(2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl) pyrazolo(1,5-a)pyrimidin-3-yl)phenol (PHTPP), antagonist of ERβ, removed the inhibitory effect of E2 in the TNF-α-induced COX-2 expression (p = 0.05).

Conclusion: Estrogen seems to inhibit inflammation in female human colonic epithelial cell lines, through down-regulation of NF-κB and COX-2 expression and induction of anti-oxidant enzymes such as HO-1 and NQO-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2018.098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7061017PMC
March 2020

Effect of Estradiol in an Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mouse Model of Colorectal Cancer: Implication for Sex Difference in Colorectal Cancer Development.

Cancer Res Treat 2019 Apr 1;51(2):632-648. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, Seoul National University College of Pharmacy, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: This study demonstrates that estradiol downregulates inflammation and inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) development in azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) mouse model.

Materials And Methods: AOM/DSS-treated male and female mice were sacrificed at weeks 2, 10, and 16, to assess estrogen effects on colitis and carcinogenesis. Macroscopic and histologic severity of colitis and Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were evaluated, to measure inflammatory mediators and cytokines.

Results: Compared with AOM/DSS-treated male mice (M-AOM/DSS group), AOM/DSS-treated male mice with estradiol administration (M-AOM/DSS+estr group) displayed at week 2 significantly decreased severity of colitis. At weeks 10 and 16, AOM/DSS-treated female mice (F-AOM/DSS group) and the M-AOM/DSS+estr group showed significantly lower tumor multiplicity compared with the M-AOM/DSS group. At week 2, F-AOM/DSS group had a lower level of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression and higher level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression, compared to the M-AOM/DSS group. At week 2, expression levels of NF-κB and its related mediators decreased in the M-AOM/DSS+estr group, while levels of Nrf2 and Nrf2-related anti-oxidant enzymes increased. In addition, estradiol significantly increased Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome expressions in AOM/DSS-treated male mice. In contrast, at weeks 10 and 16, Nrf2 and its-related anti-oxidant enzymes and NLRP3 inflammasome were highly expressed in M-AOM/DSS group and in F-AOM/DSS group, who developed cancer.

Conclusion: The data suggest that estradiol inhibits the initiation of CRC by regulating Nrf2-related pathways. Moreover, these imply the dual role of Nrf2 and NLRP3 inflammasome, including promotion of tumor progression upon tumor initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2018.060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6473282PMC
April 2019

SMILE upregulated by metformin inhibits the function of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells.

Cancer Lett 2014 Nov 6;354(2):390-7. Epub 2014 Sep 6.

Hormone Research Center, School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Metformin, a diabetes drug, has been reported to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect and action mechanism of metformin on the function of androgen receptor (AR), a key molecule in the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Metformin was found to reduce androgen-dependent cell growth and the expression of AR target genes by inhibiting AR function in prostate cancer cells such as LNCaP and C4-2 cells. Interestingly, metformin upregulated the protein level of small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper (SMILE), a coregulator of nuclear receptors, and knockdown of SMILE expression with shRNA abolished the inhibitory effect of metformin on AR function. Further studies revealed that SMILE protein itself suppressed the transactivation of AR, and its ectopic expression resulted in the repressed expression of endogenous AR target genes, PSA and NKX3.1, in LNCaP cells. In addition, SMILE protein physically interacted with AR and competed with the AR coactivator SRC-1 to modulate AR transactivation. As expected, SMILE repressed androgen-dependent growth of LNCaP and C4-2 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that SMILE, which is induced by metformin, functions as a novel AR corepressor and may mediate the inhibitory effect of metformin on androgen-dependent growth of prostate cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2014.09.001DOI Listing
November 2014

Transforming growth factor-β1 signaling represses testicular steroidogenesis through cross-talk with orphan nuclear receptor Nur77.

PLoS One 2014 20;9(8):e104812. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Hormone Research Center, School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Transforming growth factor- β1 (TGF-β1) has been reported to inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) mediated-steroidogenesis in testicular Leydig cells. However, the mechanism by which TGF-β1 controls the steroidogenesis in Leydig cells is not well understood. Here, we investigated the possibility that TGF-β1 represses steroidogenesis through cross-talk with the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77. Nur77, which is induced by LH/cAMP signaling, is one of major transcription factors that regulate the expression of steroidogenic genes in Leydig cells. TGF-β1 signaling inhibited cAMP-induced testosterone production and the expression of steroidogenic genes such as P450c17, StAR and 3β-HSD in mouse Leydig cells. Further, TGF-β1/ALK5 signaling repressed cAMP-induced and Nur77-activated promoter activity of steroidogenic genes. In addition, TGF-β1/ALK5-activated Smad3 repressed Nur77 transactivation of steroidogenic gene promoters by interfering with Nur77 binding to DNA. In primary Leydig cells isolated from Tgfbr2flox/flox Cyp17iCre mice, TGF-β1-mediated repression of cAMP-induced steroidogenic gene expression was significantly less than that in primary Leydig cells from Tgfbr2flox/flox mice. Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-β1/ALK5/Smad3 signaling represses the expression of steroidogenic genes via the suppression of Nur77 transactivation in testicular Leydig cells. These findings may provide a molecular mechanism involved in the TGF-β1-mediated repression of testicular steroidogenesis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0104812PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139307PMC
May 2015

SAR based design of nicotinamides as a novel class of androgen receptor antagonists for prostate cancer.

J Med Chem 2013 Apr 5;56(8):3414-8. Epub 2013 Apr 5.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Drug Development, Chonnam National University, Gwang-ju 500-757, Republic of Korea.

Molecular knowledge of pure antagonism and systematic SAR study offered a direction for structural optimization of DIMN to provide nicotinamides as a novel series of AR antagonists. Nicotinamides with extended linear scaffold bearing sterically bulky alkoxy groups on isoquinoline end were synthesized for H12 displacement. AR binding affinity and molecular basis of antiandrogenic effect establish the optimized derivatives, 7au and 7bb, as promising candidates of second generation AR antagonists for advanced prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm3014103DOI Listing
April 2013

The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II negatively regulates the transactivation of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells.

PLoS One 2012 7;7(11):e49026. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Hormone Research Center, School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Androgen receptor (AR) is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancers. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain incompletely understood. In previous reports, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TF II) has been suggested to play a role in the development of cancers. In the present study, we explored a putative role of COUP-TF II in prostate cancers by investigating its effect on cell proliferation and a cross-talk between COUP-TF II and AR. Overexpression of COUP-TF II results in the inhibition of androgen-dependent proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Further studies show that COUP-TF II functions as a corepressor of AR. It represses AR transactivation on target promoters containing the androgen response element (ARE) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, COUP-TF II interacts physically with AR in vitro and in vivo. It binds to both the DNA binding domain (DBD) and the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR and disrupts the N/C terminal interaction of AR. Furthermore, COUP-TF II competes with coactivators such as ARA70, SRC-1, and GRIP1 to modulate AR transactivation as well as inhibiting the recruitment of AR to its ARE-containing target promoter. Taken together, our findings suggest that COUP-TF II is a novel corepressor of AR, and provide an insight into the role of COUP-TF II in prostate cancers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0049026PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492188PMC
July 2013

Structure-based virtual screening and identification of a novel androgen receptor antagonist.

J Biol Chem 2012 Aug 13;287(36):30769-80. Epub 2012 Jul 13.

Hormone Research Center, School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea.

Hormonal therapies, mainly combinations of anti-androgens and androgen deprivation, have been the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer because the androgen-androgen receptor (AR) system plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of prostate cancers. However, the emergence of androgen resistance, largely due to inefficient anti-hormone action, limits the therapeutic usefulness of these therapies. Here, we report that 6-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)nicotinamide (DIMN) acts as a novel anti-androgenic compound that may be effective in the treatment of both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancers. Through AR structure-based virtual screening using the FlexX docking model, fifty-four compounds were selected and further screened for AR antagonism via cell-based tests. One compound, DIMN, showed an antagonistic effect specific to AR with comparable potency to that of the classical AR antagonists, hydroxyflutamide and bicalutamide. Consistent with their anti-androgenic activity, DIMN inhibited the growth of androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, the compound also suppressed the growth of androgen-independent C4-2 and CWR22rv prostate cancer cells, which express a functional AR, but did not suppress the growth of the AR-negative prostate cancer cells PPC-1, DU145, and R3327-AT3.1. Taken together, the results suggest that the synthetic compound DIMN is a novel anti-androgen and strong candidate for useful therapeutic agent against early stage to advanced prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.379107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3436320PMC
August 2012

Testicular steroidogenesis is locally regulated by androgen via suppression of Nur77.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2012 Jun 7;422(2):327-32. Epub 2012 May 7.

Hormone Research Center, School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea.

Steroidogenesis in the testis is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism through the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. Recent studies suggest that besides this long-loop regulation, testicular steroidogenesis is also locally regulated by androgen. However, the molecular mechanism behind this additional regulatory pathway has been poorly addressed. In the present study, we demonstrate that liganded androgen receptor (AR) suppresses the transcriptional activity of Nur77 on steroidogenic enzyme gene promoters, affecting testicular steroidogenesis. AR physically interacts and colocalizes with Nur77 in the nucleus in the presence of androgen. AR inhibits Nur77 transactivation by competing mainly with coactivators such as SRC-1 for Nur77 binding. These results suggest that androgen, through binding to AR, directly acts as a signal inhibiting the expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes in Leydig cells, eventually resulting in decreased testicular steroidogenesis. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that androgen acts locally to regulate testicular steroidogenesis, and may provide its action mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.04.161DOI Listing
June 2012

Anti-steroidogenic factor ARR19 inhibits testicular steroidogenesis through the suppression of Nur77 transactivation.

J Biol Chem 2010 Jul 14;285(29):22360-9. Epub 2010 May 14.

Hormone Research Center, School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea.

ARR19 (androgen receptor corepressor-19 kDa), a leucine-rich protein whose expression is down-regulated by luteinizing hormone and cAMP, is differentially expressed during the development of Leydig cells and inhibits testicular steroidogenesis by reducing the expression of steroidogenic enzymes. However, the molecular events behind the suppression of testicular steroidogenesis are unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that ARR19 inhibits the transactivation of orphan nuclear receptor Nur77, which is one of the major transcription factors that regulate the expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes in Leydig cells. ARR19 physically interacts with Nur77 and suppresses Nur77-induced promoter activity of steroidogenic enzyme genes including StAR, P450c17, and 3beta-HSD in Leydig cells. Transient transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ARR19-mediated reduced expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes was likely due to the interference of SRC-1 recruitment to Nur77 protein on the promoter of steroidogenic enzyme genes. These findings suggest that ARR19 acts as a novel coregulator of Nur77, in turn regulating Nur77-induced testicular steroidogenesis, and may play an important role in the development and function of testicular Leydig cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.059949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2903400PMC
July 2010

Activation of translation via reduction by thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

FEBS Lett 2009 Sep 19;583(17):2804-10. Epub 2009 Jul 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Life Industry and Science, Sunchon National University, Jeonnam, Republic of Korea.

Previously we reported that in vitro translation activity in extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was stimulated by dithiothreitol (DTT) and further increased by the addition of thioredoxin (TRX1) [Choi, S.K. (2007) Thioredoxin-mediated regulation of protein synthesis by redox in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kor. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 35, 36-40]. To identify the pathway affecting translation, we cloned and purified thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRR1), thioredoxin reductase 2 (TRR2), glutaredoxin 1 (GRX1) and glutaredoxin reductase 1 (GLR1) as fusion proteins. Thioredoxin-mediated activation of translation was more effectively stimulated by NADPH or NADH than by DTT. Moreover, addition of TRR1 led to a further increase of translation in the presence of thioredoxin plus NADPH. These findings indicate that redox control via the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system plays an important role in the regulation of translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2009.07.030DOI Listing
September 2009