Publications by authors named "Chih-Yao Hou"

33 Publications

Resveratrol Butyrate Esters Inhibit Obesity Caused by Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A in Female Offspring Rats.

Molecules 2021 Jun 30;26(13). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan.

Resveratrol butyrate esters (RBE) are derivatives of resveratrol (RSV) and butyric acid and exhibit biological activity similar to that of RSV but with higher bioavailability. The aim of this study was designed as an animal experiment to explore the effects of RBE on the serum biochemistry, and fat deposits in the offspring rats exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), along with the growth and decline of gut microbiota. We constructed an animal model of perinatal Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure to observe the effects of RBE supplementation on obesity, blood lipids, and intestinal microbiota in female offspring rats. Perinatal exposure to BPA led to weight gain, lipid accumulation, high levels of blood lipids, and deterioration of intestinal microbiota in female offspring rats. RBE supplementation reduced the weight gain and lipid accumulation caused by BPA, optimised the levels of blood lipids, significantly reduced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio, and increased and decreased the abundance of S24-7 and Lactobacillus, respectively. The analysis of faecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels revealed that BPA exposure increased the faecal concentration of acetate, which could be reduced via RBE supplementation. However, the faecal concentrations of propionate and butyrate were not only significantly lower than that of acetate, but also did not significantly change in response to BPA exposure or RBE supplementation. Hence, RBE can suppress BPA-induced obesity in female offspring rats, and it demonstrates excellent modulatory activity on intestinal microbiota, with potential applications in perinatological research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26134010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271435PMC
June 2021

Improvement of Foaming Characteristics and Stability of Sterilized Liquid Egg with Egg White Hydrolysate (EWH).

Foods 2021 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan.

A pasteurized liquid egg leads to protein denaturation and degradation of processing properties, whereas non-pasteurized eggs may have food safety risks. If the negative impact of the pasteurization process on liquid eggs can be reduced, for example, the loss of stability and foamability, companies will be willing to purchase pasteurized eggs, thereby reducing food safety risks. Therefore, in this study, specific hydrolyzation conditions were used to produce egg white hydrolysate (EWH) with a lower molecular mass of amino acid and peptide fragments, and the effects of various concentration of EWH refilling on pasteurized liquid egg properties were investigated. The results showed that up to 30.1% of EWH was hydrolyzed by protease A and papain. Adding 1% (/) EWH can improve the negative charge potential value, surface tension, viscosity, and weight loss analysis of the sample. In addition, the cake structure and the appearance was acceptable to consumers. Therefore, to ensure its efficient use in the baking industry and considering the cost and stability, 1% (/) EWH was chosen as the best concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229439PMC
June 2021

Development of Active Packaging to Extend the Shelf Life of by Using Plasma Technology.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jun 28;13(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40400, Taiwan.

In this study, a preservation package that can extend the shelf life of was developed using plasma modification combined with low-density polyethylene (LDPE), collagen (COL), and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Out results showed that the selectivity of LDPE to gas can be controlled by plasma modification combined with coating of different concentrations of CMC and COL. Packaging test results applied to showed that 3% and 5% of CMC and COL did not significantly inhibit polyphenol oxidase and β-1,3-glucanase, indicating no significant effect on structural integrity and oxidative browning. The use of 0.5% and 1.0% CMC and COL can effectively inhibit the polyphenol oxidase and β-1,3-glucanase activity of , leading to improved effects in browning inhibition and structural integrity maintenance. P-1.0COL can effectively maintain gas composition in the package (carbon dioxide: 10-15% and oxygen: 8-15%) and catalase activity during storage, thereby reducing the oxidative damage caused by respiration of The current study confirmed that the use of plasma modification technology combined with 1.0% COL can be used in preservation packaging by regulating the respiration of , thus extending its shelf life from 7 to 21 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13132120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271542PMC
June 2021

The Protection of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented-Mango Peel against Neuronal Damage Induced by Amyloid-Beta.

Molecules 2021 Jun 8;26(12). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 600355, Taiwan.

Mango peels are usually discarded as waste; however, they contain phytochemicals and could provide functional properties to food and promote human health. This study aimed to determine the optimal lactic acid bacteria for fermentation of mango peel and evaluate the effect of mango peel on neuronal protection in Neuron-2A cells against amyloid beta (Aβ) treatment (50 μM). Mango peel can be fermented by different lactic acid bacteria species. (BCRC14079)-fermented mango peel produced the highest concentration of lactic acid bacteria (exceeding 10 CFU/mL). Mango peel and fermented mango peel extracts upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression for 1.74-fold in Neuron-2A cells. Furthermore, mango peel fermented products attenuated oxidative stress in Aβ-treated neural cells by 27%. Extracts of (BCRC14079)-fermented mango peel treatment decreased Aβ accumulation and attenuated the increase of subG1 caused by Aβ induction in Neuron-2A cells. In conclusion, (BCRC14079)-fermented mango peel acts as a novel neuronal protective product by inhibiting oxidative stress and increasing BDNF expression in neural cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229073PMC
June 2021

Resveratrol Butyrate Esters Inhibit BPA-Induced Liver Damage in Male Offspring Rats by Modulating Antioxidant Capacity and Gut Microbiota.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 17;22(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan.

Resveratrol can affect the physiology or biochemistry of offspring in the maternal-fetal animal model. However, it exhibits low bioavailability in humans and animals. Fifteen-week SD pregnant female rats were orally administered bisphenol A (BPA) and/or resveratrol butyrate ester (RBE), and the male offspring rats (n = 4-8 per group) were evaluated. The results show that RBE treatment (BPA + R30) compared with the BPA group can reduce the damage caused by BPA ( < 0.05). RBE enhanced the expression of selected genes and induced extramedullary hematopoiesis and mononuclear cell infiltration. RBE increased the abundance of and Adlercreutzia in the intestines of the male offspring rats, as well as the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the feces. RBE also increased the antioxidant capacity of the liver by inducing Nrf2, promoting the expression of HO-1, SOD, and CAT. It also increased the concentration of intestinal SCFAs, enhancing the barrier formed by intestinal cells, thereby preventing BPA-induced metabolic disruption in the male offspring rats, and reduced liver inflammation. This study identified a potential mechanism underlying the protective effects of RBE against the liver damage caused by BPA exposure during the peri-pregnancy period, and the influence of the gut microbiota on the gut-liver axis in the offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156118PMC
May 2021

Preventive Aspects of Early Resveratrol Supplementation in Cardiovascular and Kidney Disease of Developmental Origins.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 19;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.

The increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and kidney disease has stimulated research for strategies that could prevent, rather than just treat, both interconnected disorders. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound with pleiotropic biofunctions, has shown health benefits. Emerging epidemiological data supports that early life environmental insults are regarded as increased risks of developing CVDs and kidney disease in adulthood. Conversely, both disorders could be reversed or postponed by shifting interventions from adulthood to earlier stage by so-called reprogramming. The purpose of this review is first to highlight current epidemiological studies linking cardiovascular and renal programming to resulting CVD and kidney disease of developmental origins. This will be followed by a summary of how resveratrol could exert a positive influence on CVDs and kidney disease. This review also presents an overview of the evidence documenting resveratrol as a reprogramming agent to protect against CVD and kidney disease of developmental origins from animal studies and to outline the advances in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Overall, this review reveals the need for future research to further clarify the reprogramming effects of resveratrol before clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072983PMC
April 2021

Recent advances in lab-on-paper diagnostic devices using blood samples.

Lab Chip 2021 04;21(8):1433-1453

Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701, Taiwan.

Lab-on-paper, or microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), use paper as a substrate material, and are patterned with a system of microchannels, reaction zones and sensing elements to perform analysis and detection. The sample transfer in such devices is performed by capillary action. As a result, external driving forces are not required, and hence the size and cost of the device are significantly reduced. Lab-on-paper devices have thus attracted significant attention for point-of-care medical diagnostic purposes in recent years, particularly in less-developed regions of the world lacking medical resources and infrastructures. This review discusses the major advances in lab-on-paper technology for blood analysis and diagnosis in the past five years. The review focuses particularly on the many clinical applications of lab-on-paper devices, including diabetes diagnosis, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection, kidney function diagnosis, liver function diagnosis, cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) analysis, sickle-cell disease (SCD) and phenylketonuria (PKU) analysis, virus analysis, C-reactive protein (CRP) analysis, blood ion analysis, cancer factor analysis, and drug analysis. The review commences by introducing the basic transmission principles, fabrication methods, structural characteristics, detection techniques, and sample pretreatment process of modern lab-on-paper devices. A comprehensive review of the most recent applications of lab-on-paper devices to the diagnosis of common human diseases using blood samples is then presented. The review concludes with a brief summary of the main challenges and opportunities facing the lab-on-paper technology field in the coming years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0lc01304hDOI Listing
April 2021

Synthesis of Short-Chain-Fatty-Acid Resveratrol Esters and Their Antioxidant Properties.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan.

To expand the applications and enhance the stability and bioactivity of resveratrol (RE), and to simultaneously include the potential health benefits of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) esters of RE were prepared by Steglich reactions with acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, respectively. RE and the esterified RE-SCFA products (including RAE, RPE, and RBE) were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The FTIR and C NMR spectra of the esterified products included ester-characteristic peaks at 1751 cm and 171 ppm, respectively. Moreover, the peaks in the range of 1700 to 1600 cm in the FTIR spectra of the esterified products indicated that the esterification of RE-SCFA was successful. The TGA results revealed that the RE-SCFA esters decomposed at lower temperatures than RE. The peaks in the LC-MS profiles of the esterified products indicated the formation of mono- and diesters, and the calculated monoester synthesis rates ranged between 45.81 and 49.64%. The RE esters inhibited the Cu-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation reaction, exhibited antioxidant activity in bulk oil, and effectively inhibited the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA scission. Moreover, the RE-SCFA esters had better hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity than RE. Our results are the first in the literature to successfully including short chain fatty acids in the esters of resveratrol, and the products could be used as a functional food ingredient in processed foods or can be used as dietary supplements to promote health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001046PMC
March 2021

Altered Gut Microbiota and Its Metabolites in Hypertension of Developmental Origins: Exploring Differences between Fructose and Antibiotics Exposure.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 6;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.

Gut microbiota-derived metabolites, in particular short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their receptors, are linked to hypertension. Fructose and antibiotics are commonly used worldwide, and they have a negative impact on the gut microbiota. Our previous study revealed that maternal high-fructose (HF) diet-induced hypertension in adult offspring is relevant to altered gut microbiome and its metabolites. We, therefore, intended to examine whether minocycline administration during pregnancy and lactation may further affect blood pressure (BP) programmed by maternal HF intake via mediating gut microbiota and SCFAs. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received a normal diet or diet containing 60% fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation periods. Additionally, pregnant dams received minocycline (50 mg/kg/day) via oral gavage or a vehicle during pregnancy and lactation periods. Four groups of male offspring were studied ( = 8 per group): normal diet (ND), high-fructose diet (HF), normal diet + minocycline (NDM), and HF + minocycline (HFM). Male offspring were killed at 12 weeks of age. We observed that the HF diet and minocycline administration, both individually and together, causes the elevation of BP in adult male offspring, while there is no synergistic effect between them. Four groups displayed distinct enterotypes. Minocycline treatment leads to an increase in the F/B ratio, but decreased abundance of genera , , and . Additionally, minocycline treatment decreases plasma acetic acid and butyric acid levels. Hypertension programmed by maternal HF diet plus minocycline exposure is related to the increased expression of several SCFA receptors. Moreover, minocycline- and HF-induced hypertension, individually or together, is associated with the aberrant activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Conclusively, our results provide a new insight into the support of gut microbiota and its metabolite SCAFs in the developmental programming of hypertension and cast new light on the role of RAS in this process, which will help prevent hypertension programmed by maternal high-fructose and antibiotic exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961901PMC
March 2021

Maternal resveratrol therapy protected adult rat offspring against hypertension programmed by combined exposures to asymmetric dimethylarginine and trimethylamine-N-oxide.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Jul 30;93:108630. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Resveratrol, a phytochemical, has shown antioxidant properties and potential benefits in hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)-related nitric oxide deficiency and gut microbiota-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) have been linked to hypertension. We aimed to test whether maternal resveratrol therapy would protect adult offspring against hypertension programmed by prenatal exposure to ADMA and TMAO. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received ADMA 10 mg/kg/day (A), TMAO 0.65 mg/hr (T), ADMA+TMAO (AT), or vesicle (CV). One group of ADMA+TMAO-exposed rats received 50 mg/L of resveratrol in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation periods (ATR). Male offspring (n = 8/group) were assigned to five groups: CV, A, T, AT, and ATR. Rats were killed at 12 weeks of age. ADMA exposure caused the elevation of blood pressure in 12-week-old male offspring, which was exacerbated by TMAO exposure. Treatment with resveratrol rescued hypertension programmed by combined ADMA and TMAO exposure. This was accompanied by alterations in the compositions of gut microbiota and increased fecal butyrate levels. Both the abundance of the butyrate-producing genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were augmented by resveratrol. Meanwhile, resveratrol therapy significantly increased the abundance of the Cyanobiaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae families. Moreover, the protective effects of resveratrol were related to the mediation of the renin-angiotensin system . Our data provide new insights into the protective mechanisms of resveratrol against hypertension programmed by ADMA and TMAO, including regulation of gut microbiota and their metabolites, the renin-angiotensin system, and nitric oxide pathway. Resveratrol might be a potential reprogramming strategy to protect against the hypertension of developmental origins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108630DOI Listing
July 2021

Maternal Garlic Oil Supplementation Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypertension in Adult Rat Offspring: Implications of H2S-Generating Pathway in the Gut and Kidneys.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 06 5;65(11):e2001116. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Scope: Perinatal high-fat (HF) diet induces hypertension in adult offspring. Garlic, a naturally dietary source of Hydrogen sulfide (H S) donor, has been shown benefits in hypertension. The article examines whether maternal garlic oil supplementation can prevent hypertension induced by HF diet and elucidate its protective effects.

Methods And Results: Pregnant rats are given either a normal diet or HF diet. Rat dams are given garlic oil or vehicle daily by oral gavage at 100 mg kg day during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring are sacrificed at 16 weeks of age. Garlic oil supplementation during pregnancy and lactation protected against hypertension induced by HF diet in adult male offspring. The beneficial effects of garlic oil are associated with increased renal mRNA expression and activity of H S-generating enzymes, increased NO bioavailability, increased plasma short chain fatty acid levels, and alterations of gut microbiota composition. Garlic oil supplementation increases abundance of genus Lactobacillus, but decreases genera Turicibacter and Staphylococcus.

Conclusion: The data reveals associations between H S-generating pathway in the gut and kidneys, NO system, gut microbiota, and microbiota-derived metabolites in hypertension induced by HF intake and provide insight to garlic oil as a hypertension reprogramming strategy for further translational research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202001116DOI Listing
June 2021

Nonthermal plasma-activated water: A comprehensive review of this new tool for enhanced food safety and quality.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 01 23;20(1):583-626. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Food Safety/Hygiene and Risk Management, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701, Taiwan.

Nonthermal plasma (NTP) is an advanced technology that has gained extensive attention because of its capacity for decontaminating food from both biological and chemical sources. Plasma-activated water (PAW), a product of NTP's reaction with water containing a rich diversity of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), is now being considered as the primary reactive chemical component in food decontamination. Despite exciting developments in this field recently, at present there is no comprehensive review specifically focusing on the comprehensive effects of PAW on food safety and quality. Although PAW applications in biological decontamination have been extensively evaluated, a complete analysis of the most recent developments in PAW technology (e.g., PAW combined with other treatments, and PAW applications in chemical degradation and as curing agents) is nevertheless lacking. Therefore, this review focuses on PAW applications for enhanced food safety (both biological and chemical safeties) according to the latest studies. Further, the subsequent effects on food quality (chemical, physical, and sensory properties) are discussed in detail. In addition, several recent trends of PAW developments, such as curing agents, thawing media, preservation of aquatic products, and the synergistic effects of PAW in combination with other traditional treatments, are also presented. Finally, this review outlines several limitations presented by PAW treatment, suggesting several future research directions and challenges that may hinder the translation of these technologies into real-life applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12667DOI Listing
January 2021

Deep Ocean Water Concentrate Changes Physicochemical Characteristics, the Profile of Volatile Components and Consumer Acceptance for Taiwanese Rice Shochu.

Foods 2020 Dec 4;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan.

To study the effects of deep-ocean water concentrate (DOWC) on sake quality, Taichung No. 10 indica rice ( subsp. ) and Tainan No. 11 japonica rice ( subsp. ) were used as raw materials, and basic physicochemical property parameters in shochu were analyzed differentially. Sake fermentation mash analysis results revealed that DOWC addition did not significantly affect the basic physicochemical properties during sake brewing, but it significantly reduced citric acid and malic acid contents in Taichung No. 10 indica rice sake sample by 52-66% and 73-93%, respectively. DOWC addition significantly increased citric acid content in Tainan No. 11 japonica rice sake sample by 32-202%. Rice shochu analysis results revealed that DOWC addition significantly increased isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate contents in shochu made from japonica rice and indica rice, respectively. The results indicate that rice variety directly affects the types of volatile compounds in rice shochu. Principal component analysis and sensory evaluation results revealed that DOWC addition affected the composition of volatile compounds in the two types of rice shochu and resulted in differences in flavor evaluation. DOWC addition affects yeast metabolites and directly changes the volatile compound composition and flavor of rice shochu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9121806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762019PMC
December 2020

Perinatal Resveratrol Therapy Prevents Hypertension Programmed by Maternal Chronic Kidney Disease in Adult Male Offspring: Implications of the Gut Microbiome and Their Metabolites.

Biomedicines 2020 Dec 4;8(12). Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.

The gut microbiota plays a critical role in kidney disease and hypertension; however, whether maternal chronic kidney disease (CKD)-induced offspring hypertension is associated with alterations of the microbiota and microbial metabolites remains elusive. Using rat as an animal model, we conducted a maternal adenine-induced CKD model to examine whether adult male offspring develop hypertension and kidney disease. As resveratrol has antioxidant and prebiotic properties, we also aimed to elucidate whether its use in pregnancy and lactation can benefit hypertension programmed by maternal CKD via mediation of the gut microbiota and oxidative stress. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow (C) or chow supplemented with 0.5% adenine (CKD) from 3 weeks before pregnancy until lactation. One group of the adenine-induced CKD pregnant rats received resveratrol (R; 50 mg/L) in drinking water during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were divided into three groups: C, CKD, and CKD+R. The microbial metabolites analyzed were short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces and trimethylamine (TMA)/trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in plasma. We found perinatal resveratrol therapy protected against maternal CKD-induced hypertension in adult male offspring. The overall microbial compositions and diversity of bacterial community in the three groups were different. Resveratrol therapy increased α-diversity, decreased the to ratio, and increased the abundance of the genera and . Perinatal resveratrol therapy increased plasma TMA levels but decreased the plasma TMAO-to-TMA ratio. Although resveratrol had negligible effect on fecal concentrations of SCFAs, it increased G-protein coupled receptor-41 (GPR41) protein levels in the offspring's kidneys. Additionally, resveratrol therapy increased plasma levels of L-arginine and the L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio (AAR), and decreased oxidative stress. Overall, the protective effects of resveratrol against programmed hypertension are related to gut microbiome remodeling, including an increased abundance of beneficial microbes, mediation of the TMA-TMAO pathway, and alterations of SCFA receptors. Our results highlighted that targeting the microbiome and their metabolites might be potential therapeutic strategies to prevent maternal CKD-induced adverse pregnancy and offspring outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8120567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761974PMC
December 2020

The Antibacterial Efficacy and Mechanism of Plasma-Activated Water Against Enteritidis (ATCC 13076) on Shell Eggs.

Foods 2020 Oct 19;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan.

Eggs are one of the most commonly consumed food items. Currently, chlorine washing is the most common method used to sanitize shell eggs. However, chlorine could react with organic matters to form a potential carcinogen, trihalomethanes, which can have a negative impact on human health. Plasma-activated water (PAW) has been demonstrated to inactivate microorganisms effectively without compromising the sensory qualities of shell eggs. For this study, various amounts (250, 500, 750, or 1000 mL) of PAW were generated by using one or two plasma jet(s) at 60 watts for 20 min with an air flow rate at 6 or 10 standard liters per minute (slm). After being inoculated with 7.0 log CFU Enteritidis, one shell egg was placed into PAW for 30, 60, or 90 s with 1 or 2 acting plasma jet(s). When 2 plasma jets were used in a large amount of water (1000 mL), populations of . Enteritidis were reduced from 7.92 log CFU/egg to 2.84 CFU/egg after 60 s of treatment. In addition, concentrations of ozone, hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite in the PAW were correlated with the levels of antibacterial efficacy. The highest concentrations of ozone (1.22 ppm) and nitrate (55.5 ppm) were obtained with a larger water amount and lower air flow rate. High oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and low pH values were obtained with longer activation time, more plasma jet, and a lower air flow rate. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analyses demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in the PAW. The observation under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that bacterial cells were swollen, or even erupted after treatment with PAW. These results indicate that the bacterial cells lost control of cell permeability after the PAW treatment. This study shows that PAW is effective against S. Enteritidis on shell eggs in a large amount of water. Ozone, nitrate, and ROS could be the main causes for the inactivation of bacterial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9101491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603095PMC
October 2020

Maternal Adenine-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease Programs Hypertension in Adult Male Rat Offspring: Implications of Nitric Oxide and Gut Microbiome Derived Metabolites.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 30;21(19). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.

Maternal chronic kidney disease (CKD) during pregnancy causes adverse fetal programming. Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and dysregulated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) during pregnancy are linked to the development of hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether maternal adenine-induced CKD can program hypertension and kidney disease in adult male offspring. We also aimed to identify potential mechanisms, including alterations of gut microbiota composition, increased trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), reduced NO bioavailability, and dysregulation of the RAS. To construct a maternal CKD model, female Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow (control group) or chow supplemented with 0.5% adenine (CKD group) for 3 weeks before pregnancy. Mother rats were sacrificed on gestational day 21 to analyze placentas and fetuses. Male offspring ( = 8/group) were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Adenine-fed rats developed renal dysfunction, glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage, hypertension, placental abnormalities, and reduced fetal weights. Additionally, maternal adenine-induced CKD caused hypertension and renal hypertrophy in adult male offspring. These adverse pregnancy and offspring outcomes are associated with alterations of gut microbiota composition, increased uremic toxin asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA), increased microbiota-derived uremic toxin TMAO, reduced microbiota-derived metabolite acetate and butyrate levels, and dysregulation of the intrarenal RAS. Our results indicated that adenine-induced maternal CKD could be an appropriate model for studying uremia-related adverse pregnancy and offspring outcomes. Targeting NO pathway, microbiota metabolite TMAO, and the RAS might be potential therapeutic strategies to improve maternal CKD-induced adverse pregnancy and offspring outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583952PMC
September 2020

Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Resveratrol Butyrate Esters That Have the Ability to Prevent Fat Accumulation in a Liver Cell Culture Model.

Molecules 2020 Sep 14;25(18). Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan.

To facilitate broad applications and enhance bioactivity, resveratrol was esterified to resveratrol butyrate esters (RBE). Esterification with butyric acid was conducted by the Steglich esterification method at room temperature with -ethyl-'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and 4-dimethyl aminopyridine (DMAP). Our experiments demonstrated the synthesis of RBE through EDC- and DMAP-facilitated esterification was successful and that the FTIR spectra of RBE revealed absorption (1751 cm) in the ester region. C-NMR spectrum of RBE showed a peak at 171 ppm corresponding to the ester group and peaks between 1700 and 1600 cm in the FTIR spectra. RBE treatment (25 or 50 μM) decreased oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. This effect was stronger than that of resveratrol and mediated through the downregulation of p-ACC and SREBP-2 expression. This is the first study demonstrating RBE could be synthesized by the Steglich method and that resulting RBE could inhibit lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that RBE could potentially serve as functional food ingredients and supplements for health promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571132PMC
September 2020

Maternal N-Acetylcysteine Therapy Prevents Hypertension in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Offspring: Implications of Hydrogen Sulfide-Generating Pathway and Gut Microbiota.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Sep 13;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.

Hypertension can come from early life. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a hydrogen sulfide (HS) precursor as well as an antioxidant, has antihypertensive effect. We investigated whether maternal NAC therapy can protect spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) male offspring against hypertension. The pregnant rats were assigned to four groups: SHRs without treatment; Wistar Kyoto (WKY) without treatment; SHR+NAC, SHRs received 1% NAC in drinking water throughout pregnancy and lactation; and, WKY+NAC, WKY rats received 1% NAC in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring ( = 8/group) were killed at 12 weeks of age. Maternal NAC therapy prevented the rise in systolic blood pressure (BP) in male SHR offspring at 12 weeks of age. Renal cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphurtransferase (3MST) protein levels and HS-releasing activity were increased in the SHR+NAC offspring. Maternal NAC therapy increased fecal HS and thiosulfate levels in the SHR+NAC group. Additionally, maternal NAC therapy differentially shaped gut microbiota and caused a distinct enterotype in each group. The protective effect of maternal NAC therapy against hypertension in SHR offspring is related to increased phylum and genera and , but decreased phylum , genera , and . Several microbes were identified as microbial markers, including genera , and . Our results indicated that antioxidant therapy by NAC in pregnant SHRs can prevent the developmental programming of hypertension in male adult offspring. Our findings highlight the interrelationships among HS-generating pathway in the kidneys and gut, gut microbiota, and hypertension. The implications of maternal NAC therapy elicited long-term protective effects on hypertension in later life that still await further clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554905PMC
September 2020

Association between Acrylamide Metabolites and Cardiovascular Risk in Children With Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 14;21(16). Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability has been associated with increased CVD in CKD patients. Children tend to have more exposure to acrylamide, one of the most common toxins in food. We aimed to determine whether urinary levels of acrylamide metabolites N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-cysteine (GAMA) are associated with CV risk markers in children with CKD. Data on 112 children and adolescents ages three to 18 years old with CKD stage G1-G4 are reported. We observed that 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) abnormalities were greater, and left ventricular (LV) mass and ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) were higher in children with CKD stage G2-G4 versus G1. Patients with CKD stage G2-G4 had a lower urinary acrylamide level, but a higher AAMA-to-GAMA ratio than those with CKD stage G1. Urinary acrylamide level was negatively associated with high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) load on 24 h ABPM. Lower urinary levels of acrylamide, AAMA, and GAMA were correlated with LV mass. Additionally, GAMA are superior to AAMA related to NO-related parameters, namely citrulline and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). This study suggests that determinations of urinary acrylamide level and its metabolites in the early stages of pediatric CKD may identify patients at risk of CVD. Further studies should clarify mechanisms underlying acrylamide exposure to define the treatment for protection against CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461542PMC
August 2020

Targeting on Gut Microbiota-Derived Metabolite Trimethylamine to Protect Adult Male Rat Offspring against Hypertension Programmed by Combined Maternal High-Fructose Intake and Dioxin Exposure.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 31;21(15). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.

Gut microbiota-dependent metabolites, in particular trimethylamine (TMA), are linked to hypertension. Maternal 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure or consumption of food high in fructose (HFR) can induce hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether 3,3-maternal dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB, an inhibitor of TMA formation) therapy can protect adult offspring against hypertension arising from combined HFR and TCDD exposure. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with fructose (60% diet by weight) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, the pregnant dams received TCDD (200 ng/kg BW orally) or a corn oil vehicle on days 14 and 21 of gestation, and days 7 and 14 after birth. Some mother rats received 1% DMB in their drinking water throughout pregnancy and lactation. Six groups of male offspring were studied ( = 8 for each group): regular chow (CV), high-fructose diet (HFR), regular diet+TCDD exposure (CT), HFR+TCDD exposure (HRT), high-fructose diet+DMB treatment (HRD), and HFR+TCDD+DMB treatment (HRTD). Our data showed that TCDD exacerbates HFR-induced elevation of blood pressure in male adult offspring, which was prevented by maternal DMB administration. We observed that different maternal insults induced distinct enterotypes in adult offspring. The beneficial effects of DMB are related to alterations of gut microbiota, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, the balance of the renin-angiotensin system, and antagonization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling. Our findings cast new light on the role of early intervention targeting of the gut microbiota-dependent metabolite TMA, which may allow us to prevent the development of hypertension programmed by maternal excessive fructose intake and environmental dioxin exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432895PMC
July 2020

Use of the plasma-treated and chitosan/gallic acid-coated polyethylene film for the preservation of tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) fillets.

Food Chem 2020 Nov 6;329:126989. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 145 Xingda Rd., South Dist., Taichung City 402, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 404, Taiwan, Republic of China. Electronic address:

In this study, a polyethylene (PE) film coated with chitosan (CS) and gallic acid (GA) was prepared using plasma modification technology and applied for the preservation of tilapia fillets. Based on the analysis of surface morphology and surface functional groups, it was shown that plasma modification allowed CS and GA coating on PE. And GACS/PE demonstrated better antioxidant ability than CS/PE and GA/PE individually. The results of the tilapia freshness test showed that the total plate count showed that GACS/PE can inhibit 1.52 log CFU/g and delay the production of volatile basic nitrogen below 15 mg/100 g after 14 d of storage. Moreover, GA/PE (0.26 mg MDA/kg) and GACS/PE (0.24 mg MDA/kg) showed better thiobarbituric acid inhibitiry effect than control (0.30 mg MDA/kg) on day 14. These results indicate that these packaging films are efficient in extending the shelf life of tilapia fillets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126989DOI Listing
November 2020

Fast quantification of short-chain fatty acids in rat plasma by gas chromatography.

J Food Sci 2020 Jun 25;85(6):1932-1938. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 811, ROC.

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main metabolites of the intestinal flora and play an important role in the interaction between the intestinal flora and host metabolism. Therefore, reliable methods are needed to accurately measure SCFAs concentrations. SCFAs are commonly analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which requires lengthy sample treatments and a long run time. This study aimed to develop a fast GC method with formic acid pretreatment for SCFAs quantification in the plasma of rat. Baseline chromatographic resolution was achieved for three SCFAs (acetic, propionic, and butyric) within an analysis time of 10.5 min. The method exhibited good recovery for a wide range of concentrations with a low limit of detection for each compound. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of all targeted compounds showed good intra- and interday precision (<10%). We used our method to measure SCFAs levels in plasma samples from rats fed with a high fructose diet (HFD) to test the accuracy of the developed method. It was shown that SCFAs are indeed affected negatively by a HFD (60% fructose). This method was successfully employed to accurately determine SCFAs in the rat plasma with minimum sample preparation. Results showed potential damage of HFD, which produced lower SCFAs. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Increasingly, microbiota and gut health research are being conducted by many food scientists to elucidate the relationships among the factors of food components, particularly the nondigestible carbohydrates, food processing conditions, and potential health impact. This research provides a useful, rapid, and accurate method that can save time in the analysis of short-chain fatty acids, which are commonly analyzed in gut health research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15172DOI Listing
June 2020

Developing New Health Material: The Utilization of Spray Drying Technology on Avocado ( Seed Powder.

Foods 2020 Jan 30;9(2). Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Food Science, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan.

Avocado () generates byproducts, especially the avocado seeds. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential utilization of avocado seed as a very important, high phenolic content, climacteric fruit with unique characteristics and high nutritional properties. As such, theantioxidative test is conducted, then spray drying is used to produce avocado seed powder. The objective of this study was to develop an avocado seed powder using the spray drying technique by investigating the solution stability with different avocado seed extract concentrations, and to determine the physical properties of spray dried avocado powder that consists of powder yield, moisture, water activity, solubility, and color. The avocado seed extract was mixed with maltodextrin and water and homogenized for 10 min at 8000 rpm. The avocado seed solution was then spray dried with different inlet temperatures and feed flow rates. The spray dried avocado seed powder was analyzed for its yield, moisture content, water activity, solubility, and color. It was reported that the solution with the least avocado extract concentration (10 g) had the best stability in terms of presence of solute particles and color. The avocado seed powder obtained from this experiment had yield ranges from 24.46-35.47%, moisture content ranges from 7.18-7.96%, water activity ranges from 0.27-0.34, solubility ranges from 55.50-79.67 seconds, L* value ranges from 38.38-41.05, a* value ranges from 6.20-7.25, and b* value ranges from 13.33-15.17. In addition, increasing inlet temperature resulted in an increase in powder yield, solubility, a* value, and b*value, as well as a decrease in moisture, water activity, and L* value. Meanwhile, increasing the feed flow rate resulted in an increase in powder yield, moisture, water activity, and all L*, a*, b* values, as well as a decrease in solubility. In conclusion, spray drying technology is able to develop avocado seed powder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9020139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074260PMC
January 2020

Association of Trimethylamine, Trimethylamine N-oxide, and Dimethylamine with Cardiovascular Risk in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Clin Med 2020 Jan 25;9(2). Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Gut microbiota-dependent metabolites trimethylamine (TMA), trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and dimethylamine (DMA) have been linked to CKD and CVD. We examined whether these methylamines are correlated with cardiovascular risk in CKD children. A total of 115 children and adolescents with CKD stage G1-G4 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Children with CKD stage G2-G4 had higher plasma levels of DMA, TMA, and TMAO, but lower urinary levels of DMA and TMAO than those with CKD stage G1. Up to 53% of CKD children and adolescents had blood pressure (BP) abnormalities on 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Plasma TMA and DMA levels inversely associated with high BP load as well as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Additionally, CKD children with an abnormal ABPM profile had decreased abundance of phylum genera , and . TMA and DMA are superior to TMAO when related to high BP load and other CV risk factors in children and adolescents with early-stage CKD. Our findings highlight that gut microbiota-dependent methylamines are related to BP abnormalities and CV risk in pediatric CKD. Further studies should determine whether these microbial markers can identify children at risk for CKD progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074377PMC
January 2020

Hypertension Programmed by Perinatal High-Fat Diet: Effect of Maternal Gut Microbiota-Targeted Therapy.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 2;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.

Hypertension can originate in early life caused by perinatal high-fat (HF) consumption. Gut microbiota and their metabolites short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), trimethylamine (TMA), and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are involved in the development of hypertension. Despite the beneficial effects of prebiotic/probiotic on human health, little is known whether maternal use of prebiotics/probiotics could protect offspring against the development of hypertension in adulthood. We investigated whether perinatal HF diet-induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring can be prevented by therapeutic uses of prebiotic inulin or probiotic during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow or HF diet (D12331, Research Diets), with 5% w/w long chain inulin (PRE), or 2 × 10 CFU/day via oral gavage (PRO) during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring ( = 8/group) were assigned to four groups: control, HF, PRE, and PRO. Rats were sacrificed at 16 weeks of age. Maternal prebiotic or probiotic therapy prevents elevated blood pressure (BP) programmed by perinatal HF consumption. Both prebiotic and probiotic therapies decreased the to ratio and renal mRNA expression of , but increased abundance of genus and . Additionally, prebiotic treatment prevents HF-induced elevation of BP is associated with reduced fecal propionate and acetate levels, while probiotic therapy restored several species. Maternal probiotic or prebiotic therapy caused a reduction in plasma TMAO level and TMAO-to-TMA ratio. The beneficial effects of prebiotic or probiotic therapy on elevated BP programmed by perinatal HF diet are relevant to alterations of microbial populations, modulation of microbial-derived metabolites, and mediation of the renin-angiotensin system. Our results cast a new light on the use of maternal prebiotic/probiotic therapy to prevent hypertension programmed by perinatal HF consumption. The possibility of applying gut microbiota-targeted therapies as a reprogramming strategy for hypertension warrants further clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11122908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950030PMC
December 2019

Resveratrol treatment improves the altered metabolism and related dysbiosis of gut programed by prenatal high-fat diet and postnatal high-fat diet exposure.

J Nutr Biochem 2020 01 27;75:108260. Epub 2019 Oct 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

A maternal high-fat (HF) diet sensitizes offspring to the adverse effects of postnatal HF intake and can lead to metabolic dysregulation. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes and red wine, could help to relieve metabolic syndrome dysregulation. Since the gut microbiota is known to be closely related to metabolic homeostasis, this study aimed to investigate the impact of a combination of maternal and postweaning HF diets on the gut microbiota and whether resveratrol could relieve the gut dysbiosis associated with metabolic dysregulation. Sprague-Dawley dams were sustained on either a chow or HF diet before mating, during pregnancy and during lactation. Their offspring were randomly fed chow or a HF diet after weaning. Four experimental groups were generated: CC (maternal/postnatal chow diet), HC (maternal HF/postnatal chow diet), CH (maternal chow/postnatal high-fat diet) and HH (maternal/postnatal HF diet). A fifth group consisted of HH with resveratrol treatment. We found that both maternal and postnatal HF exposure has a distinct effect on the gut microbiota metagenome of offspring. Maternal HF diet exposure decreased plasma acetate, propionate and butyrate level, while postnatal HF diet exposure decreased plasma acetate level in adult life. The metabolic dysregulation programed by the maternal and postnatal HF diets was related to the relevant gut microbiota. Resveratrol treatment ameliorated the altered plasma propionate level related to maternal HF and postnatal HF diet treatment. Resveratrol treatment also improved most of the altered metabolic dysregulation and related dysbiosis programmed by maternal and postnatal HF diet exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.108260DOI Listing
January 2020

The Optimization of Plasma-Activated Water Treatments to Inactivate Enteritidis (ATCC 13076) on Shell Eggs.

Foods 2019 Oct 21;8(10). Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan.

Egg is a regularly consumed food item. Currently, chlorinated water washing is the most common practice used to disinfect eggs, but this process has a negative environmental impact. A new physical technique, plasma-activated water (PAW), has been demonstrated to possess effective antibacterial activities without long-term chemical residue. In this study, air PAW was used to inactivate enterica serovar Enteritidis on shell eggs. Different combinations of activation parameters, including water sources (reverse osmotic (RO) water, tap water), power (40 W, 50 W, 60 W) and activation time (10 min, 20 min, 30 min), were evaluated. The oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pH values of each combination were measured, and their antibacterial activity was tested in a bacterial suspension. Higher antibacterial activities, higher ORP values, and lower pH values were obtained with higher power, longer activation time, and lower water hardness. The antibacterial activities of PAW decreased rapidly by increasing the storage time both at room and refrigeration temperatures. Afterwards, RO water was pre-activated for 20 min at 60 W, and then the eggs inoculated with were placed into PAW for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, or 120 s with a plasma on-site treatment in the water. More than a 4 log reduction was obtained with 60-s and 120-s treatments. The results showed that the freshness indexes of the eggs treated with PAW were similar to those of the untreated controls and better than those of the eggs treated with commercial processes. In addition, observation under a scanning electron microscope also showed less surface damage of the cuticle on the PAW-treated eggs than on the commercially treated eggs. The results of this study indicate that PAW could be an effective antibacterial agent with less damage to the freshness of shell eggs than commercial methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8100520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6836110PMC
October 2019

The Interplay between Maternal and Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet and Gut Microbiota in the Developmental Programming of Hypertension.

Nutrients 2019 Aug 22;11(9). Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.

Excessive intake of saturated fat has been linked to hypertension. Gut microbiota and their metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), are known to be involved in the development of hypertension. We examined whether maternal and post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet-induced hypertension in adult male offspring is related to alterations of gut microbiota, mediation of SCFAs and their receptors, and downregulation of nutrient-sensing signals. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND) or HF diet (D12331, Research Diets) during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were put on either the ND or HF diet from weaning to 16 weeks of age, and designated to four groups (maternal diet/post-weaning diet; = 8/group): ND/ND, HF/ND, ND/HF, and HF/HF. Rats were sacrificed at 16 weeks of age. Combined HF/HF diets induced elevated blood pressure (BP) and increased body weight and kidney damage in male adult offspring. The rise in BP is related to a downregulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) pathway. Additionally, HF/HF diets decreased fecal concentrations of propionate and butyrate and decreased G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41), but increased olfactory receptor 78 (Oflr78) expression. Maternal HF diet has differential programming effects on the offspring's microbiota at 3 and 16 weeks of age. Combined HF/HF diet induced BP elevation was associated with an increased to ratio, increased abundance of genus and phylum , and reduced abundance in genus . Maternal gut microbiota-targeted dietary interventions might be reprogramming strategies to protect against programmed hypertension in children and their mothers on consumption of a fat-rich diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11091982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769506PMC
August 2019

Blood Pressure Abnormalities Associated with Gut Microbiota-Derived Short Chain Fatty Acids in Children with Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract.

J Clin Med 2019 Jul 24;8(8). Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan.

Both kidney disease and hypertension can originate from early life. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Since gut microbiota and their metabolite short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been linked to CKD and hypertension, we examined whether gut microbial composition and SCFAs are correlated with blood pressure (BP) load and renal outcome in CKD children with CAKUT. We enrolled 78 children with CKD stage G1-G4. Up to 65% of children with CAKUT had BP abnormalities on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). CKD children with CAKUT had lower risk of developing BP abnormalities and CKD progression than those with non-CAKUT. Reduced plasma level of propionate was found in children with CAKUT, which was related to increased abundance of phylum , genus and species . CKD children with abnormal ABPM profile had higher plasma levels of propionate and butyrate. Our findings highlight that gut microbiota-derived SCFAs like propionate and butyrate are related to BP abnormalities in children with an early stage of CKD. Early assessments of these microbial markers may aid in developing potential targets for early life intervention for lifelong hypertension prevention in childhood CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722976PMC
July 2019

Targeting on Gut Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide and Short-Chain Fatty Acid to Prevent Maternal High-Fructose-Diet-Induced Developmental Programming of Hypertension in Adult Male Offspring.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 09 24;63(18):e1900073. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, 833, Taiwan.

Scope: Alterations of gut metabolites, such as SCFAs and trimethylamine (TMA), and microbial composition are associated with the development of hypertension. Whether maternal 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB, an inhibitor for TMA formation) treatment or the predominant SCFA acetate supplementation can prevent programed hypertension induced by a high-fructose diet (HFD) exposure during pregnancy and lactation in adult male offspring is examined.

Methods And Results: Male offspring are divided into four groups: ND, normal diet; HFD, 60% HFD; ACE, HFD plus 200 mmol L magnesium acetate in drinking water; and DMB: HFD plus 1% DMB in drinking water. Maternal HFD induces programed hypertension in adult male offspring, which is prevented by maternal acetate supplementation or DMB treatment. HFD-induced hypertension is relevant to increased plasma levels of TMA and acetate, and alterations of gut microbial composition. The protective effects of acetate supplementation are associated with decreased plasma TMA level and TMA-to-trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) ratio, and increased renal expression of SCFA receptors. Maternal DMB treatment reduces plasma TMA, TMAO, acetate, and propionate levels.

Conclusion: Early intervention targeting on gut-microbiota-derived metabolites TMAO and SCFAs to reprogram hypertension may have significant impact to reduce the burden of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201900073DOI Listing
September 2019