Publications by authors named "Chih-Ping Chen"

609 Publications

Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 of maternal origin by quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction analysis following tissue culture failure for conventional cytogenetic analysis in a fetus with holoprosencephaly, ventricular septal defect, arthrogryposis of bilateral wrists and aplasia of the thumbs.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;60(3):549-550

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 of maternal origin by quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) analysis following tissue culture failure for conventional cytogenetic analysis in a fetus with holoprosencephaly (HPE), ventricular septal defect (VSD), arthrogryposis of bilateral wrists and aplasia of the thumbs.

Case Report: A 22-year-old, primigravid woman was referred for first-trimester ultrasound screening at 13 weeks of gestation, and the fetus was found to have HPE and VSD. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated at 14 weeks of gestation, and a malformed fetus was delivered with cebocephaly, arthrogryposis of bilateral wrists and aplasia of the thumbs. The umbilical cord and placental tissues were collected for genetic analysis. However, tissue culture failure for conventional cytogenetic analysis occurred because of contamination. QF-PCR analysis using the polymorphic DNA markers of D18S1369 (18q12.2) and D18S1361 (18q22.3) confirmed trisomy 18 of maternal origin.

Conclusion: QF-PCR analysis is useful for rapid confirmation of trisomy 18 and the parental origin when tissue culture failure for conventional cytogenetic analysis occurs in pregnancy suspicious of fetal trisomy 18.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.03.043DOI Listing
May 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for double aneuploidy of 47,XXY and trisomy 7 (48,XXY,+7) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;60(3):543-548

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for double aneuploidy of 47, XXY and trisomy 7 (48,XXY,+7) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 33-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of an increased risk for Down syndrome in maternal serum screening. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7[8]/46,XY[16]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr [GRCh37] (7) × 3 [0.54], (X) × 2 [0.52], (Y) × 1, compatible with trisomy 7 mosaicism and Klinefelter syndrome mosaicism. The parental karyotypes and prenatal ultrasound findings were normal. Repeat amniocentesis performed at 23 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7[13]/46,XY[7]. Simultaneous molecular cytogenetic analyses on uncultured amniocytes revealed 30% mosaicism for 48,XXY,+7 by aCGH and 37% (37/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 7 and disomy X by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 7 and indicated a maternal origin of the chromosome aberration. The pregnancy was continued to 39 weeks of gestation, and a 3070-g healthy male baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XY, the umbilical cord had a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7[3]/46,XY[37], and the placenta had a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7. At age one month, the neonate was phenotypically normal, and interphase FISH analysis revealed 4.8% (5/105 cells) mosaicism on buccal mucosal cells and 8.9% (8/90 cells) mosaicism on urinary cells for trisomy 7 and disomy X, compared with 2% in normal control. Interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells at age two months revealed normal findings in 100/100 cells.

Conclusion: Mosaic 48,XXY,+7 at amniocentesis without UPD 7 can be associated with a favorable fetal outcome. Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may occur in mosaic 48,XXY,+7 at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.03.029DOI Listing
May 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 11 in a single colony of cultured amniocytes at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;60(3):540-542

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 11 in a single colony of cultured amniocytes at amniocentesis and the perinatal outcome.

Case Report: A 36-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+11[1]/46,XX[16]. In 17 colonies of cultured amniocytes, all five cells in one colony had a karyotype of 47,XX,+11, while the rest 16 colonies had a normal karyotype. The parental karyotypes were normal. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 21 weeks of gestation. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied on the uncultured amniocytes, and the result revealed 0.9% mosaicism (1/101 cells) for trisomy 11 with only one cell with three signals, while the other 100 cells had two signals, compared with no trisomy 11 signals (0/100 cells) in the normal control. Uniparental disomy (UPD) 11 was excluded by polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNAs extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods. The cultured amniocytes at repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46, XX in 28/28 colonies. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. The pregnancy was continued to 38 weeks of gestation, and a 2724-g healthy female baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XX. The interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells revealed no trisomy 11 signals (0/100 cells). When follow-up at three months of age, the neonate manifested normal psychomotor and physical development.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 11 in a single colony at amniocentesis without abnormal fetal ultrasound and UPD 11 can be associated with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.03.028DOI Listing
May 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy 16 associated with mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis, and pericardial effusion and intrauterine growth restriction in the fetus.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;60(3):534-539

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 16 associated with mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis, and pericardial effusion and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the fetus.

Case Report: A 38-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age, and the result was 47,XX,+16[2]/46,XX[54]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed 14% mosaicism for trisomy 16 and a paternally inherited 319-kb microdeletion of 15q11.2 encompassing the genes of TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA2 and NIPA1. Prenatal ultrasound revealed persistent left superior vena cava, pericardial effusion and severe IUGR. Cordocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46,XX, but polymorphic DNA marker analysis revealed maternal UPD 16. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 27 weeks of gestation and revealed a karyotype of 46, XX in 21/21 colonies. Molecular cytogenetic analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed 22.4% mosaicism (26/116 cells) for trisomy 16 on interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and 20% mosaicism for trisomy 16 on aCGH. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNAs extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods revealed maternal UPD 16. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism and severe IUGR. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+16[28]/46,XX[16]. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on placenta confirmed a maternal origin of trisomy 16.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may present in mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 should alert the association of maternal UPD 16 which may be associated with congenital heart defects and severe IUGR on prenatal ultrasound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.03.027DOI Listing
May 2021

Disappearance of the trisomy 15 cell line at long-term follow-up in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis.

Authors:
Chih-Ping Chen

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 03;60(2):373

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Institute of Clinical and Community Health Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.021DOI Listing
March 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of persistent left superior vena cava, polyhydramnios and a small gastric bubble in a fetus with VACTERL association.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):355-358

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We reported a fetus that presenting with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC), polyhydramnios, and a small gastric bubble during prenatal examination and identified VACTERL association after birth.

Case Report: A 34-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age and the result was normal. Subsequently, an ultrasound revealed single umbilical artery (SUA) at 21 weeks of gestation. She received a detailed fetal anatomy survey that presented the same findings and PLSVC. A small visible gastric bubble was noted at that time, and the other organs were unremarkable. Polyhydramnios was identified at 30 weeks of gestation and amnioreduction was subsequently performed at 32 weeks of gestation. However, polyhydramnios was persisted despite amnioreduction and intrauterine growth restriction was also detected. A cesarean section was performed because of fetal distress at 36 + 2 weeks, and a 1832-g female baby was delivered. Pre-axial polydactyly at left thumb, SUA and esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) were identified after birth. The neonate died at age of 4 days because of surgical complication following esophageal anastomosis.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of PLSVC associated with polyhydramnios and a small gastric bubble may indicate esophageal atresia with TEF, and further examination for associated syndromes such as VACTERL association is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.016DOI Listing
March 2021

Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):345-349

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 31-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 24 weeks of gestation because of IUGR. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [3]/46,XX [22]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed gene dosage increase in chromosome 16 consistent with 28% mosaicism for trisomy 16. Uniparental disomy (UPD) 7 and UPD 11 were excluded. She underwent repeat amniocentesis at 27 weeks of gestation. Repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [1]/46,XX [24]. Simultaneous aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed 25%-35% (log ratio = 0.17-0.25) mosaicism for trisomy 16. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis detected trisomy 16 signals in 28/100 (28%) uncultured amniocytes. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded UPD 16. Level II ultrasound revealed no fetal abnormalities except symmetric IUGR. The pregnancy was continued to 37 weeks of gestation, and a 2306-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46, XX in 50/50 lymphocytes. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [14]/46,XX [36]. Interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells and urinary cells at age three days revealed trisomy 16 signals in 3.8% (4/106) buccal mucosal cells and 6.5% (7/107) urinary cells, compared with 1% in the normal control. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on placenta confirmed trisomy 16 in the placenta and a maternal origin of the extra chromosome 16.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may present in mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis. Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis without maternal UPD 16 can be associated with a favorable outcome despite the presence of IUGR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo chromosome 1q41-q42.11 microdeletion of paternal origin in a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation, developmental delay, autism and congenital heart defects.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):341-344

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo chromosome 1q41-q42.11 microdeletion of paternal origin in a mentally retarded child of a family requesting for genetic counseling of the future pregnancy.

Case Report: A 43-year-old, gravida 1, para 1, woman, who had a 15-year-old son with mental retardation, planned to have another normal child and requested for genetic counseling of the future pregnancy. Her husband was 48 years old. The 15-year-old boy had a body height of 148 cm (<3rd centile) and a body weight of 40 Kg (<35th centile). He had facial dysmorphism, mental retardation, scoliosis, abnormal gaits, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary stenosis and autism but did not have any history of epilepsy. Cytogenetic analysis of the boy and the parents revealed normal karyotypes. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis of the family revealed a de novo 2.028-Mb 1q41-q42.11 microdeletion, or arr 1q41q42.11 (222,571,596-224,599,234) × 1.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)], encompassing 13 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes including DISP1, SUSD4, FBXO28, TP53BP2 and WDR26 in the child. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed a paternal origin of the deletion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed a 1q41 deletion.

Conclusion: Genetic counseling of the parents who have a previous child with mental retardation and who wish to have another normal child in the future pregnancy should include genetic studies, and aCGH is useful under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.013DOI Listing
March 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of a 15q11.2-q14 deletion of paternal origin associated with increased nuchal translucency, mosaicism for de novo multiple unbalanced translocations involving 15q11-q14, 5qter, 15qter, 17pter and 3qter and Prader-Willi syndrome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):335-340

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a 15q11.2-q14 deletion of paternal origin associated with increased nuchal translucency (NT), mosaicism for de novo multiple unbalanced translocations involving 15q11-q14, 5qter, 15qter, 17pter and 3qter, and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS).

Case Report: A 32-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of an increased NT thickness of 5.6 mm and abnormal maternal serum screening results in the first trimester. The pregnancy was conceived by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,XX,der(5)t(5;15)(q35;q14),-15 [16]/45,XX,-15,der(17)t(15;17)(q14;p13)[3]/45,XX,der(15)t(15;15)(q35;q14),-15[2]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from cultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 15q11.2q14 (22,765,628-38,651,755) × 1.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)] with a 15.886-Mb 15q11.2-q14 deletion encompassing TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA2, NIPA1, SNRPN, SNURF, SNORD116-1, IPW, UBE3A, ACTC1 and MEIS2. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus with facial dysmorphism was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 45,XX,der(5)t(5;15)(q35;q14),-15[46]/45,XX,der(3)t(3;15) (q29;q14),-15[2]/45,XX,-15,der(17)t(15;17)(q14;p13)[2]. The placenta had a karyotype of 45,XX,der(5) t(5;15)(q35;q14),-15. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis confirmed a paternal origin of the proximal 15q deletion.

Conclusion: Increased NT and abnormal maternal serum screening results may prenatally be associated with PWS. Chromosome 15 rearrangements in PWS include mosaicism for de novo multiple unbalanced translocations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.012DOI Listing
March 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 9q (9q13-q21.33) in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome, and cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):331-334

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 9q (9q13-q21.33) in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome, and cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes.

Case Report: A 36-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Cytogenetic analysis on cultured amniocytes revealed a karyotype of 46,XY in 20/20 colonies. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed 30% mosaicism for a de novo 20.3-Mb gene dosage increase at 9q13-q21.33. Repeat amniocentesis and cordocentesis were performed at 21 weeks of gestation. Cytogenetic analysis on cord blood revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [3]/46,XY [37]. aCGH analysis of cord blood revealed 7.5% mosaicism for a 17.15-Mb gene dosage increase at 9q21.11-q21.33. aCGH analysis of uncultured amniocytes revealed 11.7% mosaicism for a 17.15-Mb gene dosage increase at 9q21.11-q21.33. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded uniparental disomy 9. The parental karyotypes were normal. The pregnancy was carried to 37 weeks of gestation, and a 2955-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered. At birth, the cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [3]/46,XY [37], the placenta had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [10]/46,XY [30], and the umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [14]/46,XY [36]. aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from cord blood at birth revealed no genomic imbalance. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on buccal mucosal cells at age two months detected 3.8% (4/106 cells) mosaicism for the sSMC, compared with 2% (2/100 cells) in the normal control. The neonate had normal physical development at age two months.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may exist in the pregnancy with fetal mosaic sSMC. Low-level mosaicism for an sSMC derived from chromosome 9q13-q21.33 at prenatal diagnosis can be associated with a favorable outcome in the fetus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Spherical Hole-Transporting Interfacial Layer Passivated Defect for Inverted NiO-Based Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with High Efficiency of over 20.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 2;13(5):6450-6460. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Chemistry, Tunghai University, Taichung 40704, Taiwan.

In this study, we achieved a facile and low-cost (18-22 USD/g) synthesis of spiro[fluorene-9,9-phenanthren-10-one]-based interfacial layer materials (; designated , , , and ). Carbazoles and dimethylacridine substituents with an extended π-conjugation achieved through ortho- or para-orientations were used as donors at the spiro[fluorene-9,9'-phenanthren-10'-one] moiety. Highly efficient and stable inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with the device architecture of ITO/NiO//perovskite/PCBM/BCP/Ag can be achieved to improve the surface morphology of NiO when are adopted as the interfacial layer. During a morphological study, the ortho-orientated donor of and has spherical structures indicated that the films were smooth and that the films of perovskite deposited on them had large grain size and uniformity. The photoluminescence properties of the perovskite layers on the NiO/ were showed better hole-transporting capabilities than the bare NiO. The dual-functional interfacial layer has shown defect passivation effect, it not only improved the surface morphology of NiO but also enlarged the perovskite layer grain size. The best PSC device performance of the NiO/ was characterized by 22.34 mA cm short-circuit current density (), 1.128 V open-circuit voltage (), and 80.8% fill factor (FF), resulting in 20.34% power conversion efficiency (PCE). The NiO PSCs showed good long-term device stability, even retained the original PCE of 93.16% after 370 days under argon (25 °C). Owing to the superior perovskite morphologies of the NiO/, the resulting devices outperformed the bare NiO-based PSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c18245DOI Listing
February 2021

Tetrasomy of 11q13.4-q14.3 due to an intrachromosomal triplication associated with paternal uniparental isodisomy for 11q14.3-qter, intrauterine growth restriction, developmental delay, corpus callosum dysgenesis, microcephaly, congenital heart defects and facial dysmorphism.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):169-172

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present tetrasomy of 11q13.4-q14.3 due to an intrachromosomal triplication associated with paternal isodisomy of uniparental disomy (iso-UPD) for 11q14.3-qter and multiple abnormalities.

Case Report: A 30-year-old primigravid woman was found to have intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the fetus since 28 weeks of gestation, and a 2056-g baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation with fetal distress. The baby postnatally manifested hypotonia, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism of micrognathia, retrognathia and low-set ears, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, tricuspid regurgitation and corpus callosum dysgenesis. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on the DNA extracted from the peripheral blood revealed the result of arr 11q13.4q14.3 (71,567,724-89,547,851) × 4, arr 11q14.3q25 (89,466,484-134,942,626) hmz [GRCh37 (hg19)] with a 17.980-Mb triplication of 11q13.4-q14.3 encompassing the genes of GRM5 and MAP6, and loss of heterozygosity for a 45.476-Mb region of 11q14.3-qter consistent with iso-UPD for 11q14.3-qter. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis confirmed paternal iso-UPD for 11q14.3-qter. Cytogenetic analysis of the blood revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,trp(11) (q13.4q14.3). The parental karyotypes were normal. When follow-ups at age 2 years, the neonate manifested physical and psychomotor developmental delay and intellectual disability.

Conclusion: Tetrasomy 11q13.4-q14.3 may present the phenotype of IUGR, developmental delay, corpus callosum dysgenesis, microcephaly, congenital heart defects and facial dysmorphism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.027DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of familial 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a pregnancy with concomitant cardiac and urinary tract abnormalities in the fetus and the mother.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):165-168

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of familial 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a pregnancy with concomitant cardiac and urinary tract abnormalities in the fetus and the mother.

Case Report: A 28-year-old woman primigravid underwent amniocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation because of fetal ultrasound findings of aortic stenosis, interrupted aortic arch (IAA), left multicystic kidney, right hydronephrosis and ureterocele. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 22q11.21 (18,894,835-21,505,417) × 1.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)] with a 2.611-Mb 22q11.21 deletion encompassing 41 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes including UFD1L, TBX1, GNB1L, COMT and MED15. aCGH analysis on the DNAs extracted from parental bloods confirmed that the mother carried the same 22q11.21 microdeletion. Level II ultrasound additionally found ventricular septal defect (VSD) and persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC). Examination of the woman showed short stature, malar hypoplasia, hypertelorism, bulbous nasal tip, prominent nasal root, hypoplasia of nasal wings, right renal agenesis, left ureterovesical reflux and VSD with repair, but normal intelligence and normal neuropsychiatric development. The woman decided to continue the pregnancy, and a 2903-g female baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation with left multicystic kidney, right hydronephrosis, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, IAA, VSD, PLSVC, patent ductus arteriosus, patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, dilated main pulmonary artery and tricuspid regurgitation. The neonate died at the age of one month.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of concomitant congenital heart defects and urinary tract abnormalities in the fetus and the parent should raise a suspicion of familial 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of familial 2p15 microduplication associated with pulmonary artery stenosis, single umbilical artery and left foot postaxial polydactyly on fetal ultrasound.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):161-164

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of familial 2p15 microduplication associated with pulmonary artery stenosis, single umbilical artery and left foot postaxial polydactyly on fetal ultrasound.

Case Report: A 34-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed the karyotype of 46,XX. Prenatal ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation showed pulmonary artery stenosis, single umbilical artery and left foot postaxial polydactyly. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 22 weeks of gestation and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNAs extracted from amniocytes revealed the result of arr 2p15 (61, 495, 220-62,885,679) × 3.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)] with a 1.391-Mb 2p15 duplication encompassing seven Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes of USP34, XPO1, FAM161A, CCT4, COMMD1, B3GNT2 and TMEM17. aCGH analysis on the DNAs extracted from parental bloods confirmed a familial transmission from a normal carrier mother who had no phenotypic abnormality. A 3270-g female baby was delivered at term with mild pulmonary artery stenosis and left foot postaxial polydactyly. The infant had normal physical and psychomotor development when follow-up at age of one year.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal structural abnormalities should include aCGH analysis in addition to conventional cytogenetic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.025DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a pure ring chromosome 21 with a 4.657-Mb 21q22.3 deletion.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):157-160

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a pure ring chromosome [r(21)] with a 4.657-Mb 21q22.3 deletion.

Case Report: A 44-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype 46,XX,r(21)(p11.2q22.3). Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed a 4.657-Mb deletion at 21q22.3. The parental karyotypes were normal. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism and clinodactyly. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of umbilical cord revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,r(21)(p11.2q22.3). aCGH analysis of umbilical cord revealed the result of arr 21q22.3 (43,427,188-48,084,156) × 1.0 with a 4.657-Mb 21q22.3 deletion encompassing 57 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes including TRPM2, TSPEAR, COL18A1, COL6A1, COL6A2, LSS, PCNT, DIP2A, S100B and PRMT2. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the umbilical cord fibroblasts confirmed a 21q22.3 deletion.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of an r(21) should include molecular cytogenetic characterization such as aCGH and FISH to determine the extent of the 21q22.3 deletion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.024DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 15 in a pregnancy associated with recurrent Down syndrome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):152-156

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 15 in a pregnancy associated with recurrent Down syndrome.

Case Report: A 33-year-old, gravida 4, para 2, woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of a previous child with Down syndrome and a karyotype of 46,XY,der(14;21)(q10; q10),+21. In this pregnancy, amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[12]/48,XX,+21,+mar[3]. The parental karyotypes were normal. The pregnancy was terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with characteristic craniofacial appearance of Down syndrome and hypoplastic middle phalanx of the fifth fingers. The placenta had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[37]/48,XX,+21,+mar[3]. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[38]/48,XX,+21,+mar[2]. In addition to trisomy 21, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on the DNA extracted from umbilical cord revealed 40∼50% mosaicism for a 2.604-Mb duplication of 15q25.2-q25.3, or arr 15q25.2q25.3 (83,229,665-85,834,131) × 2.4 [GRCh37 (hg19)] encompassing 19 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) using the DNAs extracted from cultured amniocytes and parental bloods revealed maternal origin of the sSMC(15) and the extra chromosome 21.

Conclusion: aCGH is useful for identification of the nature of sSMC, and QF-PCR is useful for determination of the parental origin of the aberrant chromosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.023DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of abdominal lymphatic malformations.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):13-19

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Institute of Clinical and Community Health Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Abdominal lymphatic malformations (LM) are rare congenital malformations of the lymphatic system, representing only 2% of all LM in newborns. They may arise from intra-abdominal solid organs (such as the liver, pancreas, kidneys, spleen, adrenal glands, and gastrointestinal tract), mesentery, omentum, and retroperitoneum. Mesenteric LM are the most commonly seen, with retroperitoneal LM being the second most common. Fetal abdominal LM could be associated with karyotypic or other abnormalities, including skin edema, hydrops fetalis, and polyhydramnios, and prenatal diagnosis and perinatal counseling for these LM are important. Prenatal ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have led to an increased diagnosis of abdominal LM and improved monitoring and intervention postnatally. This article provides an overview of fetal abdominal LM, including the prenatal diagnoses, differential diagnoses, comprehensive illustrations of the imaging findings, treatments, and fetal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.003DOI Listing
January 2021

Improved Blend Film Morphology and Free Carrier Generation Provide a High-Performance Ternary Polymer Solar Cell.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 23;13(1):1076-1085. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan.

Non-fullerene organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have displayed the highest power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) among OPVs. Herein, we describe a two-donor (PM6, TPD-3F)/one-acceptor (Y6) ternary blend having an optimized blend morphology that leads to improved OPV performance. Because TPD-3F has a HOMO energy level deeper than that of PM6, the value of of the corresponding ternary device increased. Good miscibility between PM6 and TPD-3F, in conjunction with device optimization through the use of 1-chloronaphthalene as an additive, provided an optimized ternary blend morphology for efficient exciton dissociation and carrier transport and, therefore, larger PCE. Compared with the preoptimized PM6:Y6 binary device, the ternary device functioned with improvements in its short-circuit current density, value of , and fill factor. As a result, the device PCE improved from 15.5 ± 0.19 to 16.6 ± 0.25% under AM 1.5G (100 mW cm) irradiation. The champion cell exhibited a PCE of 17.0%-a value that is one of the highest for a ternary OPV. Furthermore, such devices exhibited outstanding shelf lifetimes, with long-term stability in air (25 °C, 40% humidity) without encapsulation; the performance remained high (at 15.4%) after storage for 820 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c19198DOI Listing
January 2021

Low-level mosaic tetrasomy 18p at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable pediatric outcome: The follow-ups of three consecutive cases.

Authors:
Chih-Ping Chen

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 11;59(6):985-986

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Institute of Clinical and Community Health Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.09.035DOI Listing
November 2020

Prenatal diagnosis and management of monozygotic twins discordant for severe fetal abnormalities.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Nov;59(6):945-947

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and management of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for severe fetal abnormalities.

Case Report: A 36-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age, and hydrops fetalis, a giant cystic hygroma of 5 × 3.5 cm and left hydronephrosis in a co-twin. The other co-twin was structurally normal. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY in both co-twins. Simultaneous polymorphic DNA marker analysis using the DNAs extracted from maternal blood and uncultured amniocytes confirmed MZ twinning. The woman underwent a successful selective fetal reduction by radiofrequency ablation at 22 weeks of gestation. At 28 weeks of gestation, premature rupture of membranes occurred, and a 1280-g normal male baby and a 275-g dead malformed co-twin were delivered. The normal co-twin was phenotypically normal and was doing well at age seven weeks.

Conclusions: Prenatal diagnosis of MZ twins discordant for structural abnormalities should include a differential diagnosis of MZ twinning, and a zygosity test is necessary under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.09.025DOI Listing
November 2020

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from 2q11.1-q12.1 associated with fetal bilateral radial dysplasia.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Nov;59(6):941-944

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from 2q11.1-q12.1 associated with fetal bilateral radial dysplasia.

Case Report: A 27-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of club hands on fetal ultrasound. The internal organs of the fetus were normal. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [13]/46,XY [11]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis of the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 2q11.1q12.1 (95,529,039-102,825,556) × 3.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)]. The pregnancy was terminated at 20 weeks of gestation, and a malformed fetus was delivered with isolated bilateral radial dysplasia. The cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar[24]/46,XY[16]. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis of the DNAs extracted from umbilical cord and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy for chromosome 2. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed an sSMC derived from chromosome 2q11.1-q12.1 in cultured amniocytes.

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for an sSMC derived from chromosome 2q11.1-q12.1 can be associated with fetal abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.09.024DOI Listing
November 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy 5 by amniocentesis associated with confined placental mosaicism for trisomy 5 and fetal trisomy 21 in a pregnancy.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Nov;59(6):938-940

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 5 by amniocentesis associated with confined placental mosaicism (CPM) for trisomy 5 and fetal trisomy 21 in a pregnancy.

Case Report: A 45-year-old woman underwent chorionic villus sampling (CVS) at 11 weeks of gestation because of maternal advanced age and an increased nuchal translucency of 4.0 mm in the first-trimester screening. CVS revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21[98]/48,XY,+5,+21[25]. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from chorionic villi revealed arr (5) × 3, arr (21) × 3 compatible with double trisomy 5 and trisomy 21. The woman underwent amniocenteses at 20 weeks and 22 weeks of gestation. Amniocenteses revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21. The parental karyotypes were normal. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes showed trisomy 21 of maternal origin and maternal UPD 5. aCGH and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on uncultured amniocytes confirmed trisomy 21. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. The parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a 2,198-g male baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation with characteristic phenotype of Down syndrome of hypertelorism, epicanthic folds and hypoplastic middle phalanx of the fifth fingers. Cytogenetic analysis of cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21. QF-PCR analysis of the DNA extracted from placenta revealed double trisomy 5 and trisomy 21 with maternal gene dosage increase in chromosome 5 and chromosome 21.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of CPM for trisomy 5 at CVS can be associated with UPD 5 in the fetus, and UPD 5 causes no specific phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.09.023DOI Listing
November 2020

Low-level mosaic trisomy 13 at amniocentesis associated with a favorable outcome in a pregnancy.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Nov;59(6):935-937

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present low-level mosaic trisomy 13 at amniocentesis associated with a favorable outcome in a pregnancy.

Case Report: A 39-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+13[8]/46,XY[20]. The woman underwent cord blood sampling at 22 weeks of gestation. Cytogenetic analysis of cord blood revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+13[2]/46,XY[98]. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from cord blood revealed 10% gene dosage increase in chromosome 13. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a 2,280-g healthy male baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation. The parental karyotypes were normal. The cord blood at birth had a karyotype of 47,XY,+13[1]/46,XY[49]. At age one month, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed no trisomy 13 signals in 100/100 buccal mucosal cells, and trisomy 13 signals in 2/54 (3.7%) urinary cells compared with 0/60 cells in the normal control. The neonate was doing well and presented neither phenotypic abnormalities nor psychomotor disorders at age two months.

Conclusion: Low-level true mosaic trisomy 13 at amniocentesis without ultrasound abnormalities can be associated with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.09.022DOI Listing
November 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of a familial normal euchromatic variant of dup(15)(q11.2q11.2) in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):770-772

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a familial normal euchromatic variant of dup(15)(q11.2q11.2) in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 32-year-old woman underwent elective amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of anxiety. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(15)(q11.2q11.2). Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr (1-22, X) × 2 with no genomic imbalance. Cytogenetic analysis of the parental bloods showed that the mother had a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(15)(q11.2q11.2), and the father had a karyotype of 46,XY. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. A healthy 2948 g female baby was delivered at 39 weeks of gestation without any phenotypic abnormality. Cytogenetic analysis of the cord blood revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(15)(q11.2q11.2).

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of dup(15)(q11.2q11.2) should include a differential diagnosis of a 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) microduplication encompassing TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA2 and NIPA1, and aCGH analysis is useful for the differential diagnosis under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.027DOI Listing
September 2020

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo 3.19-Mb chromosome 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion of paternal origin.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):766-769

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo 3.19-Mb chromosome 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion of paternal origin.

Case Report: A 36-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation because of an advanced maternal age. Her husband was 36 years old. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,del(14)(q32.1q32.2). Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis showed the result of a 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable. The parental karyotypes were normal and did not have such a deletion. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism. aCGH was applied on the DNA extracted from cord blood. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis was applied on the DNAs extracted from placenta and parental bloods. aCGH confirmed a 3.19-Mb 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion or arr 14q32.13q32.2 (96,151,751-99,341,476) × 1.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)] encompassing 10 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes of TCL1B, TCL1A, TUNAR, BDKRB2, BDKRB1, ATG2B, GSKIP, AK7, PAPOLA and VRK1. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis confirmed a paternal origin of a de novo interstitial distal 14q deletion.

Conclusion: Determination of the paternal origin of a prenatally detected de novo interstitial distal 14q deletion by polymorphic DNA marker analysis in this case is significant, and the information acquired is useful for genetic counseling, especially when amniocentesis is performed because of an advanced maternal age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.026DOI Listing
September 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of a 1.651-Mb 19q13.42-q13.43 microdeletion in a fetus with micrognathia and bilateral pyelectasis on prenatal ultrasound.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):763-765

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a de novo 1.651-Mb 19q13.42-q13.43 microdeletion in a fetus with micrognathia and bilateral pyelectasis on prenatal ultrasound.

Case Report: A 32-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 28 weeks of gestation because of fetal micrognathia and bilateral pyelectasis on prenatal ultrasound. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 19q13.42q13.43 (55,028,722-56,680,564) × 1.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)] or a 1.651-Mb microdeletion encompassing 44 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes including NLRP7, GP6, TNNT1, TNNI3 and DNAAF3. The parents did not have such a deletion and decided to continue the pregnancy. At 37 weeks of gestation, a 2560-g female baby was delivered by cesarean section because of oligohydramnios and decreased fetal movements. The baby manifested cleft palate, micrognathia and retrognathia at birth. She was doing well at age three months. Her body weight was 5.3 Kg (15th-25th centile), and body length was 59.2 cm (25th-50th centile). Renal sonogram showed bilateral mild pelvic dilation. She manifested no psychomotor retardation and no other internal organ abnormalities during pediatric follow-ups.

Conclusion: A 19q13.42-q13.43 microdeletion can be associated with micrognathia, retrognathia, cleft palate and bilateral pyelectasis at birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.025DOI Listing
September 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of partial monosomy 2q (2q37.3→qter) and partial trisomy 10q (10q24.31→qter) of paternal origin associated with increased nuchal translucency and abnormal maternal serum screening results.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):758-762

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of terminal 2q deletion and distal 10q duplication of paternal origin in a fetus associated with increased nuchal translucency and abnormal maternal serum screening results.

Case Report: A 26-year-old woman who had experienced spontaneous abortion twice underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of an increased nuchal translucency thickness of 3.5 mm at 12 weeks of gestation and abnormal maternal serum screening results of 2.573 multiples of the median (MoM) of free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) and 1.536 MoM of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) resulting in a trisomy 21 risk of 1:64. Amniocentesis revealed a derivative chromosome 2. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed arr [hg19] 2q37.3 (238,294,223-242,782,258) × 1, 10q24.31q26.3 (102,018,246-135,426,386) × 3. Cytogenetic analysis of parental bloods revealed a karyotype of 46,XX in the mother and a karyotype of 46,XY,t(2;10)(q37.3;q24.3) in the father. The fetal karyotype was 46,XX,der(2)t(2;10)(q37.3;q24.3)pat. The pregnancy was terminated at 20 weeks of gestation, and a malformed fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism. Postnatal analysis of the cord blood confirmed the results of prenatal diagnosis. The fetus had a 4.693-Mb deletion of 2q37.3 encompassing the genes of HDAC4, KIF1A, PASK, HDLBP, FARP2 and D2HGDH, and a 33.34-Mb duplication of 10q24.31-q26.3 encompassing the gene of NFκB2.

Conclusion: First-trimester ultrasound and maternal serum biochemistry screening may help to identify an unexpected unbalanced familial translocation at prenatal diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.024DOI Listing
September 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for trisomy 21 by amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 21 in the fetus and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):754-757

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present perinatal molecular cytogenetic analysis of low-level mosaicism for trisomy 21 in a pregnancy with maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 21 in the fetus.

Case Report: A 39-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[6]/46,XX[25]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed arr (21) × 2-3, (X) × 2 with about 18% gene dosage increase in chromosome 21 consistent with mosaic trisomy 21. Cordocentesis was performed at 20 weeks of gestation, and the cord blood lymphocytes had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[3]/46,XX[72]. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy. At 39 weeks of gestation, a 3,494-g phenotypically normal female baby was delivered without phenotypic features of Down syndrome. There was no dysplasia of middle phalanx of the fifth fingers of both hands. The cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[2]/46,XX[48]. The placenta had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[37]/46,XX[3]. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[1]/46,XX[39]. aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from cord blood revealed no genomic imbalance. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNAs extracted from cord blood and parental bloods revealed maternal uniparental heterodisomy 21 in the baby. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on buccal mucosal cells revealed trisomy 21 signals in 15/101 (14.9%) buccal cells at birth and in 1/122 (0.82%) buccal cells at age 45 days.

Conclusion: Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 21 at amniocentesis associated with maternal UPD 21 in the fetus can have a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.023DOI Listing
September 2020

Cytogenetic discrepancy between uncultured amniocytes and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):728-735

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis.

Materials And Methods: A 41-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) result suspicious of trisomy 15. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed 26% mosaicism for trisomy 15. She was referred for repeat amniocentesis. aCGH, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) assays and/or conventional cytogenetic analysis were applied on various cells and tissues including uncultured amniocytes, cultured amniocytes, cord blood, placenta, parental bloods and/or buccal mucosal cells.

Results: Repeat amniocentesis at 21 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46, XY in cultured amniocytes, and 30% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by aCGH and 32% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in uncultured amniocytes. Repeat amniocentesis at 29 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46, XY in cultured amniocytes, and 15% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by aCGH and 7.2% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in uncultured amniocytes. QF-PCR on cultured amniocytes excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 15. A phenotypically normal baby was delivered subsequently with a karyotype of 46, XY in cord blood and 2% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in buccal mucosal cells. The aCGH analysis revealed trisomy 15 in placenta and no genomic imbalance in cord blood. QF-PCR assays determined a maternal origin of trisomy 15 in placenta.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between uncultured and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis. The cells of trisomy 15 cell line in prenatally detected mosaic trisomy 15 may decrease in number as the fetus grows. Whenever NIPT suspects trisomy 15, a confirmatory amniocentesis should include genetic analysis on both uncultured and cultured amniocytes to exclude mosaic trisomy 15 and maternal UPD 15, especially when the cultured amniocytes have a normal karyotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.018DOI Listing
September 2020

High-Performance Semitransparent Organic Photovoltaics Featuring a Surface Phase-Matched Transmission-Enhancing Ag/ITO Electrode.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Sep 24;12(35):39496-39504. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan.

In this study, we designed a surface phase-matched transmission enhancement top electrode-Ag/indium tin oxide (ITO) structure for highly efficient and aesthetic semitransparent organic photovoltaics (ST-OPVs). The purposed highly transparent back electrodes (Ag/ITO) could selectively decrease visible reflection and increase transparency accordingly. By altering the thicknesses of the Ag and ITO layers, we could control the transmittance curve and increase the transparency of the ST-OPV devices. Devices based on PTB7-Th:IEICO-4F and PM6:Y6:PCBM displayed outstanding performance (8.1 and 10.2%, respectively) with high photopic-weighted visible light transmittance (36.2 and 28.6%, respectively). The outstanding visible and near-infrared light harvesting of PM6:Y6:PCBM further allowed a new application: double-sided energy harvesting from solar and indoor illumination. The simple optical design of a top electrode displaying high transparency/conductivity has a wide range of potential applications in, for example, greenhouse photovoltaics, tandem cells, and portable devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c10906DOI Listing
September 2020