Publications by authors named "Chien-Jung Lin"

30 Publications

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Flower-visiting insects of genus (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) at the Fushan Botanical Garden, Taiwan.

Biodivers Data J 2021 26;9:e60315. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Botanical Garden Division, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan Botanical Garden Division, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute Taipei Taiwan.

Background: We investigated the diversity and behaviour of insects that visit flowers of four native (Family Melastomataceae) species of Taiwan and a horticultural hybrid species at the Fushan Botanical Garden, Taiwan biweekly from May to August 2020. Visits of flower-visiting insects were classified into seven behavioural categories, based on the insects' behaviour and positions on the flower. The data are further assigned into four insect-flower interactions, namely pollination, herbivory, commensalism and neutralism. Our goal is to provide baseline data of insect-plant interactions of , which is a common, but understudied plant genus in the country.

New Information: A total of 1,289 visits to flowers were recorded by at least 63 insect morphospecies belonging to seven orders. The number of insect species recorded per species ranged from 9 to 39. Visiting, sonication and passing were the three most frequently recorded types of behaviour, collectively accounting for 90.2% (n = 1,240) of the total observations. Pollination was the most dominant insect-flower interaction, accounting for 70.2% of the total observations, followed by neutralism (20.0%), herbivory (6.3%) and commensalism (3.5%). Sweat bees of the genera and (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) are considered key pollinators to species in Fushan Botanical Garden, based on their high number of visits and sonication behaviour. Our study provides the first list of insects that visit the flowers of all Taiwan's known species and description of their interactions with the plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.9.e60315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854558PMC
January 2021

RNA Vaccines for COVID-19: 5 Things Every Cardiologist Should Know.

JACC Basic Transl Sci 2020 Dec 23;5(12):1240-1243. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Center for Cardiovascular Research, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacbts.2020.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682931PMC
December 2020

A traditional Chinese medicine formula NRICM101 to target COVID-19 through multiple pathways: A bedside-to-bench study.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 19;133:111037. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Health and Welfare, No.155-1, Section 2, Linong Street, Beitou District, Taipei 11221, Taiwan; School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, No.91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan. Electronic address:

COVID-19 is a global pandemic, with over 50 million confirmed cases and 1.2 million deaths as of November 11, 2020. No therapies or vaccines so far are recommended to treat or prevent the new coronavirus. A novel traditional Chinese medicine formula, Taiwan Chingguan Yihau (NRICM101), has been administered to patients with COVID-19 in Taiwan since April 2020. Its clinical outcomes and pharmacology have been evaluated. Among 33 patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted in two medical centers, those (n = 12) who were older, sicker, with more co-existing conditions and showing no improvement after 21 days of hospitalization were given NRICM101. They achieved 3 consecutive negative results within a median of 9 days and reported no adverse events. Pharmacological assays demonstrated the effects of the formula in inhibiting the spike protein/ACE2 interaction, 3CL protease activity, viral plaque formation, and production of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. This bedside-to-bench study suggests that NRICM101 may disrupt disease progression through its antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, offering promise as a multi-target agent for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676327PMC
January 2021

Application of an innovative front aeration and internal recirculation strategy to improve the removal of pollutants in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

J Environ Manage 2020 Feb 9;256:109873. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Department of Environmental Resources Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 71710, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

The pollutant removal performance of traditional horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands (CWs) is limited because of the dissolved oxygen (DO) supply is insufficient. The aeration of HSSF CWs usually improves their pollutant removal performance, but a high DO induces the accumulation of nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) and suppresses the improvement of total nitrogen (TN) removal. In this study, an integrated solution that involved in-tank front aeration and internal recirculation (FAIR) was used to improve the pollutant removal performance of HSSF CWs. Based on the experimental results, the FAIR system significantly increased the removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from 53.8-76.0% to 82.0-91.7% and reduced the BOD concentration in the effluent to below 10 mg L. The removal efficiency of ammonia-nitrogen (NH-N) increased from 15.1-78.3% to 98.5-98.6% while the removal efficiencies of the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) of the control and FAIR HSSF CWs were 18.2-77.1% and 93.5-94.3%, respectively. HSSF CWs with FAIR outperformed aerated HSSF CWs in the removal of NH-N and TKN. The effects of two recirculation flow ratios (Rr = recirculation flow rate/influent flow rate), 14.3 and 3.0, on the improvement of pollutant removal performance were investigated. The lower Rr did not significantly affect the improvement of BOD, NH-N, and TKN, but a higher Rr resulted in more severe accumulation of NO-N. The removal efficiency of TN in control HSSF CWs ranged from 20.4% to 75.5%, and in the FAIR HSSF CW was 71.6% for Rr = 14.3 and 81.3% for Rr = 3.0. However, the FAIR system did not enhance the removal performance of total phosphorus, suggesting that the DO level and internal recirculation were not dominant mechanisms for the removal of phosphorous. The easy maintenance of the FAIR system made it a superior modification for improving the pollutant removal performance of HSSF CWs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109873DOI Listing
February 2020

Using Chinese Body Constitution Concepts and Measurable Variables for Assessing Risk of Coronary Artery Disease.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 16;2019:8218013. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.

Background: Identifying patients with high risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is often difficult in outpatient clinic settings. This study aimed to explore if the measurement of body constitution can be adopted to predict the risk of CAD diagnosis. The objective of this study is to conduct a prospective observational study and a case-control study to answer the research question.

Study Design: Part 1 (prospective observational study): a total of 143 patients with chest pain and admitted to receive cardiac catheterization were enrolled, and 108 of them were diagnosed with CAD. Part 2 (case-control study): the above 108 CAD patients and 476 healthy controls matched by age and gender from the participants of Taiwan Biobank were adopted for comparison.

Main Outcome Measures: The body constitution of both patients and healthy controls were measured by the Body Constitution Questionnaire (BCQ). Each one received scores of (), (), and . These 3 scores together with demographic characteristics and CAD risk factors were used in the logistic multiple regression model to predict the risk of CAD.

Results: (Part 1) No difference was found between the scores of , , and between the patients with and without CAD. (Part 2) The scores of , , and of the CAD patients were significant higher those of the healthy controls. and scores were obtained with age, BMI, and hypertension in the model with prediction rate 89.0%. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve of this model was 0.896.

Conclusions: This study is the first to apply Chinese body constitution concepts and measurable variables to assess the risk of having CAD of the patients with chest pain prior to receiving cardiac catheterization. The higher scores of and were found to be risk factors. Our results revealed that BCQ has the potential to be a first-line diagnostic tool for patients with chest pain to facilitate early recognition and diagnosis of CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8218013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6766256PMC
September 2019

Heterogeneous Cellular Contributions to Elastic Laminae Formation in Arterial Wall Development.

Circ Res 2019 11 8;125(11):1006-1018. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science (M.C.S., J.Z.H., J.E.W.).

Rationale: Elastin is an important ECM (extracellular matrix) protein in large and small arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) produce the layered elastic laminae found in elastic arteries but synthesize little elastin in muscular arteries. However, muscular arteries have a well-defined internal elastic lamina (IEL) that separates endothelial cells (ECs) from SMCs. The extent to which ECs contribute elastin to the IEL is unknown.

Objective: To use targeted elastin (Eln) deletion in mice to explore the relative contributions of SMCs and ECs to elastic laminae formation in different arteries.

Methods And Results: We used SMC- and EC-specific recombinase transgenes with a novel floxed allele to focus gene inactivation in mice. Inactivation of in SMCs using resulted in depletion of elastic laminae in the arterial wall with the exception of the IEL and SMC clusters in the outer media near the adventitia. Inactivation of elastin in ECs using or resulted in normal medial elastin and a typical IEL in elastic arteries. In contrast, the IEL was absent or severely disrupted in muscular arteries. Interruptions in the IEL resulted in neointimal formation in the ascending aorta but not in muscular arteries.

Conclusions: Combined with lineage-specific fate mapping systems, our knockout results document an unexpected heterogeneity in vascular cells that produce the elastic laminae. SMCs and ECs can independently form an IEL in most elastic arteries, whereas ECs are the major source of elastin for the IEL in muscular and resistance arteries. Neointimal formation at IEL disruptions in the ascending aorta confirms that the IEL is a critical physical barrier between SMCs and ECs in the large elastic arteries. Our studies provide new information about how SMCs and ECs contribute elastin to the arterial wall and how local elastic laminae defects may contribute to cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.315348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7017653PMC
November 2019

Applying Pulse Spectrum Analysis to Facilitate the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 3;2019:2709486. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.

Not all patients with angina pectoris have coronary artery stenosis. To facilitate the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), we sought to identify predictive factors of pulse spectrum analysis, which was developed by Wang and is one technique of modern pulse diagnosis. The patients suffered from chest pain and received cardiac catheterization to confirm the CAD diagnosis and Gensini score were recruited. Their pulse waves of radial artery were recorded. Then, by performing a fast Fourier transform, 10 amplitude values of frequency spectrum harmonics were obtained. Each harmonic amplitude was divided by the sum of all harmonic amplitude values, obtaining the relative percentages of 10 harmonics (C1-C10). Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression was conducted with two models and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) of these 2 models were compared to see if combining the pulse diagnosis parameters with the risk factor of CAD can increase the prediction rate of CAD diagnosis. The predictive factors of CAD severity were analyzed by multivariate linear regression. A total of 83 participants were included; 63 were diagnosed CAD and 20 without CAD. In the CAD group, C1 was greater and C5 was lower than those of the non-CAD group. The CAD risk factors were put alone in Model 1 to perform the multivariate logistic regression analysis which had a prediction rate of 77.1%; while putting the C1 and C5 harmonics together with the risk factors into Model 2, the prediction rate increased to 80.7%. Finally, the area under ROC of Model 1 and Model 2 was 0.788 and 0.856, respectively. Furthermore, left C1, left C5, gender, and presence of hyperlipidemia were predictors of CAD severity. Therefore, pulse spectrum analysis may be a tool to facilitate CAD diagnosis before receiving cardiac catheterization. The harmonics C1 and C5 were favorable predictive indicators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2709486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582909PMC
June 2019

Genetics of the extracellular matrix in aortic aneurysmal diseases.

Matrix Biol 2018 10 12;71-72:128-143. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA; Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA; McDonell Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Aortic aneurysms are morbid conditions that can lead to rupture or dissection and are categorized as thoracic (TAA) or abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) depending on their location. While AAA shares overlapping risk factors with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, TAA exhibits strong heritability. Human genetic studies in the past two decades have successfully identified numerous genes involved in both familial and sporadic forms of aortic aneurysm. In this review we will discuss the genetic basis of aortic aneurysm, focusing on the extracellular matrix and how insights from these studies have informed our understanding of human biology and disease pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2018.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146054PMC
October 2018

Incorrect Conclusions of a Secondary Analysis-Reply.

JAMA Intern Med 2018 04;178(4):582-583

Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.0203DOI Listing
April 2018

Insurance access in adults with congenital heart disease in the Affordable Care Act era.

Congenit Heart Dis 2018 May 26;13(3):384-391. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Background: Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) have traditionally been viewed as an underinsured population. Whether this is true in the Affordable Care Act era is unknown. We determined insurance patterns in ACHD patients compared to the non-ACHD cardiology population in a contemporary cohort.

Methods: All cardiology outpatient visits between July 2016 and February 2017 to a large referral center in the United States were reviewed. The primary payer was categorized as health maintenance organization (HMO), preferred provider organization (PPO), Medicare, Medicaid, self-pay, or other. Diagnosis and lesion severity of ACHD were extracted from ICD-10 diagnostic codes and assigned according to the 2008 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association ACHD guidelines. Age-matching was used to account for baseline age differences between ACHD and non-ACHD patients.

Results: E ACHD and 17 154 non-ACHD patients were identified. Without age-matching, ACHD patients were significantly younger than non-ACHD patients (mean age 38.5 vs 63.8 years). After age-matching (N = 805 in each group), mean age was 39.5 years in both groups. ACHD patients had less HMO (29.1% vs 34.7%, P = .012) and Medicaid (12.4% vs 17.3%, P = .006) coverage, but more PPO (34.4% vs 27.5%, P = .003) and Medicare (23.2% vs 18.1%, P = .005) coverage compared to non-ACHD patients. No differences were found in private insurance, public insurance, or self-pay. Lesion complexity had no effect on insurance in ACHD patients. Eligibility of parental plan coverage did not affect use of private insurance. ACHD patients in states with Medicaid expansion had higher rates of Medicaid (15.6% vs 10.6%, P = .045) but lower rates of HMO coverage (24.5% vs 31.7%, P = .036) and self-pay (0% vs 3.3%, P < .001). ACHD status, age, income, and residence in Medicaid expansion states were independent determinants of insurance types.

Conclusions: In the Affordable Care Act era, ACHD patients are a well-insured population. Governmental policy has substantial effects on individual-level choice and access to insurance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/chd.12582DOI Listing
May 2018

Noninvasive Cardiac Testing vs Clinical Evaluation Alone in Acute Chest Pain: A Secondary Analysis of the ROMICAT-II Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Intern Med 2018 02;178(2):212-219

Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri.

Importance: The incremental benefit of noninvasive testing in addition to clinical evaluation (history, physical examination, an electrocardiogram [ECG], and biomarker assessment) vs clinical evaluation alone for patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain is unknown.

Objective: To examine differences in outcomes with clinical evaluation and noninvasive testing (coronary computed tomographic angiography [CCTA] or stress testing) vs clinical evaluation alone.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study was a retrospective analysis of data from the randomized multicenter Rule Out Myocardial Ischemia/Infarction by Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT-II) trial. Data for 1000 patients who presented with chest pain to the EDs at 9 hospitals in the United States were evaluated.

Interventions: Clinical evaluation plus noninvasive testing (CCTA or stress test) vs clinical evaluation alone.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Primary outcome was length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes included hospital admission, direct ED discharge, downstream testing, rates of invasive coronary angiography, revascularization, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), repeated ED visit or hospitalization for recurrent chest pain at 28 days, and cost. Safety end points were missed acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cumulative radiation exposure during the index visit and follow-up period.

Results: Of the 1000 patients randomized, 118 patients (12%) (mean [SD] age, 53.2 [7.8]; 49 [42%] were female) did not undergo noninvasive testing, whereas 882 (88%) (mean [SD] age, 54.4 [8.14] years; 419 [48%] were female) received CCTA or stress testing. There was no difference in baseline characteristics or clinical presentation between groups. Patients who underwent clinical evaluation alone experienced a shorter LOS (20.3 vs 27.9 hours; P < .001), lower rates of diagnostic testing (P < .001) and angiography (2% vs 11%; P < .001), lower median costs ($2261.50 vs $2584.30; P = .009), and less cumulative radiation exposure (0 vs 9.9 mSv; P < .001) during the 28-day study period. Lack of testing was associated with a lower rate of diagnosis of ACS (0% vs 9%; P < .001) and less coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during the index visit (0% vs 10%; P < .001, and 0% vs 4%; P = .02, respectively). There was no difference in rates of PCI (2% vs 5%; P = .15), coronary artery bypass surgery (0% vs 1%; P = .61), return ED visits (5.8% vs 2.8%; P = .08), or MACE (2% vs 1%; P = .24) in the 28-day follow-up period.

Conclusions And Relevance: In patients presenting to the ED with acute chest pain, negative biomarkers, and a nonischemic ECG result, noninvasive testing with CCTA or stress testing leads to longer LOS, more downstream testing, more radiation exposure, and greater cost without an improvement in clinical outcomes.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01084239.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.7360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5838790PMC
February 2018

Cardiomyopathy in patients after posttransplant cyclophosphamide-based hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Cancer 2017 05 6;123(10):1800-1809. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Bone Marrow Transplant and Leukemia Program, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri.

Background: The use of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) has contributed significantly to the success of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Furthermore, several studies have shown promising results in the human leukocyte antigen-matched setting. However, the use of high-dose cyclophosphamide has been associated with the development of cardiomyopathy. There is a paucity of data concerning posttransplant cardiac complications in patients undergoing PT-Cy-based HCT.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 176 patients undergoing HCT with PT-Cy was performed. The overall survival, left ventricular ejection fractions, brain natriuretic peptide levels, and cardiac comorbidities were reviewed. The associations between comorbidities and the onset of heart failure were assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: Pretransplant cardiomyopathy was found in 16 patients (9.1%) but had no effect on their posttransplant overall survival. Thirty-five patients (21.9%) developed posttransplant cardiomyopathy, which correlated with increased mortality, but this was not statistically different from the frequency-matched non-PT-Cy cohort. The majority of these cardiomyopathies occurred in the setting of an infectious milieu. An age greater than 60 years and an HCT comorbidity index score equal to or greater than 4 were the only risk factors that correlated with posttransplant cardiomyopathy.

Conclusions: The presence of pretransplant cardiomyopathy does not negatively affect overall survival for patients who undergo HCT with PT-Cy. Furthermore, cardiomyopathy in PT-Cy patients is not caused by PT-Cy but is mostly concurrent with infectious complications and is associated with reduced overall survival. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not fully predict the occurrence of posttransplant cardiomyopathy. Future research is required to unravel predictive factors for cardiomyopathy after PT-Cy-based HCT. Cancer 2017;123:1800-1809. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30534DOI Listing
May 2017

Cool extremities, a diagnostic sign recorded in Shang Han Lun, still good prognosis index for septic patients in today's medical intensive care unit.

Chin J Integr Med 2014 Sep 24. Epub 2014 Sep 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Nantou Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Nantou, Taiwan, 54044, China.

Objective: To evaluate and compare the predictive value of the physical signs mentioned by ZHANG Zhong-jing in Treatise on Cold Damaged Diseases (Shang Han Lun), together with other clinically determined diagnostic scores and laboratory values in modern medicine on 28-day mortality in septic patients.

Methods: Three-year prospective observation was conducted in medical intensive care unit in two local community hospitals. In all, 126 patients with severe sepsis and/or septic shock were consecutively enrolled. Ten diagnostic signs (lack of fever, lethargy, delirium, clammy skin, mottled skin, edematous limbs, cool extremities, threadlike pulse, tachycardia, and abdominal distension), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II, cardiovascular component (CV score) in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) score and blood sampled for cytokine measurement, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18, were collected within 24 h after admission. Main outcome was 28-day mortality; independent predictors were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: Significant correlation between lack of fever, cool extremities, abdominal distension, plasma IL-10 level and mortality emerged. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for cool extremities (0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.82, P<0.01) and IL-10 (0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.66-0.83, P<0.01) indicated comparable discrimination between survivors and non-survivors.

Conclusions: Assessment of cool extremities in septic patients, which showed comparable discriminant ability as IL-10, proves prognostic value of diagnostic signs recorded in Treatise on Cold Damaged Diseases, and may provide a quicker, easily-observed, and non-invasive predictor of sepsis mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-014-1840-4DOI Listing
September 2014

A long noncoding RNA protects the heart from pathological hypertrophy.

Nature 2014 Oct 10;514(7520):102-106. Epub 2014 Aug 10.

Krannert Institute of Cardiology and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine.

The role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in adult hearts is unknown; also unclear is how lncRNA modulates nucleosome remodelling. An estimated 70% of mouse genes undergo antisense transcription, including myosin heavy chain 7 (Myh7), which encodes molecular motor proteins for heart contraction. Here we identify a cluster of lncRNA transcripts from Myh7 loci and demonstrate a new lncRNA-chromatin mechanism for heart failure. In mice, these transcripts, which we named myosin heavy-chain-associated RNA transcripts (Myheart, or Mhrt), are cardiac-specific and abundant in adult hearts. Pathological stress activates the Brg1-Hdac-Parp chromatin repressor complex to inhibit Mhrt transcription in the heart. Such stress-induced Mhrt repression is essential for cardiomyopathy to develop: restoring Mhrt to the pre-stress level protects the heart from hypertrophy and failure. Mhrt antagonizes the function of Brg1, a chromatin-remodelling factor that is activated by stress to trigger aberrant gene expression and cardiac myopathy. Mhrt prevents Brg1 from recognizing its genomic DNA targets, thus inhibiting chromatin targeting and gene regulation by Brg1. It does so by binding to the helicase domain of Brg1, a domain that is crucial for tethering Brg1 to chromatinized DNA targets. Brg1 helicase has dual nucleic-acid-binding specificities: it is capable of binding lncRNA (Mhrt) and chromatinized--but not naked--DNA. This dual-binding feature of helicase enables a competitive inhibition mechanism by which Mhrt sequesters Brg1 from its genomic DNA targets to prevent chromatin remodelling. A Mhrt-Brg1 feedback circuit is thus crucial for heart function. Human MHRT also originates from MYH7 loci and is repressed in various types of myopathic hearts, suggesting a conserved lncRNA mechanism in human cardiomyopathy. Our studies identify a cardioprotective lncRNA, define a new targeting mechanism for ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling factors, and establish a new paradigm for lncRNA-chromatin interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4184960PMC
October 2014

Inappropriate p53 activation during development induces features of CHARGE syndrome.

Nature 2014 Oct 3;514(7521):228-32. Epub 2014 Aug 3.

1] Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

CHARGE syndrome is a multiple anomaly disorder in which patients present with a variety of phenotypes, including ocular coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genitourinary hypoplasia and ear abnormalities. Despite 70-90% of CHARGE syndrome cases resulting from mutations in the gene CHD7, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller, the pathways underlying the diverse phenotypes remain poorly understood. Surprisingly, our studies of a knock-in mutant mouse strain that expresses a stabilized and transcriptionally dead variant of the tumour-suppressor protein p53 (p53(25,26,53,54)), along with a wild-type allele of p53 (also known as Trp53), revealed late-gestational embryonic lethality associated with a host of phenotypes that are characteristic of CHARGE syndrome, including coloboma, inner and outer ear malformations, heart outflow tract defects and craniofacial defects. We found that the p53(25,26,53,54) mutant protein stabilized and hyperactivated wild-type p53, which then inappropriately induced its target genes and triggered cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis during development. Importantly, these phenotypes were only observed with a wild-type p53 allele, as p53(25,26,53,54)(/-) embryos were fully viable. Furthermore, we found that CHD7 can bind to the p53 promoter, thereby negatively regulating p53 expression, and that CHD7 loss in mouse neural crest cells or samples from patients with CHARGE syndrome results in p53 activation. Strikingly, we found that p53 heterozygosity partially rescued the phenotypes in Chd7-null mouse embryos, demonstrating that p53 contributes to the phenotypes that result from CHD7 loss. Thus, inappropriate p53 activation during development can promote CHARGE phenotypes, supporting the idea that p53 has a critical role in developmental syndromes and providing important insight into the mechanisms underlying CHARGE syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4192026PMC
October 2014

Pbx1 activates Fgf10 in the mesenchyme of developing lungs.

Genesis 2014 May 14;52(5):399-407. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Insufficiency of surfactants is a core factor in respiratory distress syndrome, which causes apnea and neonatal death, particularly in preterm infants. Surfactant proteins are secreted by alveolar type II cells in the lung epithelium, the differentiation of which is regulated by Fgf10 elaborated by the adjacent mesenchyme. However, the molecular regulation of mesenchymal Fgf10 during lung development has not been fully understood. Here, we show that Pbx1, a homeodomain transcription factor, is required in the lung mesenchyme for the expression of Fgf10. Mouse embryos lacking Pbx1 in the lung mesenchyme show compact terminal saccules and perinatal lethality with failure of postnatal alveolar expansion. Mutant embryos had severely reduced expression of Fgf10 and surfactant genes (Spa, Spb, Spc, and Spd) that are essential for alveolar expansion for gas exchange at birth. Molecularly, Pbx1 directly binds to the Fgf10 promoter and cooperates with Meis and Hox proteins to transcriptionally activate Fgf10. Our results thus show how Pbx1 controls Fgf10 in the developing lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvg.22764DOI Listing
May 2014

Epicardial calcineurin-NFAT signals through Smad2 to direct coronary smooth muscle cell and arterial wall development.

Cardiovasc Res 2014 Jan 14;101(1):120-9. Epub 2013 Aug 14.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Aims: Congenital coronary artery anomalies produce serious events that include syncope, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, or sudden death. Studying the mechanism of coronary development will contribute to the understanding of the disease and help design new diagnostic or therapeutic strategies. Here, we characterized a new calcineurin-NFAT signalling which specifically functions in the epicardium to regulate the development of smooth muscle wall of the coronary arteries.

Methods And Results: Using tissue-specific gene deletion, we found that calcineurin-NFAT signals in the embryonic epicardium to direct coronary smooth muscle cell development. The smooth muscle wall of coronary arteries fails to mature in mice with epicardial deletion of calcineurin B1 (Cnb1), and accordingly these mutant mice develop cardiac dysfunction with reduced exercise capacity. Inhibition of calcineurin at various developmental windows shows that calcineurin-NFAT signals within a narrow time window at embryonic Day 12.5-13.5 to regulate coronary smooth muscle cell development. Within the epicardium, NFAT transcriptionally activates the expression of Smad2, whose gene product is critical for transducing transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-Alk5 signalling to control coronary development.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate new spatiotemporal and molecular actions of calcineurin-NFAT that dictate coronary arterial wall development and a new mechanism by which calcineurin-NFAT integrates with TGFβ signalling during embryonic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvt197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868347PMC
January 2014

Bai-hu-tang, ancient chinese medicine formula, may provide a new complementary treatment option for sepsis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 15;2013:193084. Epub 2013 May 15.

Department of Chinese Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei 11490, Taiwan ; Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.

Bai-Hu-Tang (BHT) has been broadly applied to treating the early stage of acute infection with systemic inflammation for two thousand years in Chinese medicine. We explore whether BHT is beneficial in treating sepsis and its effects on proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, in which both play key roles in the progress of sepsis. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into six groups, with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) performed in all but the sham-control group. Rats in CLP + BHT-L6 and CLP + BHT-H6 groups, respectively, received a low (0.45 g/kg) and high doses (0.9 g/kg) of BHT, 6 hrs postoperatively. CLP + BHT-L12 and CLP + BHT-H12 groups, respectively, received low and high doses of BHT, 12 hrs postoperatively. Sham-control and sepsis-control groups received distilled water (1 mL) as vehicle, 6 hrs postoperatively. Serial blood samples were drawn before operation, as baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 hrs postoperatively for IL-6 and IL-10 assay. All rats were monitored for 3 days for survival study. Rats in the CLP + BHT-H6 group had significantly higher survival rate (80%) and significantly lower levels of both IL-6 and IL-10 at 12 hrs postoperatively than those in the sepsis-control group. Results suggested that BHT may be a new complementary treatment option for sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/193084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3671277PMC
June 2013

Brg1 governs distinct pathways to direct multiple aspects of mammalian neural crest cell development.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Jan 14;110(5):1738-43. Epub 2013 Jan 14.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Development of the cerebral vessels, pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs). and cardiac outflow tract (OFT) requires multipotent neural crest cells (NCCs) that migrate from the neural tube to target tissue destinations. Little is known about how mammalian NCC development is orchestrated by gene programming at the chromatin level, however. Here we show that Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1), an ATPase subunit of the Brg1/Brahma-associated factor (BAF) chromatin-remodeling complex, is required in NCCs to direct cardiovascular development. Mouse embryos lacking Brg1 in NCCs display immature cerebral vessels, aberrant PAA patterning, and shortened OFT. Brg1 suppresses an apoptosis factor, Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (Ask1), and a cell cycle inhibitor, p21(cip1), to inhibit apoptosis and promote proliferation of NCCs, thereby maintaining a multipotent cell reservoir at the neural crest. Brg1 also supports Myosin heavy chain 11 (Myh11) expression to allow NCCs to develop into mature vascular smooth muscle cells of cerebral vessels. Within NCCs, Brg1 partners with chromatin remodeler Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 7 (Chd7) on the PlexinA2 promoter to activate PlexinA2, which encodes a receptor for semaphorin to guide NCCs into the OFT. Our findings reveal an important role for Brg1 and its downstream pathways in the survival, differentiation, and migration of the multipotent NCCs critical for mammalian cardiovascular development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1218072110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3562770PMC
January 2013

Swift model for a lower heating value prediction based on wet-based physical components of municipal solid waste.

Waste Manag 2013 Feb 11;33(2):268-76. Epub 2012 Dec 11.

Department of Environmental Resources Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, No. 60, Sec. 1, Erren Rd., Rende Dist., Tainan City 71710, Taiwan.

To establish an empirical model for predicting a lower heating value (LHV) easily and economically by multiple regression analysis. A wet-based physical components model (WBPCM) was developed and based on physical component analysis without dewatering. Based on 497 samples of municipal solid waste (MSW) gathered from 14 incinerators in western parts of Taiwan from 2002 to 2009. The proposed model was verified by independent samples from other incinerators through parameters multiple correlation coefficients (R), relative percentage deviation (RPD) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Experimental results indicated that R, RPD and MAPE were 0.976, 17.1 and 17.7, respectively. This finding implies that LHV predicted by the WBPCM could well explain the LHV characteristics of MSW. The WBPCM was also compared with existing prediction models of LHV on a dry basis. While more accurately predicting LHV predicting than those models based on proximate analysis, the WBPCM was comparable with models based on physical component analysis in term of RPD and MAPE. Experimental results further indicated that the prediction accuracy of the WBPCM varied with MSW moisture parabolically. No specific relation was observed in the results of the previous prediction model. The accuracy of the WBPCM was almost approached to that of ultimate analysis in moisture ranging from 40% to 55%. The model was applicable within this moisture range. We conclude that the WBPCM is a faster and more economical model for LHV predictions with comparable accuracy than those models based on physical component analysis. The proposed WBPCM is highly promising for use in designing and operating incinerators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.11.003DOI Listing
February 2013

Partitioning the heart: mechanisms of cardiac septation and valve development.

Development 2012 Sep;139(18):3277-99

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Heart malformations are common congenital defects in humans. Many congenital heart defects involve anomalies in cardiac septation or valve development, and understanding the developmental mechanisms that underlie the formation of cardiac septal and valvular tissues thus has important implications for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of congenital heart disease. The development of heart septa and valves involves multiple types of progenitor cells that arise either within or outside the heart. Here, we review the morphogenetic events and genetic networks that regulate spatiotemporal interactions between the cells that give rise to septal and valvular tissues and hence partition the heart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.063495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3424040PMC
September 2012

The secondary heart field is a new site of calcineurin/Nfatc1 signaling for semilunar valve development.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2012 May 26;52(5):1096-102. Epub 2012 Jan 26.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Semilunar valve malformations are common human congenital heart defects. Bicuspid aortic valves occur in 2-3% of the population, and pulmonic valve stenosis constitutes 10% of all congenital heart disease in adults (Brickner et al., 2000) [1]. Semilunar valve defects cause valve regurgitation, stenosis, or calcification, leading to endocarditis or congestive heart failure. These complications often require prolonged medical treatment or surgical intervention. Despite the medical importance of valve disease, the regulatory pathways governing semilunar valve development are not entirely clear. In this report we investigated the spatiotemporal role of calcineurin/Nfatc1 signaling in semilunar valve development. We generated conditional knockout mice with calcineurin gene disrupted in various tissues during semilunar valve development. Our studies showed that calcineurin/Nfatc1 pathway signals in the secondary heart field (SHF) but not in the outflow tract myocardium or neural crest cells to regulate semilunar valve morphogenesis. Without SHF calcineurin/Nfatc1 signaling, the conal endocardial cushions-the site of prospective semilunar valve formation--first develop and then regress due to apoptosis, resulting in a striking phenotype with complete absence of the aortic and pulmonic valves, severe valve regurgitation, and perinatal lethality. This role of calcineurin/Nfatc1 signaling in the SHF is different from the requirement of calcineurin/Nfatc1 in the endocardium for semilunar valve formation (Chang et al., 2004) [2], indicating that calcineurin/Nfatc1 signals in multiple tissues to organize semilunar valve development. Also, our studies suggest distinct mechanisms of calcineurin/Nfat signaling for semilunar and atrioventricular valve morphogenesis. Therefore, we demonstrate a novel developmental mechanism in which calcineurin signals through Nfatc1 in the secondary heart field to promote semilunar valve morphogenesis, revealing a new supportive role of the secondary heart field for semilunar valve formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2012.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3327781PMC
May 2012

Coupling of zero valent iron and biobarriers for remediation of trichloroethylene in groundwater.

J Environ Sci (China) 2011 ;23(4):560-7

Department of Biotechnology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

This study attempted to construct a three series barrier system to treat high concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE; 500 mg/L) in synthetic groundwater. The system consisted of three reactive barriers using iron fillings as an iron-based barrier in the first column, sugarcane bagasse mixed with anaerobic sludge as an anaerobic barrier in the second column, and a biofilm coated on oxygen carbon inducer releasing material as an aerobic barrier in the third column. In order to evaluate the extent of removal of TCE and its metabolites in the aquifer down gradient of the barrier system, a fourth column filled with sand was applied. Residence time of the system was investigated by a bromide tracer test. The results showed that residence time in the column system of the control set and experimental set were 23.62 and 29.99 days, respectively. The efficiency of the three series barrier system in removing TCE was approximately 84% in which the removal efficiency of TCE by the iron filling barrier, anaerobic barrier and aerobic barrier were 42%, 16% and 25%, respectively, cis-Dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), ethylene and chloride ions were observed as metabolites following TCE degradation. The presence of chloride ions in the effluent from the column system indicated the degradation of TCE. However, cis-DCE and VC were not fully degraded by the proposed barrier system which suggested that another remediation technology after the barrier treatment such as air sparging and adsorption by activated carbon should be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1001-0742(10)60448-2DOI Listing
August 2011

Rottlerin inhibits migration of follicular thyroid carcinoma cells by PKCdelta-independent destabilization of the focal adhesion complex.

J Cell Biochem 2010 May;110(2):428-37

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10051, Taiwan.

This study examined the effect of rottlerin on the focal adhesion-mediated cell migration of CGTH W-2 human follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. Rottlerin (10 microM) resulted in decreased adhesion of CGTH W-2 cells to matrix substance, which was correlated with metastatic potential. Rottlerin treatment also resulted in a marked reduction in the migration of CGTH W-2 cells. Protein levels of integrin beta1, FAK, and paxillin were decreased by rottlerin. Consistent with this, immunostaining of FAK, vinculin, and paxillin revealed disassembly of the focal adhesions. Disruption of actin stress fibers was noted, which was compatible with reduced expression levels and activities of Rac-1 and Rho. The effect of rottlerin on cell migration was not attributable to inhibition of PKCdelta activity since siRNA knockdown of PKCdelta did not recapitulate the effects of rottlerin on cell adhesion and migration. Furthermore, activation of PKCdelta by phorbol esters failed to restore the rottlerin-inhibited migratory ability. The mitochondrial uncoupler, carbonylcyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenylhydrazone, was able to mimic several rottlerin's effects. In summary, we demonstrated that rottlerin inhibits the migration of CGTH W-2 cells by disassembly of focal adhesion complexes in a PKCdelta-independent manner, and might play as a mitochondrial uncoupler role in these events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.22555DOI Listing
May 2010

Pulse spectrum analysis, a faster and easier way to predict outcome of sepsis?

Am J Chin Med 2008 ;36(6):1061-70

Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

In order to provide a faster and easier way for outcome prediction of sepsis, this study aimed to characterize the pattern of arterial pulse spectrum by a rat cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) model and explore whether specific harmonic components of pulse spectrum are associated with the mortality of CLP rats, followed by the comparison of accuracy between these specific variables and IL-6. Nineteen Sprague-Dawley rats receiving CLP were analyzed. Femoral artery of each rat was catheterized for blood pressure recording and blood sampling in the first 24 hours after CLP. The former was for off-line pulse spectrum analysis, and the latter for IL-6 assay. These rats were observed for 3-day mortality after CLP, and were divided into survivor or non-survivor groups. Differences of the hemodynamic profile, IL-6, and changes of the harmonics between the 2 groups were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney test. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to characterize cumulative survival with the best prognostic cutoff point. The characteristic changes of pulse spectrum were different between survivors and non-survivors. The percentage differences of the 2nd harmonic proportion (C2) increased significantly from the 10th hour after CLP, and was higher in the non-survivors. Serum levels of IL-6 were also higher in the non-survivor group. Analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve for 3-day mortality, C2 had a higher accuracy than IL-6 as a predictor. The pulse spectrum analysis may be applied to evaluate the prognosis of CLP rats, and the rapidly and highly elevated C2 harmonic had a strong association with the 3-day mortality of CLP rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X08006569DOI Listing
March 2009

Evaluation of the multiple-ion competition in the adsorption of As(V) onto reclaimed iron-oxide coated sands by fractional factorial design.

Chemosphere 2008 Jul 22;72(7):1049-55. Epub 2008 May 22.

Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

This study describes the competitive effects of selected ions and natural organic matter on As(V) removal using reclaimed iron-oxide coated sands (RIOCS) in the single- and multi-ion systems. A 2(7-3) factional factorial experimental design (FFD) was employed for screening main competitive factors in this adsorption process. As a result, the inhibitive competition effects of the anions on As(V) removal in the single ion system were in the following sequence: PO(4)(3-)>SiO(3)(2-)>HCO(3)(-)>humic acid (HA)>SO(4)(2-)>Cl(-), whereas the cation Ca(2+) was observed to enhance the As(V) removal. In addition, the optimum initial pH for As(V) removal in single-ion system was 5. Based on the estimates of major effects and interactions from the FFD, PO(4)(3-), SiO(3)(2-), Ca(2+) and HA were important factors on As(V) removal in the multi-ion system. The promoters for the As(V) removal were found to be Ca(2+) and, to a lesser extent, SO(4)(2-). The competitive effects of these ions on As(V) removal were in the order of PO(4)(3-), SiO(3)(2-), HA, HCO(3)(-), and Cl(-). In the single ion system, the efficiencies of As(V) removal range from 75% to 96%, much higher than those in the multi-ion system (44%) at the initial pH 5. Clearly, there were some complex anion interactions in the multi-ion system. To promote the removal of As(V) by RIOCS, it is proposed to lower the pH in the single-ion system, while in the multi-ion system, the increase of the Ca(2+) concentration, or decreases of PO(4)(3-), SiO(3)(2-) and HA concentrations is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.03.060DOI Listing
July 2008

Removal of As(V) and As(III) by reclaimed iron-oxide coated sands.

J Hazard Mater 2008 May 14;153(1-2):817-26. Epub 2007 Sep 14.

Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Department of Safety Health and Environ. Eng., Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

This paper aims at the feasibility of arsenate and arsenite removal by reclaimed iron-oxide coated sands (IOCS). Batch experiments were performed to examine the adsorption isotherm and removal performance of arsenic systems by using the IOCS. The results show that the pH(zpc) of IOCS was about 7.0 +/- 0.4, favoring the adsorption of As(V) of anion form onto the IOCS surface. As the adsorbent dosage and initial arsenic concentration were fixed, both the As(V) and As(III) removals decrease with increasing initial solution pH. Under the same initial solution pH and adsorbent dosage, the removal efficiencies of total arsenic (As(V) and As(III)) were in the order as follows: As(V)>As(V)+As(III)>As(III). Moreover, adsorption isotherms of As(V) and As(III) fit the Langmuir model satisfactorily for the four different initial pH conditions as well as for the studied range of initial arsenic concentrations. It is concluded that the reclaimed IOCS can be considered as a feasible and economical adsorbent for arsenic removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.09.031DOI Listing
May 2008

Macrophage activation increases the invasive properties of hepatoma cells by destabilization of the adherens junction.

FEBS Lett 2006 May 27;580(13):3042-50. Epub 2006 Apr 27.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 1-1 Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan.

Tumor-associated macrophages play an important role in tumor progression, but whether they exert a tumor-progressive effect remains controversial. Here, we demonstrated that activated macrophage-conditioned medium (AMCM) obtained from RAW macrophages (RAW/AMCM) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stimulated the migratory and invasive activities of HepG2 cells, whereas control conditioned media had no effect. Epithelial-cadherin (E-cadherin) and beta-catenin staining patterns were altered at the adherens junctions by RAW/AMCM treatment, with an approximately 50% decrease in E-cadherin and beta-catenin in the cell membrane. Importantly, levels of beta-catenin-associated E-cadherin were also decreased. Following RAW/AMCM treatment, enhanced activation of c-Src was seen prior to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin, and this led to the destabilization of adherens junctions. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with the Src kinase inhibitor, PP2, completely abolished the effects of RAW/AMCM on the EMT, migration, invasion, and expression and association of E-cadherin and beta-catenin. AMCMs obtained from human THP-1 monocytes and mouse peritoneal macrophages also caused disassembly of the adherens junctions and migration of HepG2 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with gefitinib partially prevented the downregulation of E-cadherin and beta-catenin at the adherens junctions and migration behavior induced by RAW/AMCM. Our results suggest that activated macrophages have a tumor-progressive effect on HepG2 cells which involves the c-Src- and EGFR-dependent signaling cascades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2006.04.049DOI Listing
May 2006

EXAFS study of adsorbed Cu(II) on fly ashes with different residual carbon contents.

Chemosphere 2002 Jan;46(1):115-21

Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC.

This work studied the speciation of copper species adsorbed onto the surface of fly ash using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Experimental results verified that the chemical bond between Cu(II) and the surface of the fly ash was Cu-O. The data set was optimally fitted into the two atomic shells: the first shell containing O atoms and the second shell containing Cu atoms. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data also show that, in the first shell, about 2.03-2.41 nearest oxygen atoms surround the center Cu atom with a Cu-O bond distance of 1.96-1.99 A. The results further demonstrated that the bond distance slightly increased with an increasing carbon content of the fly ash.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(00)00583-xDOI Listing
January 2002