Publications by authors named "Chiara Palmieri"

55 Publications

Infectious laryngotracheitis of chickens: Pathologic and immunohistochemistry findings.

Vet Pathol 2021 Aug 31:3009858211035388. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

University of California Davis, Tulare, CA, USA.

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important upper respiratory disease of chickens. Gross and histologic lesions of ILT in chickens are compared to immunohistochemistry to evaluate the diagnostic test sensitivity. A total of 31 separate ILT-confirmed necropsy submissions (12 commercial meat-type flocks, 13 egg-type producers, and 6 backyard flocks) were arbitrarily selected. Each submission ranged from 1 to 18 birds, for a total of 246 chickens. Cases with available formalin-fixed tissues were selected to include a range of bird production types, ages, clinical histories, and severity of macroscopic and histologic lesions. Macroscopic findings in the respiratory tract varied from increased mucus (55.6%) to fibrinonecrotic exudate (20.3%) and hemorrhages in the larynx and trachea (13.0%). Syncytia with intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in the respiratory tract epithelium with or without hemorrhages. Sections of conjunctiva, sinus, larynx, trachea, lung, and air sac were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect gallid alphaherpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1) antigen. Positive immunolabeling was detected in the cytoplasm and nuclei of syncytia and epithelial cells in 18/22 conjunctivae (82%), 12/13 sinuses (92%), 18/22 larynxes (82%), 23/25 tracheas (92%), 10/21 lungs (57%), and 3/8 air sacs (37%). Of the 34 tissues with no visible syncytia or inclusion bodies, 8 were positive by IHC. In conclusion, IHC was useful to study the viral antigen tissue distribution and support the diagnosis of ILT when the histopathologic interpretation was doubtful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03009858211035388DOI Listing
August 2021

Women Representation and Gender Equality in Different Academic Levels in Veterinary Science.

Vet Sci 2021 Aug 7;8(8). Epub 2021 Aug 7.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia.

Women's participation and completion at veterinary schools has increased globally for the past few decades. However, increased female graduates have not translated into similar patterns of academic staffing. The gender distribution within each academic level at eight accredited veterinary faculties in Australia and New Zealand, 38 accredited faculties in the USA and Canada and 98 accredited faculties in Europe were analyzed. Women occupied 47.9%, 45.5% and 47.5% of the academic positions in Australia/New Zealand, the USA/Canada and Europe, respectively. Compared to their male counterparts, female academics were more likely to hold the lower ranked positions. The gender distribution is skewed toward men in the senior positions at or above associate professor level in all analyzed regions. The findings of this study confirm gender inequality in academic progression meaning there is a continued need to develop strategies to eliminate inequity in veterinary science faculties worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8080159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8402655PMC
August 2021

Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism and Fibrous Osteodystrophy in a Captive African Penguin () Similar to Osteomalacia in Poultry.

Avian Dis 2021 03;65(1):86-89

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Tulare branch, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Tulare, CA 93274.

A 9-yr-old female black-footed African penguin () was presented for necropsy after a history of reproductive abnormalities, paresis of limbs, weakness, and sudden death. Postmortem examination revealed soft keel, collapsed rib cage with beading of the ribs, and bilateral parathyroid enlargement. Classic histologic lesions of fibrous osteodystrophy with osteomalacia were observed in the ribs, vertebrae, and to a lesser extent in the femur and tibiotarsus associated with hyperplasia of parathyroid glands. This represents the first report of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in birds of the order , most likely caused by low levels of calcium supplementation during egg laying. The reproductive abnormalities observed in this penguin and others from the same group (asynchronous egg-laying cycles, abnormal breeding behavior) were most likely exacerbated by the lack of an adequate photoperiod mimicking the natural daylight pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/aviandiseases-D-20-00077DOI Listing
March 2021

Editorial: Precision Medicine in Veterinary Oncology.

Front Vet Sci 2021 14;8:718891. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Veterinary Clinic, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.718891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316583PMC
July 2021

Expression and prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and its receptor in canine prostate cancer.

Prostate 2021 Oct 28;81(14):1021-1031. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Anesthesiology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and its receptor, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), represent a complex family of angiogenic molecules consisting of different ligands and receptors. Due to the importance of VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 signaling in tumor proliferation and angiogenesis, this study aimed to evaluate the protein and gene expression levels of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 in canine prostate cancer (PC).

Methods: We analyzed VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 expression in 87 PC samples by immunohistochemistry and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction. PC samples were graded according to the Gleason score and the immunohistochemical staining for VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 was quantified using a selected threshold from the ImageJ Software. Microvascular density was assessed by cluster of differentiation 31 staining and counting the number of positive vessels. Additionally, the homology of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 between humans and dogs was assessed, followed by the construction of a protein structure homology model to compare the tertiary structures of these proteins in both species.

Results: Negative to weakly positive expression levels of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 were observed in the epithelial cells of the normal prostate (NP) and prostatic hyperplasia samples. In contrast, the canine proliferative atrophy and PC samples exhibited higher VEGF-A (p < .0001) and VEGFR-2 (p < .0001) compared to NP. Moreover, positive correlations between the expression levels of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 (Spearman's coefficient (r) = .68, p = .013) and the expression levels of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 proteins (r = .8, p < .0001) were also observed in the NP samples. Additionally, the patients with PC exhibiting higher VEGFR-2 expression levels experienced a shorter survival period (p = .0372). Furthermore, we found an association between the microvascular density and overall survival. Dogs with a higher number of vessels showed a shorter survival time. We further demonstrated that the VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 exhibited high homology between humans and dogs, and identified their protein structures in both species.

Conclusions: In conclusion, VEGFR-2 appears to be an independent prognostic factor in animals with PC. VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 are highly conserved between humans and dogs, which can be investigated further in future cross-species studies to explore their therapeutic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24199DOI Listing
October 2021

Detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in the Philippines and the complexity of PCV2-associated disease diagnosis.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jun 25;53(3):371. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

The University of Queensland, School of Veterinary Science, Gatton, QLD, Australia.

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), an important pig viral pathogen, can cause porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), resulting in economic losses associated with decreased growth and mortalities. The diagnosis of PCVAD is complex requiring clinical, pathological and virological approaches. This study assessed PCV2 infection using histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue samples and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on serum samples from 47 grower-finisher pigs allocated in three clinical groups in the Philippines. Typical PCV2 histopathological lesions were observed in mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) of eight of 47 pigs. Lymphoid depletion was seen in all eight pigs and granulomatous inflammation in one of these pigs. Four of these eight pigs were PCV2 positive by both IHC and qPCR. IHC revealed PCV2 antigen in 8 pigs in at least one of the following tissues: MLN (5/8), spleen (3/8), tonsils (4/8) and lungs (5/8). PCV2 antigen was observed in 3/8 MLN with lymphoid depletion and in one MLN with depletion and granulomatous inflammation. The qPCR test showed that 33 sera had a non-detectable level, twelve had < 10 and two had > 10 PCV2 DNA copies/ml serum. One pig with lymphoid depletion had > 10 PCV2 DNA copies/ml serum, and another pig without MLN lesions also had > 10 PCV2 DNA copies/ml serum. These findings suggest that PCVAD is present in the Philippines and confirm the challenges of PCVAD diagnosis as different patterns of results were obtained from the different tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02823-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Feline Idiopathic Cystitis: Pathogenesis, Histopathology and Comparative Potential.

J Comp Pathol 2021 May 16;185:18-29. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia.

Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a debilitating disease in humans, particularly women, with patients experiencing chronic, intractable, lower urinary and pelvic pain. Although rodent models have been used, feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) is a naturally occurring bladder disease of cats that is frequently considered to be the preferred model for BPS. Histologically, FIC is most similar to the non-Hunner BPS subtype. Histology is unnecessary for the clinical diagnosis of FIC but is of great value in elucidating the pathogenesis of this disease so that prevention and therapeutic interventions can be optimized. Further study of the histological features of FIC and BPS is required to determine the significance of Von Brunn's nests, which are invaginations of hyperplastic urothelium that have been associated with irritative bladder stimuli in animals and have been observed in FIC. We review the possible pathogenesis, histopathological similarities and differences between FIC and BPS, and highlight the potential of FIC as a model of BPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2021.03.006DOI Listing
May 2021

An Ovine Model of Haemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation, to Assess Recovery of Tissue Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Debt, and Inform Patient Blood Management.

Shock 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Australian Red Cross Lifeblood, Sydney, Australia Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Australian Red Cross Lifeblood, Brisbane, Australia Critical Care Research Group, The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Medical Engineering Research Facility, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain Cardiovascular Research Institute, Basel, Switzerland Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy Sorbonne Université, INSERM, UMRS-1166, ICAN Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, Medical ICU, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital, Paris, France School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Hyperbaric Medicine, Englewood Health, Englewood, USA TeamHealth, Englewood Health, Englewood, USA UF College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA Department of Anesthesiology, Medicine and Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, USA Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Rutgers University, Newark, USA Faculty of Health, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Aggressive fluid or blood component transfusion for severe haemorrhagic shock may restore macrocirculatory parameters, but not always improve microcirculatory perfusion and tissue oxygen delivery. We established an ovine model of haemorrhagic shock to systematically assess tissue oxygen delivery and repayment of oxygen debt; appropriate outcomes to guide patient blood management.

Methods: Female Dorset-cross sheep were anaesthetised, intubated, and subjected to comprehensive macrohaemodynamic, regional tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), sublingual capillary imaging and arterial lactate monitoring, confirmed by invasive organ-specific microvascular perfusion, oxygen pressure and lactate/pyruvate levels, in brain, kidney, liver and skeletal muscle. Shock was induced by stepwise withdrawal of venous blood until mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 30mmHg, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) < 60%, and arterial lactate >4 mM. Resuscitation with PlasmaLyte® was dosed to achieve MAP > 65mmHg.

Results: Haemorrhage impacted primary outcomes between baseline and development of shock: MAP 89 ± 5 to 31 ± 5 mmHg (p < 0.01), SvO2 70 ± 7 to 23 ± 8% (p < 0.05), cerebral regional tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) 77 ± 11 to 65 ± 9% (p < 0.01), peripheral muscle StO2 66 ± 8 to 16 ± 9% (p < 0.01), arterial lactate 1.5 ± 1.0 to 5.1 ± 0.8 mM (p < 0.01), and base excess 1.1 ± 2.2 to -3.6 ± 1.7 mM (p < 0.05). Invasive organ-specific monitoring confirmed reduced tissue oxygen delivery; oxygen tension decreased and lactate increased in all tissues, but moderately in brain. Blood volume replacement with PlasmaLyte® improved primary outcome measures toward baseline, confirmed by organ-specific measures, despite haemoglobin reduced from baseline 10.8 ± 1.2 to 5.9 ± 1.1 g/dl post-resuscitation (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Non-invasive measures of tissue oxygen delivery and oxygen debt repayment are suitable outcomes to inform Patient Blood Management of haemorrhagic shock, translatable for pre-clinical assessment of novel resuscitation strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001805DOI Listing
May 2021

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Proliferative Inflammatory Atrophy in Canine Prostatic Samples.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Botucatu 18618-681, Brazil.

Proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) is an atrophic lesion of the prostate gland that occurs in men and dogs and is associated with a chronic inflammatory infiltrate. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed canine prostatic samples from intact dogs, identifying 50 normal prostates, 140 cases of prostatic hyperplasia, 171 cases of PIA, 84 with prostate cancer (PC), 14 with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and 10 with bacterial prostatitis. PIA samples were then selected and classified according to the human classification. The presence of PIA lesions surrounding neoplastic areas was then evaluated to establish a morphological transition from normal to preneoplastic and neoplastic tissue. In addition, the expression of PTEN, P53, MDM2 and nuclear androgen receptor (AR) were analyzed in 20 normal samples and 20 PIA lesions by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. All PIA lesions showed variable degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration around the glands and simple atrophy was the most common histopathological feature. PIA was identified between normal glands and PC in 51 (61%) out of the 84 PC samples. PIA lesions were diffusely positive for molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWC). Decreased PTEN and AR gene and protein expression was found in PIA compared to normal samples. Overall, our results strongly suggest that PIA is a frequent lesion associated with PC. Additionally, this finding corroborates the hypothesis that in dogs, as is the case in humans, PIA is a pre neoplastic lesion that has the potential to progress into PC, indicating an alternative mechanism of prostate cancer development in dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071022PMC
April 2021

A Comparative in Silico Analysis of CD24's Prognostic Value in Human and Canine Prostate Cancer.

J Pers Med 2021 Mar 23;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Animal Reproduction, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, Botucatu 18618-681, Brazil.

CD24 is a cell surface molecule anchored by glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol and expressed by different human cancers, including prostate cancer (PC). Some studies have demonstrated that CD24 expression is associated with poor patient outcome; however, few studies have investigated CD24 expression in spontaneous animal models of human PC, such as canine PC. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CD24 in human PC using the in silico analysis of the data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and comparing it with the previously published prostatic canine transcriptome data. In addition, CD24 expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in an independent cohort of canine prostatic samples and its prognostic significance assessed. The systematic review identified 10 publications fitting with the inclusion criteria of this study. Of the 10 manuscripts, 5 demonstrated a direct correlation between CD24 overexpression and patient prognoses. CD24 expression was also associated with PSA relapse (2/5) and tumor progression (1/5). However, the in silico analysis did not validate CD24 as a prognostic factor of human PC. Regarding canine PC, 10 out of 30 normal prostates and 27 out of 40 PC samples were positive for CD24. As in humans, there was no association with overall survival. Overall, our results demonstrated a significant CD24 overexpression in human and canine prostate cancer, although its prognostic value may be questionable. However, tumors overexpressing CD24 may be a reliable model for new target therapies and dogs could be used of a unique preclinical model for these studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11030232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004660PMC
March 2021

Perianal fistula-associated carcinoma in Crohn´s disease: a multicenter retrospective case control study.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Kalk, University of Cologne, Buchforststrasse 2, Cologne, Germany.

Background & Aims: Carcinoma associated with perianal fistula in Crohn's disease is a pending threat for patients. This study was aimed to improve understanding and facilitate development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at four German hospitals. The analysis included forty patients with proven malignancy associated with perianal Crohn's fistulas and forty randomly-selected controls with fistulizing perianal Crohn's disease. Differences between groups were analysed and multivariate calculations performed to describe risk factors for oncological outcomes.

Results: Histology revealed adenocarcinoma in 33/40 patients and squamous cell carcinoma in 7/40 patients. Compared to fistula patients without carcinoma, patients with malignancies associated to fistula had a diagnosis of Crohn's disease in younger age. Crohn's disease lasted longer in patients with malignancy (25.8 ± 9.0 vs. 19.6 ± 10.4; p=0.006).Fistula related findings differed significantly between both groups. Signs for complicated and severe fistulation including complex anatomy and chronic activity occurred significantly more often in patients with malignancy associated to fistula.Significant multivariate hazard ratios for overall mortality and progression-free survival were shown for histologic type of cancer, metastatic disease and R1 resection. Overall survival (OS) was 45.1±28.6 months and the 5-year survival rate was 65%.

Conclusions: In patients with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma associated with perianal fistula in Crohn's disease, fistula characteristics determine risk for malignancy. Early diagnosis influences outcomes, while treatment of chronic fistula activity may be key to preventing malignancy. Expert multimodal therapy is paramount for successful treatment of perianal fistula-associated malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab057DOI Listing
March 2021

Correction to: The discovery of biological subphenotypes in ARDS: a novel approach to targeted medicine?

J Intensive Care 2021 Feb 25;9(1):22. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

The Critical Care Research Group, The Prince Charles Hospital, Clinical Sciences Building, Level 3, Chermside, Brisbane, QLD, 4032, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40560-021-00534-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905677PMC
February 2021

The discovery of biological subphenotypes in ARDS: a novel approach to targeted medicine?

J Intensive Care 2021 Jan 21;9(1):14. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

The Critical Care Research Group, The Prince Charles Hospital, Clinical Sciences Building, Level 3, Chermside, Brisbane, QLD, 4032, Australia.

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe lung disorder with a high morbidity and mortality which affects all age groups. Despite active research with intense, ongoing attempts in developing pharmacological agents to treat ARDS, its mortality rate remains unaltered high and treatment is still only supportive. Over the years, there have been many attempts to identify meaningful subgroups likely to react differently to treatment among the heterogenous ARDS population, most of them unsuccessful. Only recently, analysis of large ARDS cohorts from randomized controlled trials have identified the presence of distinct biological subphenotypes among ARDS patients: a hypoinflammatory (or uninflamed; named P1) and a hyperinflammatory (or reactive; named P2) subphenotype have been proposed and corroborated with existing retrospective data. The hyperinflammatory subphenotyope was clearly associated with shock state, metabolic acidosis, and worse clinical outcomes. Core features of the respective subphenotypes were identified consistently in all assessed cohorts, independently of the studied population, the geographical location, the study design, or the analysis method. Additionally and clinically even more relevant treatment efficacies, as assessed retrospectively, appeared to be highly dependent on the respective subphenotype. This discovery launches a promising new approach to targeted medicine in ARDS. Even though it is now widely accepted that each ARDS subphenotype has distinct functional, biological, and mechanistic differences, there are crucial gaps in our knowledge, hindering the translation to bedside application. First of all, the underlying driving biological factors are still largely unknown, and secondly, there is currently no option for fast and easy identification of ARDS subphenotypes. This narrative review aims to summarize the evidence in biological subphenotyping in ARDS and tries to point out the current issues that will need addressing before translation of biological subohenotypes into clinical practice will be possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40560-021-00528-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817965PMC
January 2021

Predicting Diagnosis of Australian Canine and Feline Urinary Bladder Disease Based on Histologic Features.

Vet Sci 2020 Nov 27;7(4). Epub 2020 Nov 27.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia.

Anatomic pathology is a vital component of veterinary medicine but as a primarily subjective qualitative or semiquantitative discipline, it is at risk of cognitive biases. Logistic regression is a statistical technique used to explain relationships between data categories and outcomes and is increasingly being applied in medicine for predicting disease probability based on medical and patient variables. Our aims were to evaluate histologic features of canine and feline bladder diseases and explore the utility of logistic regression modeling in identifying associations in veterinary histopathology, then formulate a predictive disease model using urinary bladder as a pilot tissue. The histologic features of 267 canine and 71 feline bladder samples were evaluated, and a logistic regression model was developed to identify associations between the bladder disease diagnosed, and both patient and histologic variables. There were 102 cases of cystitis, 84 neoplasia, 42 urolithiasis and 63 normal bladders. Logistic regression modeling identified six variables that were significantly associated with disease outcome: species, urothelial ulceration, urothelial inflammation, submucosal lymphoid aggregates, neutrophilic submucosal inflammation, and moderate submucosal hemorrhage. This study demonstrated that logistic regression modeling could provide a more objective approach to veterinary histopathology and has opened the door toward predictive disease modeling based on histologic variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712252PMC
November 2020

Latent class analysis identifies multimorbidity patterns in pigs with respiratory disease.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Jan 14;186:105209. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

The University of Queensland, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, Brisbane, QLD, 4102, Australia.

Respiratory disease is one of the major causes of losses to the pig industry worldwide. The pig subsector is the largest component of the livestock sector in the Philippines. Using lung scoring, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of thoracic lesions in slaughter-age pigs in two provinces in the Philippines (Batangas and Albay) and define classes for respiratory health of pigs characterised by different patterns of thoracic lesions. A total of 260 pigs from Batangas and 300 pigs from Albay from either commercial or backyard farm types were included in this cross-sectional study. Lungs were scored for cranio-ventral pneumonia (0-55) and pleurisy (0-3). Presence or absence of pericarditis as well as focal dorso-caudal pneumonia were recorded. Latent class analyses considering four indicator variables, and province and farm type as covariates were used to explore different patterns of thoracic lesions across the study populations. Using a threshold of ≥7, the prevalence of a high lung score was 51.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.3-61.4%) and 13.7% (95% CI: 8.1-22.2%) in Batangas and Albay, respectively. Similarly, the prevalence of a pleurisy score of ≥1 was 56.9% (95% CI: 37.5-74.4%) and 5.0% (95% CI: 2.9-8.4%), pericarditis 24.6% (95%CI: 10.1-48.6%) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.3-6.7%) and focal dorso-caudal pneumonia lesions 7.7% (95% CI: 3.7-15.5%) and 0% (97.5% one-sided CI: 0-1.2%), respectively. Latent class analyses identified four classes based on lung score, pleurisy score and the presence/absence of pericarditis: "healthy", "mild respiratory disease", "moderate pneumonia", and "multi-lesion". The relative frequency of these classes differed with province and farm type. Most pigs from Albay were "healthy", whereas in Batangas most pigs from commercial farms were "multi-lesion" and those from backyard farms were in the "mild respiratory disease" class. This study has provided baseline data on thoracic lesions in slaughter-age pigs for the provinces of Batangas and Albay in the Philippines. Targeting farms and areas where "multi-lesion pigs" are most common and further research to identify risk factors for particular classes should maximize impact of future control measures. The latent class analysis approach used could be applied more widely and could add value to analysis of multi-morbidity data collected routinely as part of ongoing monitoring schemes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105209DOI Listing
January 2021

Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy in a Captive African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) similar to osteomalacia in poultry.

Avian Dis 2020 Oct 16. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science Gatton campus AUSTRALIA Gatton Queensland 4343 0061 07 5460 1828.

A nine-year-old female Black-footed African penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ) was presented for necropsy after a history of reproductive abnormalities, paresis of limbs, weakness and sudden death. Post-mortem examination revealed soft keel, collapsed rib cage with beading of the ribs and bilateral parathyroid enlargement. Classical histological lesions of fibrous osteodystrophy with osteomalacia were observed in the ribs, vertebrae and to a lesser extent femur and tibiotarsus associated with hyperplasia of parathyroid glands. This represents the first report of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in birds of the order Spheniciformes , most likely caused by low level of calcium supplementation during egg laying. The reproductive abnormalities observed in this penguin and others from the same group (asynchronous egg laying cycles, abnormal breeding behavior) were most likely exacerbated by the lack of an adequate photoperiod mimicking the natural daylight pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/aviandiseases-D-20-00077DOI Listing
October 2020

The occurrence and pathology of chlamydiosis in the male reproductive tract of non-human mammals: A review.

Theriogenology 2020 Sep 23;154:152-160. Epub 2020 May 23.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, 4343, Australia.

Organisms belonging to the Family Chlamydiaceae are responsible for a broad range of diseases in humans, livestock, companion animals and non-domestic species. Infection of the reproductive organs can cause a range of syndromes of which sub- and infertility are the most frequently observed clinical manifestations. While the gross and histological lesions associated with the isolation of Chlamydiaceae from the non-human female reproductive tract are well documented, little attention has been given to the pathological effects of this infection in the male genital system. As such, the occurrence and importance of Chlamydia-associated disease in male non-human mammalian species is less well documented. In order to improve our understanding of the significance of chlamydiosis in domestic, laboratory and wild animals, this review provides an up-to-date summary of Chlamydia-associated male reproductive pathology, whether that infection occurs naturally or experimentally. Although most lesions in males are described as incidental and of minor significance, results of recent studies suggest that infection with Chlamydiaceae can adversely impact male fertility and/or be instrumental in disease transmission. Although in humans, bulls and mice Chlamydia infection has been associated with morphological and functional abnormalities of the spermatozoa, this review will focus on the gross and histological findings linked to the colonisation of the genital system by this pathogen. Advances in our understanding of male reproductive chlamydiosis are necessary for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, as well as epidemiological and conservation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2020.05.033DOI Listing
September 2020

Combining conventional and participatory approaches to identify and prioritise management and health-related constraints to smallholder pig production in San Simon, Pampanga, Philippines.

Prev Vet Med 2020 May 9;178:104987. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

The University of Queensland, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, Brisbane, QLD, 4102, Australia.

Pork is the main meat produced and consumed in the Philippines. The majority of pigs are raised by smallholders who experience a range of constraints to their pig production. This study presents the findings of the first part of an overarching project that used an Ecohealth approach and aimed to improve the production and competitiveness of the smallholder pig system in an area of the Philippines. A participatory approach was embraced, combining conventional and participatory epidemiology methods followed by a stakeholder discussion. The first aim was to identify management and health-related constraints to pig production among smallholder famers in San Simon, Pampanga, Philippines. The second aim was for the project team and stakeholders to jointly prioritise activities for the immediate future to address these constraints. Key management and health-related constraints identified included inadequate water supply to pigs, particularly lactating and gestating sows, and a range of feeding-related issues. Diarrhoea was recognised as the disease syndrome of highest priority and limited record keeping meant that farmers were unable to assess the productivity and profitability of their pig farming enterprises. Actions jointly prioritised by stakeholders and the project team were: the appointment of a project coordinator within each barangay; conduct two sets of seminars, the first covering water and nutrition and the second piglet management and diarrhoea, to be delivered by technical experts but with farmer "trusted sources" also sharing their experiences; development of easily understandable leaflets and posters covering key technical information; promotion of nipple drinkers attached to five-gallon water containers and creep boxes for piglets, and conduct of a record keeping workshop with a small group of innovative farmers to develop a useful and usable tool for record keeping. The use of multiple approaches to data-gathering enabled triangulation of study findings. Without any one of these components the understanding of the pig production system would have been less complete and it is possible that the proposed actions would not have been as well-tailored to the needs of the farmers. The participatory approach, in particular the stakeholder discussion, provided the opportunity to embrace the "deciding together" and "acting together" stances of participation rather than the lower "information giving" stance, thereby giving stakeholders greater ownership of the future activities of the overarching project and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.104987DOI Listing
May 2020

The Nasal Gland in Turkeys (): Anatomy, Histology, and Ultrastructure.

Avian Dis 2019 12;63(4):551-558

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Tulare Branch, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, 18830 Road 112 Tulare, CA 93274-9042.

This study provides a detailed description of the major morphoanatomic and ultrastructural features of the nasal gland in turkeys. In this avian species, nasal or salt glands are bilateral, pale pink, elongated to spindle-shaped, serous, tubuloalveolar structures, with a mean length ranging from 0.64 ± 0.15 cm in poults of 4 days of age to 2.15 ± 0.17 cm at 22 weeks. Instead of having a supraorbital location as commonly seen in waterfowl and other avian species, these glands run underneath the lacrimal, frontal, and nasal bones in turkeys. The reference point for sample collection for histologic examination is just before the rostral edge of the eyelid. Each gland adheres to the surrounding bone through a thick capsule of dense connective tissue merging with the skull periosteum. Histologically, the salt gland consists of secretory tubuloalveolar structures, lined by cuboidal epithelial cells with a central canaliculus and ducts. There are small and large ducts lined by a bilayered epithelium consisting of large apical columnar secretory cells occasionally admixed with rare cuboidal cells. These cells are periodic acid Schiff negative and slightly Alcian blue positive. Both alveolar and secretory ductal cells contain slightly electrondense granular vesicles, highly folded lateral surfaces, and large numbers of mitochondria, characteristic of ion-transporting epithelia. This study provides valuable information for the accurate identification and localization of the nasal gland during necropsy, as well as its correct histologic interpretation, ultimately improving our understanding of the role of this gland in the pathophysiology of specific diseases in turkeys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/aviandiseases-D-19-00088DOI Listing
December 2019

Cytokine Expression in Canine Lymphoma, Osteosarcoma, Mammary Gland Tumour and Melanoma: Comparative Aspects.

Vet Sci 2019 Apr 2;6(2). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia.

Cytokines released in the tumour microenvironment play a major role in cancer pathogenesis. In human cancers and corresponding animal models, cytokine expression contributes to tumour growth and progression, as well as regulation of the host anti-tumour response. The elucidation of the function and importance of cytokines in canine cancers is still in an early stage, although relevant data have been obtained in classical examples of comparative models of human cancers, such as osteosarcoma, melanoma, mammary tumour and lymphoma. A deeper understanding of the cytokine signature may advance diagnosis, prevention and treatment of canine cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6631657PMC
April 2019

Nectin-4 and p63 immunohistochemical expression in canine prostate tumourigenesis.

Vet Comp Oncol 2019 Sep 8;17(3):298-307. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Nectin-4 is an E-cadherin-based adherens junction protein of normal epithelial cells, as well as a potent mediator of anchorage-independent cancer colony formation. It is considered a tumour-associated histological and serological marker in various human cancers. The transcription factor p63 is a basal cell marker in the normal prostate, involved in cell adhesion, as well as in the formation and survival of circulating tumour cell clusters. The aim of this study was to evaluate Nectin-4 and p63 immunohistochemical expression in 42 canine prostate tissues including 2 normal prostates, 10 benign prostatic hyperplasias (BPHs), 30 prostatic carcinomas (PCs), 1 pulmonary and 1 lymph node metastasis. From normal to neoplastic tissues, Nectin-4 showed a progressive switching from membranous (m-Nectin-4) to cytoplasmic (c-Nectin-4), regardless of the histological subtypes, except for lack of expression in solid PCs. Metastatic cells exhibited both strong membranous and cytoplasmic positivity. c-Nectin-4 expression was significantly (P < 0.0001) increased in PCs/metastasis compared to BPHs cases and a decrease (P < 0.05) of nuclear p63 immunostaining was also detected in the two groups. Furthermore, data showed a significant association (P < 0.05) between p63 and m-Nectin-4 distribution, although their colocalization was detected only in scattered cells by double immunofluorescence. Our results suggest the involvement of m-Nectin-4 in canine prostate tumourigenesis and metastatic potential, while the exact role of c-Nectin-4 expression detectable in primary PCs requires further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vco.12469DOI Listing
September 2019

Characterization of OCT3/4, Nestin, NANOG, CD44 and CD24 as stem cell markers in canine prostate cancer.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2019 03 8;108:21-28. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

São Paulo State University - UNESP, Department of Veterinary Surgery and Anaesthesiology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The cancer cell population is heterogeneous, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are important for tumor growth and maintenance. The CSC population is associated with different neoplastic characteristics, such as cell migration, resistance to apoptosis, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. To increase the knowledge of CSCs in canine prostate cancer (PC), we characterized CSC markers in canine PC tissues and tumorspheres. We performed immunohistochemistry of OCT3/4, Nestin, NANOG, CD44 and CD24 in 10 normal canine prostatic tissue samples, 10 prostatic hyperplastic (PH) tissue samples and 28 PC tissue samples. Then, we established two canine prostate cancer cell cultures and characterized the CSC profile of tumorspheres grown from these cultures. Normal and PH tissues were positive for Nestin, NANOG, CD44 and CD24 only in the basal cell layer. OCT3/4 was expressed in the luminal cells of normal and PH tissues. There was no significant difference in Nestin expression among the prostatic tissues. However, we found higher expression of NANOG and CD44 in canine PC tissues than that in normal and PH tissues. Tumorspheres from canine prostate cancer cells express OCT3/4, Nestin, NANOG and CD44, indicating that these markers may be potential cancer stem cell markers in canine PC. The results obtained can be useful to better characterize the stem cell population in canine prostatic cancer and to guide future studies in comparative oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2019

An immunohistochemical study of T and B lymphocyte density in prostatic hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma in dogs.

Res Vet Sci 2019 Feb 27;122:189-192. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, 4343 Gatton, Queensland, Australia.

The aim of this study was to characterise T and B lymphocyte density in 6 normal prostates, 15 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 24 prostate carcinomas (PCs) in dogs by immunohistochemistry. Results revealed a statistically significant increase of T and B cells in PC compared to normal specimens and BPH. Regarding PC histological variants, lower number of CD3 and CD79 lymphocytes were observed in the most undifferentiated (solid) type. CD3 cell density was positively correlated with survival time. These results may help in understanding the immunological mechanisms regulating BPH and PC development and progression, as well as providing background data for future immunotherapeutic trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2018.11.022DOI Listing
February 2019

Chlamydia pecorum Infection in the Male Reproductive System of Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus).

Vet Pathol 2019 03 31;56(2):300-306. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

2 School of Agriculture and Food Science, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia.

Chlamydiosis is the most documented and serious disease of koalas, characterized by ocular, urinary, and reproductive lesions. Since little attention has been paid to the pathological effects of this infection in the male reproductive system, we aimed to determine the incidence and severity of reproductive pathology associated with chlamydial infection in male koalas submitted to koala hospitals in southeast Queensland. The entire reproductive tract from 62 sexually mature male koalas not suitable for rehabilitation was evaluated and 677 tissue samples were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Lymphoplasmacytic inflammation was observed in 178 of 677 (26.3%) tissue samples from the upper and lower reproductive tract, mainly in the prostatic, penile, and membranous urethra. IHC was positive for the chlamydial antigen in 19 of 451 normal samples (4.2%) and 46 of 178 samples with inflammation (25.8%), located within the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, bulbourethral glands, and the prostatic membranous and penile urethra. Chlamydia pecorum was detected via qPCR in 319 of 451 normal samples (70.7%) and 159 of 178 samples with inflammation (89.3%), with the highest incidence in the penile urethra, prostate, membranous urethra, and bulbourethral glands. This study suggests that Chlamydia infection in the male reproductive tract is more widespread than originally thought. Furthermore, the male reproductive tract might be a reservoir for persistent chlamydial infections in koalas, with important implications for prophylactic strategies and epidemiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985818806963DOI Listing
March 2019

Ultrasonographic assessment of the male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) reproductive tract.

Res Vet Sci 2018 Apr 27;117:219-223. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Gatton campus, Queensland, Australia.

Studies documenting the application of ultrasonography to depict normal and pathological changes in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), especially in the male, are scarce. Sixty-two wild koalas were used in this study to define ultrasonographic protocols and features for the assessment of the male koala reproductive tract. Testis, epididymis and spermatic cord were examined using a hockey stick transducer. The normal koala testis showed a homogeneous echogenicity and an obvious hyper-echoic band corresponding to the tunica albuginea. The cauda epididymis was characterised by hypo- and hyper-echoic regions and was most effectively imaged in sagittal section. The koala prostate was assessed using a micro-curved transducer positioned midline, caudal to the bladder. On transverse section, it showed distinct margins and a well-defined internal structure, although the prostatic urethra was not apparent on most scans. To image the bulbourethral glands (BGs), the hockey stick transducer was placed lateral to the cloaca. BGIII was located just below the skin, while BGII was located deeper than BGIII. BGI was too small and not sufficiently echogenic to be detected. The ultrasonographic appearance of the BGs was similar to that of the testes but with more obvious hypo-echoic stippling. This comprehensive review of the ultrasonographic appearance of normal male koala reproductive tract can be used by veterinarians and others, in zoos or those working with wild koalas, during assessment of the reproductive tract of male koalas in relation to seasonal changes in accessory gland function or for the pathological investigation of reproductive lesions and infertility problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.12.019DOI Listing
April 2018

A case report of intrarenal epidermoid cysts in a yellow-bellied slider (Trachemys scripta scripta).

Res Vet Sci 2018 Apr 27;117:216-218. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, 4343 Gatton, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

A 7-year-old yellow-bellied slider exhibited anorexia, decreased activity, generalised wasting of skeletal muscles and oedema. Haematology examination revealed increased phosphorus and decreased calcium levels. During necropsy performed after spontaneous death, a focal nodular lesion containing tan amorphous material was found in the left kidney. Histopathology examination revealed multiple cystic lesions lined by a multilayered squamous, occasionally cuboidal, and containing keratin. Epithelial cells and keratin material were cytokeratin-positive. These findings confirmed a diagnosis of the most likely congenital intrarenal epidermoid cysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.12.017DOI Listing
April 2018

Investigation of c-KIT and Ki67 expression in normal, preneoplastic and neoplastic canine prostate.

BMC Vet Res 2017 Dec 6;13(1):380. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Veterinary Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Univ. Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Rua Professor Dr Walter Maurício Correa, s/n, Unesp/Campus de Botucatu, Mail box- 560, Botucatu, SP, 18618-681, Brazil.

Background: c-KIT expression has been related to bone metastasis in human prostate cancer, but whether c-KIT expression can be similarly classified in canine prostatic tissue is unknown. This study assessed c-KIT and Ki67 expression in canine prostate cancer (PC). c-KIT gene and protein expression and Ki67 expression were evaluated in forty-four canine prostatic tissues by immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR and western blot. Additionally, we have investigated c-KIT protein expression by immunoblotting in two primary canine prostate cancer cell lines.

Results: Eleven normal prostates, 12 proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) prostates, 18 PC, 3 metastatic lesions and two prostate cancer cell cultures (PC1 and PC2) were analysed. The prostatic tissue exhibited varying degrees of membranous, cytoplasmic or membranous/cytoplasmic c-KIT staining. Four normal prostates, 4 PIA and 5 prostatic carcinomas showed positive c-KIT expression. No c-KIT immunoexpression was observed in metastases. Canine prostate cancer and PIA samples contained a higher number of Ki67-positive cells compared to normal samples. The median relative quantification (RQ) for c-KIT expression in normal, PIA and prostate cancer and metastatic samples were 0.6 (0.1-2.5), 0.7 (0.09-2.1), 0.7 (0.09-5.1) and 0.1 (0.07-0.6), respectively. A positive correlation between the number of Ki67-positive cells and c-KIT transcript levels was observed in prostate cancer samples. In the cell line, PC1 was negative for c-KIT protein expression, while PC2 was weakly positive.

Conclusion: The present study identified a strong correlation between c-KIT expression and proliferative index, suggesting that c-KIT may influence cell proliferation. Therefore, c-KIT heterogeneous protein expression among the samples (five positive and thirteen negative prostate cancer samples) indicates a personalized approach for canine prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-017-1304-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5718037PMC
December 2017

Nuclear morphometry in histological specimens of canine prostate cancer: Correlation with histological subtypes, Gleason score, methods of collection and survival time.

Res Vet Sci 2017 Oct 6;114:212-217. Epub 2017 May 6.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton campus, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Ten normal prostates, 22 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 29 prostate cancer (PC) were morphometrically analyzed with regard to mean nuclear area (MNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), mean nuclear diameter (MND), coefficient of variation of the nuclear area (NACV), mean nuclear diameter maximum (MDx), mean nuclear diameter minimum (MDm), mean nuclear form ellipse (MNFe) and form factor (FF). The relationship between nuclear morphometric parameters and histological type, Gleason score, methods of sample collection, presence of metastases and survival time of canine PC were also investigated. Overall, nuclei from neoplastic cells were larger, with greater variation in nuclear size and shape compared to normal and hyperplastic cells. Significant differences were found between more (small acinar/ductal) and less (cribriform, solid) differentiated PCs with regard to FF (p<0.05). MNA, MNP, MND, MDx, and MDm were significantly correlated with the Gleason score of PC (p<0.05). MNA, MNP, MDx and MNFe may also have important prognostic implications in canine prostatic cancer since negatively correlated with the survival time. Biopsy specimens contained nuclei that were smaller and more irregular in comparison to those in prostatectomy and necropsy specimens and therefore factors associated with tissue sampling and processing may influence the overall morphometric evaluation. The results indicate that nuclear morphometric analysis in combination with Gleason score can help in canine prostate cancer grading, thus contributing to the establishment of a more precise prognosis and patient's management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.05.007DOI Listing
October 2017

Immunopathology of Parasitic Infections and Therapeutic Approaches in Humans and Animals.

Biomed Res Int 2016;2016:8213532. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8213532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5021852PMC
August 2016
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