Publications by authors named "Chiara Di Pietro"

17 Publications

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Gpr37l1/prosaposin receptor regulates Ptch1 trafficking, Shh production, and cell proliferation in cerebellar primary astrocytes.

J Neurosci Res 2020 Dec 17. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Italian National Research Council (CNR), Monterotondo Scalo, Rome, Italy.

Mammalian cerebellar astrocytes critically regulate the differentiation and maturation of neuronal Purkinje cells and granule precursors. The G protein-coupled receptor 37-like 1 (Gpr37l1) is expressed by Bergmann astrocytes and interacts with patched 1 (Ptch1) at peri-ciliary membranes. Cerebellar primary astrocyte cultures from wild-type and Gpr37l1 null mutant mouse pups were established and studied. Primary cilia were produced by cultures of both genotypes, as well as Ptch1 and smoothened (Smo) components of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) mitogenic pathway. Compared to wild-type cells, Gpr37l1 astrocytes displayed striking increases in proliferative activity, Ptch1 protein expression and internalization, intracellular cholesterol content, ciliary localization of Smo, as well as a marked production of active Shh. Similar effects were reproduced by treating wild-type astrocytes with a putative prosaptide ligand of Gpr37l1. These findings indicate that Gpr37l1-Ptch1 interactions specifically regulate Ptch1 internalization and trafficking, with consequent stimulation of Shh production and activation of proliferative signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24775DOI Listing
December 2020

Circulating miRNAs in Small Extracellular Vesicles Secreted by a Human Melanoma Xenograft in Mouse Brains.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 19;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Institute for Biomedical Technologies (ITB), CNR, 20090 Segrate, Italy.

The identification of liquid biomarkers remains a major challenge to improve the diagnosis of melanoma patients with brain metastases. Circulating miRNAs packaged into tumor-secreted small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) contribute to tumor progression. To investigate the release of tumor-secreted miRNAs by brain metastasis, we developed a xenograft model where human metastatic melanoma cells were injected intracranially in nude mice. The comprehensive profiles of both free miRNAs and those packaged in sEVs secreted by the melanoma cells in the plasma demonstrated that most (80%) of the sEV-associated miRNAs were also present in serum EVs from a cohort of metastatic melanomas, included in a publicly available dataset. Remarkably, among them, we found three miRNAs (miR-224-5p, miR-130a-3p and miR-21-5p) in sEVs showing a trend of upregulation during melanoma progression. Our model is proven to be valuable for identifying miRNAs in EVs that are unequivocally secreted by melanoma cells in the brain and could be associated to disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352810PMC
June 2020

A Dynamic Splicing Program Ensures Proper Synaptic Connections in the Developing Cerebellum.

Cell Rep 2020 06;31(9):107703

Fondazione Santa Lucia, IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Department of Neuroscience, Section of Human Anatomy, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Tight coordination of gene expression in the developing cerebellum is crucial for establishment of neuronal circuits governing motor and cognitive function. However, transcriptional changes alone do not explain all of the switches underlying neuronal differentiation. Here we unveiled a widespread and highly dynamic splicing program that affects synaptic genes in cerebellar neurons. The motifs enriched in modulated exons implicated the splicing factor Sam68 as a regulator of this program. Sam68 controls splicing of exons with weak branchpoints by directly binding near the 3' splice site and competing with U2AF recruitment. Ablation of Sam68 disrupts splicing regulation of synaptic genes associated with neurodevelopmental diseases and impairs synaptic connections and firing of Purkinje cells, resulting in motor coordination defects, ataxia, and abnormal social behavior. These findings uncover an unexpectedly dynamic splicing regulatory network that shapes the synapse in early life and establishes motor and cognitive circuitry in the developing cerebellum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107703DOI Listing
June 2020

Anomalies in Dopamine Transporter Expression and Primary Cilium Distribution in the Dorsal Striatum of a Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick C1 Disease.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 24;13:226. Epub 2019 May 24.

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Center for Research in Neurobiology 'Daniel Bovet', Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

The Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) is a rare genetic disease characterized by the accumulation of endocytosed cholesterol and other lipids in the endosome/lysosome compartments. In the brain, the accumulation/mislocalization of unesterified cholesterol, gangliosides and sphingolipids is responsible for the appearance of neuropathological hallmarks, and progressive neurological decline in patients. The imbalance of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids, including GM2 and GM3 gangliosides, alters a number of signaling mechanisms impacting on the overall homeostasis of neurons. In particular, lipid depletion experiments have shown that lipid rafts regulate the cell surface expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) and modulate its activity. Dysregulated dopamine transporter's function results in imbalanced dopamine levels at synapses and severely affects dopamine-induced locomotor responses and dopamine receptor-mediated synaptic signaling. Recent studies begin to correlate dopaminergic stimulation with the length and function of the primary cilium, a non-motile organelle that coordinates numerous signaling pathways. In particular, the absence of dopaminergic D2 receptor stimulation induces the elongation of dorso-striatal neuron's primary cilia. This study has used a mouse model of the NPC1 disease to correlate cholesterol dyshomeostasis with dorso-striatal anomalies in terms of DAT expression and primary cilium (PC) length and morphology. We found that juvenile mice display a reduction of dorso-striatal DAT expression, with associated alterations of PC number, length-frequency distribution, and tortuosity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544041PMC
May 2019

Genetic ablation of Gpr37l1 delays tumor occurrence in Ptch1 mouse models of medulloblastoma.

Exp Neurol 2019 02 16;312:33-42. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Italian National Research Council (CNR), I-00015, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome, Italy.

The G-protein coupled receptor 37-like 1 (Gpr37l1) is specifically expressed in most astrocytic glial cells, including cerebellar Bergmann astrocytes and interacts with patched 1 (Ptch1), a co-receptor of the sonic hedgehog (Shh)-smoothened (Smo) signaling complex. Gpr37l1 null mutant mice exhibit precocious post-natal cerebellar development, with altered Shh-Smo mitogenic cascade and premature down-regulation of granule cell precursor (GCP) proliferation. Gpr37l1 expression is downregulated in medulloblastoma (MB) and upregulated in glioma and glioblastoma tumors. Shh-associated MBs originate postnatally, from dysregulated hyperproliferation of GCPs in developing cerebellum's external granular layer (EGL), as shown in heterozygous Ptch1 knock-out mouse strains that model human MB occurrence and progression. This study investigates cerebellar MB phenotypes in newly produced Gpr37l1, Ptch1 double mutant mice. Natural history analysis shows that Gpr37l1 genetic ablation, in Ptch1 model animals, results in marked deferment of post-natal tumor occurrence and decreased incidence of more aggressive tumor types. It is also associated with the delayed and diminished presence of more severe types of hyperplastic lesions in Ptch1 mice. Consistently, during early post-natal development Gpr37l1;Ptch1 pups exhibit reduction in cerebellar GCP proliferation and EGL thickness and a precocious, sustained expression of wingless-type MMTV integration site member 3 (Wnt3), a specific inhibitor of Shh-induced neuronal mitogenesis, in comparison with Ptch1 heterozygous single mutants. These findings highlight the specific involvement of Gpr37l1 in modulating postnatal cerebellar Shh-Ptch1-Smo mitogenic signaling in both normal and pathological conditions. The novel Gpr37l1;Ptch1 mouse models may thus be instrumental in the detailed characterization of the initial phases of Shh-associated MB insurgence and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2018.11.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Atm reactivation reverses ataxia telangiectasia phenotypes in vivo.

Cell Death Dis 2018 02 22;9(3):314. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopaedic Sciences, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Hereditary deficiencies in DNA damage signaling are invariably associated with cancer predisposition, immunodeficiency, radiation sensitivity, gonadal abnormalities, premature aging, and tissue degeneration. ATM kinase has been established as a central player in DNA double-strand break repair and its deficiency causes ataxia telangiectasia, a rare, multi-system disease with no cure. So ATM represents a highly attractive target for the development of novel types of gene therapy or transplantation strategies. Atm tamoxifen-inducible mouse models were generated to explore whether Atm reconstitution is able to restore Atm function in an Atm-deficient background. Body weight, immunodeficiency, spermatogenesis, and radioresistance were recovered in transgenic mice within 1 month from Atm induction. Notably, life span was doubled after Atm restoration, mice were protected from thymoma and no cerebellar defects were observed. Atm signaling was functional after DNA damage in vivo and in vitro. In summary, we propose a new Atm mouse model to investigate novel therapeutic strategies for ATM activation in ataxia telangiectasia disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-018-0357-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833483PMC
February 2018

Primary Cilia in the Murine Cerebellum and in Mutant Models of Medulloblastoma.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2017 Jan 2;37(1):145-154. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Italian National Research Council (CNR), EMMA-INFRAFRONTIER-IMPC, 00015, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome, Italy.

Cellular primary cilia crucially sense and transduce extracellular physicochemical stimuli. Cilium-mediated developmental signaling is tissue and cell type specific. Primary cilia are required for cerebellar differentiation and sonic hedgehog (Shh)-dependent proliferation of neuronal granule precursors. The mammalian G-protein-coupled receptor 37-like 1 is specifically expressed in cerebellar Bergmann glia astrocytes and participates in regulating postnatal cerebellar granule neuron proliferation/differentiation and Bergmann glia and Purkinje neuron maturation. The mouse receptor protein interacts with the patched 1 component of the cilium-associated Shh receptor complex. Mice heterozygous for patched homolog 1 mutations, like heterozygous patched 1 humans, have a higher incidence of Shh subgroup medulloblastoma (MB) and other tumors. Cerebellar cells bearing primary cilia were identified during postnatal development and in adulthood in two mouse strains with altered Shh signaling: a G-protein-coupled receptor 37-like 1 null mutant and an MB-susceptible, heterozygous patched homolog 1 mutant. In addition to granule and Purkinje neurons, primary cilia were also expressed by Bergmann glia astrocytes in both wild-type and mutant animals, from birth to adulthood. Variations in ciliary number and length were related to the different levels of neuronal and glial cell proliferation and maturation, during postnatal cerebellar development. Primary cilia were also detected in pre-neoplastic MB lesions in heterozygous patched homolog 1 mutant mice and they could represent specific markers for the development and analysis of novel cerebellar oncogenic models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-016-0354-3DOI Listing
January 2017

Modulation of Dhh signaling and altered Sertoli cell function in mice lacking the GPR37-prosaposin receptor.

FASEB J 2015 May 21;29(5):2059-69. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Emma-Infrafrontier-Impc, "A. Buzzati-Traverso" Campus, Istituto di Biologia Cellulare e Neurobiologia, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome, Italy

The mammalian G-protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) is expressed in brain, in adult testis, and during the early phase of gonad differentiation. Somatic Sertoli cells (SCs) are located within the seminiferous tubules where they support the germinal epithelium. An adequate number of SCs is required for the complete prepubertal differentiation of germ cells and adult fertility. This study shows that Gpr37 and its ligand prosaposin are both postnatally expressed by SCs, whose proliferation and maturation are affected in Gpr37-null mutant mice during postnatal testicular development. Mutant pups show a delayed timing in sperm cell development, with a partial arrest of spermatocytes at the meiotic pachytene (e.g., 1.5-fold increase in Gpr37(-/-) P21 pups) and their increased apoptosis (e.g., 1.8-fold and 3.5-fold increase in Gpr37(-/-) P21 and adult mice, respectively). Mutant adults have reduced testis weight (wild type, 299 ± 5 mg; knockout, 258 ± 16 mg; P < 0.05) and epididymal sperm count and motility (e.g., 1.5-fold and 1.45-fold decrease in Gpr37(-/-) mice, respectively). Lack of Gpr37 results in the reduction in androgen receptor levels during prepubertal testis development, alongside the altered expression of SC maturation markers. It also affects the prepubertal testis expression of desert hedgehog (Dhh) mitogenic cascade components (Dhh, 1.3-fold increase in Gpr37(-/-) P10 and P21 pups; Gli2, 1.4-fold and 1.6-fold increase in Gpr37(-/-) P10 and P21 pups, respectively) including patched homolog 1 (1.3-fold increase in Gpr37(-/-) P10 and P21 pups), which is found localized in prepubertal SCs and is associated with Gpr37 in cultured primary SC samples. These results indicate that Gpr37 is a specific modulator of murine testis Dhh mitogenic signaling and SC proliferation and maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.14-269209DOI Listing
May 2015

Precocious cerebellum development and improved motor functions in mice lacking the astrocyte cilium-, patched 1-associated Gpr37l1 receptor.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Oct 23;110(41):16486-91. Epub 2013 Sep 23.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, European Mouse Mutant Archive-Infrafrontier-International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium, Istituto di Biologia Cellulare e Neurobiologia, I-00015 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome), Italy.

In the developing cerebellum, the proliferation and differentiation of glial and neuronal cell types depend on the modulation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway. The vertebrate G-protein-coupled receptor 37-like 1 (GPR37L1) gene encodes a putative G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed in newborn and adult cerebellar Bergmann glia astrocytes. This study shows that the ablation of the murine Gpr37l1 gene results in premature down-regulation of proliferation of granule neuron precursors and precocious maturation of Bergmann glia and Purkinje neurons. These alterations are accompanied by improved adult motor learning and coordination. Gpr37l1(-/-) mice also exhibit specific modifications of the Shh signaling cascade. Specific assays show that in Bergmann glia cells Gpr37l1 is associated with primary cilium membranes and it specifically interacts and colocalizes with the Shh primary receptor, patched 1. These findings indicate that the patched 1-associated Gpr37l1 receptor participates in the regulation of postnatal cerebellum development by modulating the Shh pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1314819110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3799331PMC
October 2013

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Fabio C Abdalla Hagai Abeliovich Robert T Abraham Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Khosrow Adeli Lotta Agholme Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso Hyung Jun Ahn Ouardia Ait-Mohamed Slimane Ait-Si-Ali Takahiko Akematsu Shizuo Akira Hesham M Al-Younes Munir A Al-Zeer Matthew L Albert Roger L Albin Javier Alegre-Abarrategui Maria Francesca Aleo Mehrdad Alirezaei Alexandru Almasan Maylin Almonte-Becerril Atsuo Amano Ravi Amaravadi Shoba Amarnath Amal O Amer Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie Vellareddy Anantharam David K Ann Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie Hiroshi Aoki Nadezda Apostolova Giuseppe Arancia John P Aris Katsuhiko Asanuma Nana Y O Asare Hisashi Ashida Valerie Askanas David S Askew Patrick Auberger Misuzu Baba Steven K Backues Eric H Baehrecke Ben A Bahr Xue-Yuan Bai Yannick Bailly Robert Baiocchi Giulia Baldini Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Bruce A Bamber Edward T W Bampton Gábor Bánhegyi Clinton R Bartholomew Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Henri Batoko Boon-Huat Bay Isabelle Beau Daniel M Béchet Thomas J Begley Christian Behl Christian Behrends Soumeya Bekri Bryan Bellaire Linda J Bendall Luca Benetti Laura Berliocchi Henri Bernardi Francesca Bernassola Sébastien Besteiro Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Xiaoning Bi Martine Biard-Piechaczyk Janice S Blum Lawrence H Boise Paolo Bonaldo David L Boone Beat C Bornhauser Karina R Bortoluci Ioannis Bossis Frédéric Bost Jean-Pierre Bourquin Patricia Boya Michaël Boyer-Guittaut Peter V Bozhkov Nathan R Brady Claudio Brancolini Andreas Brech Jay E Brenman Ana Brennand Emery H Bresnick Patrick Brest Dave Bridges Molly L Bristol Paul S Brookes Eric J Brown John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Ulf T Brunk Dennis E Bulman Scott J Bultman Geert Bultynck Lena F Burbulla Wilfried Bursch Jonathan P Butchar Wanda Buzgariu Sergio P Bydlowski Ken Cadwell Monika Cahová Dongsheng Cai Jiyang Cai Qian Cai Bruno Calabretta Javier Calvo-Garrido Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Jenny Campos-Salinas Eleonora Candi Lizhi Cao Allan B Caplan Simon R Carding Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Cathleen R Carlin Virginie Carmignac Leticia A M Carneiro Serena Carra Rosario A Caruso Giorgio Casari Caty Casas Roberta Castino Eduardo Cebollero Francesco Cecconi Jean Celli Hassan Chaachouay Han-Jung Chae Chee-Yin Chai David C Chan Edmond Y Chan Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang Chi-Ming Che Ching-Chow Chen Guang-Chao Chen Guo-Qiang Chen Min Chen Quan Chen Steve S-L Chen WenLi Chen Xi Chen Xiangmei Chen Xiequn Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Zhixiang Chen Alan Cheng Christopher H K Cheng Yan Cheng Heesun Cheong Jae-Ho Cheong Sara Cherry Russ Chess-Williams Zelda H Cheung Eric Chevet Hui-Ling Chiang Roberto Chiarelli Tomoki Chiba Lih-Shen Chin Shih-Hwa Chiou Francis V Chisari Chi Hin Cho Dong-Hyung Cho Augustine M K Choi DooSeok Choi Kyeong Sook Choi Mary E Choi Salem Chouaib Divaker Choubey Vinay Choubey Charleen T Chu Tsung-Hsien Chuang Sheau-Huei Chueh Taehoon Chun Yong-Joon Chwae Mee-Len Chye Roberto Ciarcia Maria R Ciriolo Michael J Clague Robert S B Clark Peter G H Clarke Robert Clarke Patrice Codogno Hilary A Coller María I Colombo Sergio Comincini Maria Condello Fabrizio Condorelli Mark R Cookson Graham H Coombs Isabelle Coppens Ramon Corbalan Pascale Cossart Paola Costelli Safia Costes Ana Coto-Montes Eduardo Couve Fraser P Coxon James M Cregg José L Crespo Marianne J Cronjé Ana Maria Cuervo Joseph J Cullen Mark J Czaja Marcello D'Amelio Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud Lester M Davids Faith E Davies Massimo De Felici John F de Groot Cornelis A M de Haan Luisa De Martino Angelo De Milito Vincenzo De Tata Jayanta Debnath Alexei Degterev Benjamin Dehay Lea M D Delbridge Francesca Demarchi Yi Zhen Deng Jörn Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Vojo Deretic Shyamal D Desai Rodney J Devenish Mario Di Gioacchino Gilbert Di Paolo Chiara Di Pietro Guillermo Díaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Maria T Diaz-Meco Javier Diaz-Nido Ivan Dikic Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar Wen-Xing Ding Clark W Distelhorst Abhinav Diwan Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Svetlana Dokudovskaya Zheng Dong Frank C Dorsey Victor Dosenko James J Dowling Stephen Doxsey Marlène Dreux Mark E Drew Qiuhong Duan Michel A Duchosal Karen Duff Isabelle Dugail Madeleine Durbeej Michael Duszenko Charles L Edelstein Aimee L Edinger Gustavo Egea Ludwig Eichinger N Tony Eissa Suhendan Ekmekcioglu Wafik S El-Deiry Zvulun Elazar Mohamed Elgendy Lisa M Ellerby Kai Er Eng Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Simone Engelender Jekaterina Erenpreisa Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Virginia Espina Huizhou Fan Jia Fan Qi-Wen Fan Zhen Fan Shengyun Fang Yongqi Fang Manolis Fanto Alessandro Fanzani Thomas Farkas Jean-Claude Farré Mathias Faure Marcus Fechheimer Carl G Feng Jian Feng Qili Feng Youji Feng László Fésüs Ralph Feuer Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira Gian Maria Fimia Diane C Fingar Steven Finkbeiner Toren Finkel Kim D Finley Filomena Fiorito Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Marc Flajolet Maria L Florez-McClure Salvatore Florio Edward A Fon Francesco Fornai Franco Fortunato Rati Fotedar Daniel H Fowler Howard S Fox Rodrigo Franco Lisa B Frankel Marc Fransen José M Fuentes Juan Fueyo Jun Fujii Kozo Fujisaki Eriko Fujita Mitsunori Fukuda Ruth H Furukawa Matthias Gaestel Philippe Gailly Malgorzata Gajewska Brigitte Galliot Vincent Galy Subramaniam Ganesh Barry Ganetzky Ian G Ganley Fen-Biao Gao George F Gao Jinming Gao Lorena Garcia Guillermo Garcia-Manero Mikel Garcia-Marcos Marjan Garmyn Andrei L Gartel Evelina Gatti Mathias Gautel Thomas R Gawriluk Matthew E Gegg Jiefei Geng Marc Germain Jason E Gestwicki David A Gewirtz Saeid Ghavami Pradipta Ghosh Anna M Giammarioli Alexandra N Giatromanolaki Spencer B Gibson Robert W Gilkerson Michael L Ginger Henry N Ginsberg Jakub Golab Michael S Goligorsky Pierre Golstein Candelaria Gomez-Manzano Ebru Goncu Céline Gongora Claudio D Gonzalez Ramon Gonzalez Cristina González-Estévez Rosa Ana González-Polo Elena Gonzalez-Rey Nikolai V Gorbunov Sharon Gorski Sandro Goruppi Roberta A Gottlieb Devrim Gozuacik Giovanna Elvira Granato Gary D Grant Kim N Green Aleš Gregorc Frédéric Gros Charles Grose Thomas W Grunt Philippe Gual Jun-Lin Guan Kun-Liang Guan Sylvie M Guichard Anna S Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Asa B Gustafsson Andrew J Halayko Amber N Hale Sandra K Halonen Maho Hamasaki Feng Han Ting Han Michael K Hancock Malene Hansen Hisashi Harada Masaru Harada Stefan E Hardt J Wade Harper Adrian L Harris James Harris Steven D Harris Makoto Hashimoto Jeffrey A Haspel Shin-ichiro Hayashi Lori A Hazelhurst Congcong He You-Wen He Marie-Joseé Hébert Kim A Heidenreich Miep H Helfrich Gudmundur V Helgason Elizabeth P Henske Brian Herman Paul K Herman Claudio Hetz Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill Lynne J Hocking Paul Hofman Thomas G Hofmann Jörg Höhfeld Tessa L Holyoake Ming-Huang Hong David A Hood Gökhan S Hotamisligil Ewout J Houwerzijl Maria Høyer-Hansen Bingren Hu Chien-An A Hu Hong-Ming Hu Ya Hua Canhua Huang Ju Huang Shengbing Huang Wei-Pang Huang Tobias B Huber Won-Ki Huh Tai-Ho Hung Ted R Hupp Gang Min Hur James B Hurley Sabah N A Hussain Patrick J Hussey Jung Jin Hwang Seungmin Hwang Atsuhiro Ichihara Shirin Ilkhanizadeh Ken Inoki Takeshi Into Valentina Iovane Juan L Iovanna Nancy Y Ip Yoshitaka Isaka Hiroyuki Ishida Ciro Isidoro Ken-ichi Isobe Akiko Iwasaki Marta Izquierdo Yotaro Izumi Panu M Jaakkola Marja Jäättelä George R Jackson William T Jackson Bassam Janji Marina Jendrach Ju-Hong Jeon Eui-Bae Jeung Hong Jiang Hongchi Jiang Jean X Jiang Ming Jiang Qing Jiang Xuejun Jiang Xuejun Jiang Alberto Jiménez Meiyan Jin Shengkan Jin Cheol O Joe Terje Johansen Daniel E Johnson Gail V W Johnson Nicola L Jones Bertrand Joseph Suresh K Joseph Annie M Joubert Gábor Juhász Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret Chang Hwa Jung Yong-Keun Jung Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Motoni Kadowaki Katarina Kagedal Yoshiaki Kamada Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Harm H Kampinga Hiromitsu Kanamori Chanhee Kang Khong Bee Kang Kwang Il Kang Rui Kang Yoon-A Kang Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Haruo Kanno Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Vassiliki Karantza Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Yoshinori Kawazoe Po-Yuan Ke John H Kehrl Ameeta Kelekar Claus Kerkhoff David H Kessel Hany Khalil Jan A K W Kiel Amy A Kiger Akio Kihara Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Hou Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jae-Sung Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Cheon Kim John K Kim Peter K Kim Seong Who Kim Yong-Sun Kim Yonghyun Kim Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Jason S King Timothy J Kinsella Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Katsuhiko Kitamoto Kaio Kitazato Ludger Klein Walter T Klimecki Jochen Klucken Erwin Knecht Ben C B Ko Jan C Koch Hiroshi Koga Jae-Young Koh Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Masaaki Komatsu Eiki Kominami Hee Jeong Kong Wei-Jia Kong Viktor I Korolchuk Yaichiro Kotake Michael I Koukourakis Juan B Kouri Flores Attila L Kovács Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Carole Kretz-Remy Anna M Krichevsky Guido Kroemer Rejko Krüger Oleg Krut Nicholas T Ktistakis Chia-Yi Kuan Roza Kucharczyk Ashok Kumar Raj Kumar Sharad Kumar Mondira Kundu Hsing-Jien Kung Tino Kurz Ho Jeong Kwon Albert R La Spada Frank Lafont Trond Lamark Jacques Landry Jon D Lane Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn F Laporte Lajos László Sergio Lavandero Josée N Lavoie Robert Layfield Pedro A Lazo Weidong Le Laurent Le Cam Daniel J Ledbetter Alvin J X Lee Byung-Wan Lee Gyun Min Lee Jongdae Lee Ju-Hyun Lee Michael Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sug Hyung Lee Christiaan Leeuwenburgh Patrick Legembre Renaud Legouis Michael Lehmann Huan-Yao Lei Qun-Ying Lei David A Leib José Leiro John J Lemasters Antoinette Lemoine Maciej S Lesniak Dina Lev Victor V Levenson Beth Levine Efrat Levy Faqiang Li Jun-Lin Li Lian Li Sheng Li Weijie Li Xue-Jun Li Yan-bo Li Yi-Ping Li Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Yung-Feng Liao Pawel P Liberski Andrew Lieberman Hyunjung J Lim Kah-Leong Lim Kyu Lim Chiou-Feng Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jian Lin Jiandie D Lin Kui Lin Wan-Wan Lin Weei-Chin Lin Yi-Ling Lin Rafael Linden Paul Lingor Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz Michael P Lisanti Paloma B Liton Bo Liu Chun-Feng Liu Kaiyu Liu Leyuan Liu Qiong A Liu Wei Liu Young-Chau Liu Yule Liu Richard A Lockshin Chun-Nam Lok Sagar Lonial Benjamin Loos Gabriel Lopez-Berestein Carlos López-Otín Laura Lossi Michael T Lotze Peter Lőw Binfeng Lu Bingwei Lu Bo Lu Zhen Lu Frédéric Luciano Nicholas W Lukacs Anders H Lund Melinda A Lynch-Day Yong Ma Fernando Macian Jeff P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Frank Madeo Luigi Maiuri Maria Chiara Maiuri Davide Malagoli May Christine V Malicdan Walter Malorni Na Man Eva-Maria Mandelkow Stéphen Manon Irena Manov Kai Mao Xiang Mao Zixu Mao Philippe Marambaud Daniela Marazziti Yves L Marcel Katie Marchbank Piero Marchetti Stefan J Marciniak Mateus Marcondes Mohsen Mardi Gabriella Marfe Guillermo Mariño Maria Markaki Mark R Marten Seamus J Martin Camille Martinand-Mari Wim Martinet Marta Martinez-Vicente Matilde Masini Paola Matarrese Saburo Matsuo Raffaele Matteoni Andreas Mayer Nathalie M Mazure David J McConkey Melanie J McConnell Catherine McDermott Christine McDonald Gerald M McInerney Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Pamela J McLean Christopher R McMaster G Angus McQuibban Alfred J Meijer Miriam H Meisler Alicia Meléndez Thomas J Melia Gerry Melino Maria A Mena Javier A Menendez Rubem F S Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Fiona M Menzies Carol A Mercer Adalberto Merighi Diane E Merry Stefania Meschini Christian G Meyer Thomas F Meyer Chao-Yu Miao Jun-Ying Miao Paul A M Michels Carine Michiels Dalibor Mijaljica Ana Milojkovic Saverio Minucci Clelia Miracco Cindy K Miranti Ioannis Mitroulis Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Baharia Mograbi Simin Mohseni Xavier Molero Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Takashi Momoi Iryna Monastyrska Martha M Monick Mervyn J Monteiro Michael N Moore Rodrigo Mora Kevin Moreau Paula I Moreira Yuji Moriyasu Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Jeremy C Mottram Tomasz Motyl Charbel E-H Moussa Sylke Müller Sylviane Muller Karl Münger Christian Münz Leon O Murphy Maureen E Murphy Antonio Musarò Indira Mysorekar Eiichiro Nagata Kazuhiro Nagata Aimable Nahimana Usha Nair Toshiyuki Nakagawa Kiichi Nakahira Hiroyasu Nakano Hitoshi Nakatogawa Meera Nanjundan Naweed I Naqvi Derek P Narendra Masashi Narita Miguel Navarro Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Andriy Nemchenko Mihai G Netea Thomas P Neufeld Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Huu Phuc Nguyen Daotai Nie Ichizo Nishino Corey Nislow Ralph A Nixon Takeshi Noda Angelika A Noegel Anna Nogalska Satoru Noguchi Lucia Notterpek Ivana Novak Tomoyoshi Nozaki Nobuyuki Nukina Thorsten Nürnberger Beat Nyfeler Keisuke Obara Terry D Oberley Salvatore Oddo Michinaga Ogawa Toya Ohashi Koji Okamoto Nancy L Oleinick F Javier Oliver Laura J Olsen Stefan Olsson Onya Opota Timothy F Osborne Gary K Ostrander Kinya Otsu Jing-hsiung James Ou Mireille Ouimet Michael Overholtzer Bulent Ozpolat Paolo Paganetti Ugo Pagnini Nicolas Pallet Glen E Palmer Camilla Palumbo Tianhong Pan Theocharis Panaretakis Udai Bhan Pandey Zuzana Papackova Issidora Papassideri Irmgard Paris Junsoo Park Ohkmae K Park Jan B Parys Katherine R Parzych Susann Patschan Cam Patterson Sophie Pattingre John M Pawelek Jianxin Peng David H Perlmutter Ida Perrotta George Perry Shazib Pervaiz Matthias Peter Godefridus J Peters Morten Petersen Goran Petrovski James M Phang Mauro Piacentini Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Gérard Pierron Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Antonio Piras Natik Piri Leonidas C Platanias Stefanie Pöggeler Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Christian Poüs Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio Mette Prætorius-Ibba Anil Prasad Mark Prescott Muriel Priault Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen Ann Progulske-Fox Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Serge Przedborski Karin Przyklenk Rosa Puertollano Julien Puyal Shu-Bing Qian Liang Qin Zheng-Hong Qin Susan E Quaggin Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Simon W Rabkin Irfan Rahman Abdelhaq Rami Georg Ramm Glenn Randall Felix Randow V Ashutosh Rao Jeffrey C Rathmell Brinda Ravikumar Swapan K Ray Bruce H Reed John C Reed Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert John J Reiners Russel J Reiter Jun Ren José L Revuelta Christopher J Rhodes Konstantinos Ritis Elizete Rizzo Jeffrey Robbins Michel Roberge Hernan Roca Maria C Roccheri Stephane Rocchi H Peter Rodemann Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba Bärbel Rohrer Igor B Roninson Kirill Rosen Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska Mustapha Rouis Kasper M A Rouschop Francesca Rovetta Brian P Rubin David C Rubinsztein Klaus Ruckdeschel Edmund B Rucker Assaf Rudich Emil Rudolf Nelson Ruiz-Opazo Rossella Russo Tor Erik Rusten Kevin M Ryan Stefan W Ryter David M Sabatini Junichi Sadoshima Tapas Saha Tatsuya Saitoh Hiroshi Sakagami Yasuyoshi Sakai Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh Paolo Salomoni Paul M Salvaterra Guy Salvesen Rosa Salvioli Anthony M J Sanchez José A Sánchez-Alcázar Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto Marco Sandri Uma Sankar Poonam Sansanwal Laura Santambrogio Shweta Saran Sovan Sarkar Minnie Sarwal Chihiro Sasakawa Ausra Sasnauskiene Miklós Sass Ken Sato Miyuki Sato Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schätzl Wiep Scheper Stefano Schiaffino Claudio Schneider Marion E Schneider Regine Schneider-Stock Patricia V Schoenlein Daniel F Schorderet Christoph Schüller Gary K Schwartz Luca Scorrano Linda Sealy Per O Seglen Juan Segura-Aguilar Iban Seiliez Oleksandr Seleverstov Christian Sell Jong Bok Seo Duska Separovic Vijayasaradhi Setaluri Takao Setoguchi Carmine Settembre John J Shacka Mala Shanmugam Irving M Shapiro Eitan Shaulian Reuben J Shaw James H Shelhamer Han-Ming Shen Wei-Chiang Shen Zu-Hang Sheng Yang Shi Kenichi Shibuya Yoshihiro Shidoji Jeng-Jer Shieh Chwen-Ming Shih Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Takahiro Shintani Orian S Shirihai Gordon C Shore Andriy A Sibirny Stan B Sidhu Beata Sikorska Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin Alison Simmons Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Cristiano Simone Anne Simonsen David A Sinclair Rajat Singh Debasish Sinha Frank A Sinicrope Agnieszka Sirko Parco M Siu Efthimios Sivridis Vojtech Skop Vladimir P Skulachev Ruth S Slack Soraya S Smaili Duncan R Smith Maria S Soengas Thierry Soldati Xueqin Song Anil K Sood Tuck Wah Soong Federica Sotgia Stephen A Spector Claudia D Spies Wolfdieter Springer Srinivasa M Srinivasula Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Ruediger Stendel Harald Stenmark Anastasis Stephanou Stephan T Stern Cinthya Sternberg Björn Stork Peter Strålfors Carlos S Subauste Xinbing Sui David Sulzer Jiaren Sun Shi-Yong Sun Zhi-Jun Sun Joseph J Y Sung Kuninori Suzuki Toshihiko Suzuki Michele S Swanson Charles Swanton Sean T Sweeney Lai-King Sy Gyorgy Szabadkai Ira Tabas Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Krisztina Takács-Vellai Yoshitaka Takano Kaoru Takegawa Genzou Takemura Fumihiko Takeshita Nicholas J Talbot Kevin S W Tan Keiji Tanaka Kozo Tanaka Daolin Tang Dingzhong Tang Isei Tanida Bakhos A Tannous Nektarios Tavernarakis Graham S Taylor Gregory A Taylor J Paul Taylor Lance S Terada Alexei Terman Gianluca Tettamanti Karin Thevissen Craig B Thompson Andrew Thorburn Michael Thumm FengFeng Tian Yuan Tian Glauco Tocchini-Valentini Aviva M Tolkovsky Yasuhiko Tomino Lars Tönges Sharon A Tooze Cathy Tournier John Tower Roberto Towns Vladimir Trajkovic Leonardo H Travassos Ting-Fen Tsai Mario P Tschan Takeshi Tsubata Allan Tsung Boris Turk Lorianne S Turner Suresh C Tyagi Yasuo Uchiyama Takashi Ueno Midori Umekawa Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji Vivek K Unni Maria I Vaccaro Enza Maria Valente Greet Van den Berghe Ida J van der Klei Wouter van Doorn Linda F van Dyk Marjolein van Egmond Leo A van Grunsven Peter Vandenabeele Wim P Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Eva C Vaquero Guillermo Velasco Tibor Vellai Jose Miguel Vicencio Richard D Vierstra Miquel Vila Cécile Vindis Giampietro Viola Maria Teresa Viscomi Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Clarissa von Haefen Marcela Votruba Keiji Wada Richard Wade-Martins Cheryl L Walker Craig M Walsh Jochen Walter Xiang-Bo Wan Aimin Wang Chenguang Wang Dawei Wang Fan Wang Fen Wang Guanghui Wang Haichao Wang Hong-Gang Wang Horng-Dar Wang Jin Wang Ke Wang Mei Wang Richard C Wang Xinglong Wang Xuejun Wang Ying-Jan Wang Yipeng Wang Zhen Wang Zhigang Charles Wang Zhinong Wang Derick G Wansink Diane M Ward Hirotaka Watada Sarah L Waters Paul Webster Lixin Wei Conrad C Weihl William A Weiss Scott M Welford Long-Ping Wen Caroline A Whitehouse J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Tom Wileman John W Wiley Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Bradly G Wouters Chenghan Wu Dao-Cheng Wu William K K Wu Andreas Wyttenbach Ramnik J Xavier Zhijun Xi Pu Xia Gengfu Xiao Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Da-zhi Xu Jianzhen Xu Liang Xu Xiaolei Xu Ai Yamamoto Akitsugu Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Michiaki Yamashita Xianghua Yan Mitsuhiro Yanagida Dun-Sheng Yang Elizabeth Yang Jin-Ming Yang Shi Yu Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Zhifen Yang Meng-Chao Yao Tso-Pang Yao Behzad Yeganeh Wei-Lien Yen Jia-jing Yin Xiao-Ming Yin Ook-Joon Yoo Gyesoon Yoon Seung-Yong Yoon Tomohiro Yorimitsu Yuko Yoshikawa Tamotsu Yoshimori Kohki Yoshimoto Ho Jin You Richard J Youle Anas Younes Li Yu Long Yu Seong-Woon Yu Wai Haung Yu Zhi-Min Yuan Zhenyu Yue Cheol-Heui Yun Michisuke Yuzaki Olga Zabirnyk Elaine Silva-Zacarin David Zacks Eldad Zacksenhaus Nadia Zaffaroni Zahra Zakeri Herbert J Zeh Scott O Zeitlin Hong Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Lin Zhang Long Zhang Ming-Yong Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Mantong Zhao Yi-Fang Zhao Ying Zhao Zhizhuang J Zhao Xiaoxiang Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Cong-Zhao Zhou Changlian Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Xiao-Feng Zhu Xiongwei Zhu Yuangang Zhu Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Antonio Zorzano Jürgen Zschocke Brian Zuckerbraun

Autophagy 2012 Apr;8(4):445-544

Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3404883PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/auto.19496DOI Listing
April 2012

Multiple ectopic leiomyomas of the abdominal rectus muscles after gasless laparoscopic uterine myomectomy.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2012 Mar 2;285(3):883-5. Epub 2011 Nov 2.

Purpose: To describe and analyze the first case of multiple ectopic leiomyomas of the abdominal rectus muscles in a patient who had undergone gasless laparoscopic uterine myomectomy (GLM) 10 years before.

Methods: A 41-year-old woman, who had undergone GLM 10 years before, having presented multiple palpable masses of the abdominal wall, underwent minilaparotomic excision of six abdominal masses.

Results: Six round well-circumscribed masses of the abdominal rectus muscles, measuring, respectively, 3.8 × 1.7, 2.9 × 0.9, 0.8 × 0.5, 0.7 × 0.3, 10 × 0.8 and 0.5 × 0.4 cm, were excised. The major lesion was situated close to the right trocar site of the previous GLM, the other smaller tumors were located in the umbilical area and left abdominal region. On histopathologic examination, the abdominal lumps were categorized as leiomyoma.

Conclusions: Ectopic leiomyomatosis is an uncommon complication after GLM, and does not justify follow-up in all asymptomatic cases. However, the gynecologists should bear this unusual condition in mind, and inform the patients that leiomyoma fragments can grow in ectopic sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-011-2125-1DOI Listing
March 2012

Absence of the GPR37/PAEL receptor impairs striatal Akt and ERK2 phosphorylation, DeltaFosB expression, and conditioned place preference to amphetamine and cocaine.

FASEB J 2011 Jun 3;25(6):2071-81. Epub 2011 Mar 3.

Istituto di Biologia Cellulare-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Campus A. Buzzati-Traverso, Via E. Ramarini 32, I-00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Rome, Italy.

The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) colocalizes with the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) in mouse nigrostriatal presynaptic membranes, and its genetic ablation in homozygous null-mutant (GPR37-KO) mice provokes the marked increase of plasma membrane expression of DAT, alteration of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity, and reduction of catalepsy induced by DA-receptor antagonists. We report that extracts from GPR37-KO mice displayed biochemical alterations of the nigrostriatal signaling pathways mediated by D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors. Null-mutant mice showed an increase of the basal phosphorylation level of the D2-regulated Akt kinase. The basal phosphorylation of the D1-activated ERK2 kinase was not altered, but acute treatments with amphetamine or cocaine failed to produce its specific increase, as detected in samples from wild-type littermates. Furthermore, the chronic administration of cocaine to GPR37-KO mice did not increase the expression of the ΔFosB transcription factor isoforms. Consistently, behavioral analysis showed that null-mutant animals did not respond to the incentive properties of amphetamine or cocaine, in conditioned place preference tests. Thus, the lack of GPR37 affects both ERK2- and Akt-mediated striatal signaling pathways, impairing the biochemical and behavioral responses typically induced by acute and chronic administration of psychostimulant drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.10-175737DOI Listing
June 2011

Macroautophagy of the GPR37 orphan receptor and Parkinson disease-associated neurodegeneration.

Autophagy 2009 Jul 9;5(5):741-2. Epub 2009 Jul 9.

Istituto di Biologia Cellulare-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Campus A. Buzzati-Traverso, Roma, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/auto.5.5.8700DOI Listing
July 2009

Induction of macroautophagy by overexpression of the Parkinson's disease-associated GPR37 receptor.

FASEB J 2009 Jun 13;23(6):1978-87. Epub 2009 Feb 13.

Istituto di Biologia Cellulare-CNR, Campus A. Buzzati-Traverso, Via E. Ramarini 32, I-00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Rome, Italy.

The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) is a substrate of parkin, and its insoluble aggregates accumulate in brain tissue samples of Parkinson's disease patients, including Lewy bodies and neurites. Parkin activates the clearance of the unfolded receptor, while the overexpression of GPR37, in the absence of parkin, can lead to unfolded protein-induced cell death. We found that overexpression of the human GPR37 receptor in HEK293 cells and consequent activation of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response had effects comparable to starvation, in inducing the cellular autophagic pathway. Treatment with specific modulators provided further evidence for the autophagic clearance of the overexpressed GPR37 protein, in detergent-soluble and -insoluble fractions, as confirmed by the conversion of the microtubule-associated protein 1, light chain 3 (LC3)-I marker to its LC3-II isoform. Furthermore, Gpr37-null mutant mice displayed consistent alterations of ER stress and autophagic pathway markers in brain tissue samples. These findings show that GPR37 overexpression per se can induce cellular autophagy, which may prevent the selective degeneration of GPR37-expressing neurons, as reported for Parkinson's and related neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.08-121210DOI Listing
June 2009

GPR37 associates with the dopamine transporter to modulate dopamine uptake and behavioral responses to dopaminergic drugs.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007 Jun 22;104(23):9846-51. Epub 2007 May 22.

Istituto di Biologia Cellulare-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Campus A. Buzzati-Traverso, Via E. Ramarini 32, Monterotondo Scalo, I-00015 Rome, Italy.

The orphan G protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) is a substrate of parkin; its insoluble aggregates accumulate in brain samples of Parkinson's disease patients. We report here that GPR37 interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and modulates DAT activity. GPR37 and DAT were found colocalized in mouse striatal presynaptic membranes and in transfected cells and their interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation assays. Gpr37-null mutant mice showed enhanced DAT-mediated dopamine uptake in striatal membrane samples, with a significant increase in the number of plasma membrane DAT molecules. The null mutant mice also exhibited a decrease in cocaine-induced locomotor activity and in catalepsy induced by dopamine receptor antagonists. These results reveal the specific role of GPR37, a putative peptidergic G protein-coupled receptor, in modulating the functional expression of DAT and the behavioral responses to dopaminergic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0703368104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1887553PMC
June 2007

The alpha isoform of protein kinase CKI is responsible for hepatitis C virus NS5A hyperphosphorylation.

J Virol 2006 Nov 30;80(22):11305-12. Epub 2006 Aug 30.

Istituto di Ricerche di Biologia Molecolare "P. Angeletti," 00040 Pomezia (Roma), Italy.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been the subject of intensive studies for nearly two decades. Nevertheless, some aspects of the virus life cycle are still a mystery. The HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) has been shown to be a modulator of cellular processes possibly required for the establishment of viral persistence. NS5A is heavily phosphorylated, and a switch between a basally phosphorylated form of NS5A (p56) and a hyperphosphorylated form of NS5A (p58) seems to play a pivotal role in regulating HCV replication. Using kinase inhibitors that specifically inhibit the formation of NS5A-p58 in cells, we identified the CKI kinase family as a target. NS5A-p58 increased upon overexpression of CKI-alpha, CKI-delta, and CKI-epsilon, whereas the RNA interference of only CKI-alpha reduced NS5A hyperphosphorylation. Rescue of inhibition of NS5A-p58 was achieved by CKI-alpha overexpression, and we demonstrated that the CKI-alpha isoform is targeted by NS5A hyperphosphorylation inhibitors in living cells. Finally, we showed that down-regulation of CKI-alpha attenuates HCV RNA replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01465-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1642135PMC
November 2006

Reduction of hepatitis C virus NS5A hyperphosphorylation by selective inhibition of cellular kinases activates viral RNA replication in cell culture.

J Virol 2004 Dec;78(23):13306-14

IRBM, Via Pontina Km 30,600, 00040 Pomezia, Rome, Italy.

Efficient replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic RNA in cell culture requires the introduction of adaptive mutations. In this report we describe a system which enables efficient replication of the Con1 subgenomic replicon in Huh7 cells without the introduction of adaptive mutations. The starting hypothesis was that high amounts of the NS5A hyperphosphorylated form, p58, inhibit replication and that reduction of p58 by inhibition of specific kinase(s) below a certain threshold enables HCV replication. Upon screening of a panel of kinase inhibitors, we selected three compounds which inhibited NS5A phosphorylation in vitro and the formation of NS5A p58 in cell culture. Cells, transfected with the HCV Con1 wild-type sequence, support HCV RNA replication upon addition of any of the three compounds. The effect of the kinase inhibitors was found to be synergistic with coadaptive mutations in NS3. This is the first direct demonstration that the presence of high amounts of NS5A-p58 causes inhibition of HCV RNA replication in cell culture and that this inhibition can be relieved by kinase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.78.23.13306-13314.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524975PMC
December 2004