Publications by authors named "Chi Chen"

473 Publications

Database of ab initio L-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure.

Sci Data 2021 06 11;8(1):153. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Nanoengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

The L-edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) is widely used in the characterization of transition metal compounds. Here, we report the development of a database of computed L-edge XANES using the multiple scattering theory-based FEFF9 code. The initial release of the database contains more than 140,000 L-edge spectra for more than 22,000 structures generated using a high-throughput computational workflow. The data is disseminated through the Materials Project and addresses a critical need for L-edge XANES spectra among the research community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00936-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196187PMC
June 2021

Exposure to phthalates and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese with type 2 diabetes.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200011, China.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) results in more than half of the mortality and the majority of morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aim to evaluate the associations of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites with CVD in diabetic patients and explore whether CVD risk factors mediate or interact with these associations. A total of 675 type 2 diabetic participants were enrolled from Shanghai, China, in 2018. CVD was defined as a self-reported diagnosis by a physician including coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, or stroke; it was further reconfirmed in the records from the registration platform. Ten phthalate metabolites were measured in urine. We found positive associations were found among the level of monoethyl phthalate and monoisobutyl phthalate and CVD (OR 1.138, 95% CI 1.032, 1.254; OR 1.369, 95% CI 1.049, 1.786, respectively). Monoisobutyl phthalate and monobenzyl phthalate were marginally and positively associated with carotid intima-media thickness and common carotid artery diameter, respectively. None of the CVD risk factors, including HOMA-IR, body mass index, lipid profile, or blood pressure, significantly mediated the association between the metabolites and CVD. The conditional indirect effect on CVD was significantly stronger for current smoking and dyslipidemia for monoethyl phthalate and for no statin usage and men for monoisobutyl phthalate. In conclusion, phthalate exposure was positively associated with CVD in Chinese with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetic men who are currently smoking, have an uncontrolled lipid profile, and are not using statins might be more susceptible to CVD when exposed to phthalates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14807-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Newborn screening for inherited metabolic diseases using tandem mass spectrometry in China: Outcome and cost-utility analysis.

J Med Screen 2021 Jun 9:9691413211021621. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Center for Health Policy Studies, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: Few studies in China have focused on the economic evaluation of newborn screening (NBS) for inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). This study assesses the total costs, benefits, benefit-cost ratio (BCR), cost-utility ratio (CUR) and incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of NBS using MS/MS compared to the non-screened group.

Methods: The NBS outcomes of newborns who underwent MS/MS screening for IMDs in 2009-2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Records were extracted from a screening management system at the NBS Center of Zhejiang province. A cost-benefit analysis of screening was conducted, assessing screening costs for each subject, and direct and indirect treatment costs for IMDs detected by screening. The putative benefit of clinical outcomes related to early diagnosis was assumed to be improvement in quality of life and prolonged life expectancy in the screened group, as compared to the non-screened group.

Results: Of the 3,040,815 newborns screened, 735 (2.86%) cases were diagnosed through gene sequence analysis. The most frequently occurring types of IMD were amino acid disorders ( = 276), then fatty acid oxidation disorders ( = 248), followed by organic acidaemias ( = 211). The difference in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) ranged from 0.78 to 15.4 in the screened group. The CUR was CNY¥ 116,183.89/QALY in the screened group and CNY¥ 3,078,823.65/QALY in the non-screened group. The ICUR was CNY¥ -768,428.76/QALY, and the BCR was 6.09.

Conclusions: NBS using MS/MS can be considered cost-effective in China. The nationwide promotion of NBS using MS/MS deserves priority consideration and sufficient publicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09691413211021621DOI Listing
June 2021

Double-Edged Metabolic Effects from Short-Term Feeding of Functionalized Wheat Bran to Mouse Revealed by Metabolomic Profiling.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 7;69(23):6543-6555. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Avenue, 225 FScN, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108, United States.

Health-promoting activities of wheat bran are limited by the high-degree crosslinking of its dietary fiber and the low bioavailability of its phenolics. In this study, functionalized wheat bran (FWB) was prepared through a combination of milling, alkaline hydrolysis, high-shear mixing, and high-pressure homogenization treatments. Feasibility and metabolic effects of feeding FWB were investigated by a short-term mouse feeding trial and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis. The combinatorial processing dramatically enhanced the function-associated physicochemical properties of wheat bran, including viscosity, fiber compositions, free ferulic acid, and antioxidant capacity. FWB feeding led to diverse positive metabolic effects, including fecal sequestration of bile acids and cholesterol, reduced serum triacylglycerols and cholesterol, elevated fermentation for short-chain fatty acids, increased bioavailability of ferulic acid and its microbial metabolites, and improved redox balance. However, FWB feeding also negatively affected the nutritional status by decreasing the bioavailability of essential amino acids through the excessive loss of amino acids in feces and disrupting lipid homeostasis by reducing choline supply in the liver. These double-edged metabolic effects warrant further investigations on how to achieve the balance between the functionalization of wheat bran bioactives and the disruption of nutrient bioavailability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c02314DOI Listing
June 2021

Cardiovascular and renal burdens of metabolic associated fatty liver disease from serial US national surveys, 1999-2016.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases have become the leading causes of disease burden worldwide. The trends and burden of "metabolic associated fatty liver disease" (MAFLD) are unknown. We aimed to investigate the cardiovascular and renal burdens in adults with MAFLD and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Methods: Nationally representative data were analyzed including data from 19,617 non-pregnant adults aged ≥20 years from the cross-sectional US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey periods, 1999 to 2002, 2003 to 2006, 2007 to 2010, and 2011 to 2016. MAFLD was defined by the presence of hepatic steatosis plus general overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or evidence of metabolic dysregulation.

Results: The prevalence of MAFLD increased from 28.4% (95% confidence interval 26.3-30.6) in 1999 to 2002 to 35.8% (33.8-37.9) in 2011 to 2016. In 2011 to 2016, among adults with MAFLD, 49.0% (45.8-52.2) had hypertension, 57.8% (55.2-60.4) had dyslipidemia, 26.4% (23.9-28.9) had diabetes mellitus, 88.7% (87.0-80.1) had central obesity, and 18.5% (16.3-20.8) were current smokers. The 10-year cardiovascular risk ranged from 10.5% to 13.1%; 19.7% (17.6-21.9) had chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Through the four periods, adults with MAFLD showed an increase in obesity; increase in treatment to lower blood pressure (BP), lipids, and hemoglobin A1c; and increase in goal achievements for BP and lipids but not in goal achievement for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Patients showed a decreasing 10-year cardiovascular risk over time but no change in the prevalence of CKDs, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Generally, although participants with NAFLD and those with MAFLD had a comparable prevalence of cardiovascular disease and CKD, the prevalence of MAFLD was significantly higher than that of NAFLD.

Conclusions: From 1999 to 2016, cardiovascular and renal risks and diseases have become highly prevalent in adults with MAFLD. The absolute cardiorenal burden may be greater for MAFLD than for NAFLD. These data call for early identification and risk stratification of MAFLD and close collaboration between endocrinologists and hepatologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001513DOI Listing
June 2021

Rehabilitative care practices in the management of childbirth-related pelvic fistula: A systematic review.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Childbirth-related pelvic fistula (CRF) often requires surgery, yet even with successful repair, mental health conditions, musculoskeletal impairments, urinary and fecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction persist for many women. Postoperative rehabilitation, (i.e., physiotherapy, mental health counseling) may address these concerns and has been reported for this population. This review aims to summarize the literature and level of evidence of rehabilitative care practices in fistula care to inform clinical practice, research and policy recommendations.

Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted using Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, Global Health, PAIS Index, PubMed and SCOPUS searching keywords and MeSH terms to identify women with CRF admitted for surgery. Two researchers progressively screened titles, abstracts and full-text articles. Eligible articles were classified primary if intervention details and outcomes were reported or secondary if rehabilitation was described, but no specific outcomes reported. Relevant study details, strengths and limitations, and key findings were extracted.

Results: Eighteen articles were included: eight primary, ten secondary. Primary articles reported on urethral plugs for postoperative urinary incontinence (UI) (2/8), menstrual cup to manage UI (1/8), physiotherapy and health education (3/8) and mental health counseling (2/8). Secondary articles describe rehabilitation components in the context of program descriptions, qualitative analyses or reviews. All evidence was low or very low quality.

Conclusions: Research on rehabilitative care is very limited and highlights inconsistencies in practice. This review provides support for the feasibility of rehabilitation and establishes the need for future interventional studies that involve a comparator and reliable outcome measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-021-04845-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Somatotype and Its Impact on Asymptomatic Target Organ Damage in the Elderly Chinese: The Northern Shanghai Study.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 21;16:887-895. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between asymptomatic target organ damage (TOD) and different somatotypes in a population of elderly from Chinese community-dwelling.

Methods: A total of 2098 Chinese senior residents from northern Shanghai older than 65 years were recruited in the research. The following somatotype parameters were recorded and analyzed: body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio were recorded and calculated. Asymptomatic TOD, including urine albumin/creatinine ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), intima-media thickness (IMT), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left ventricular diastolic function, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was recorded using the MyLab30 Gold CV system and SphygmoCor.

Results: Of all 2098 residents, 817 (38.9%) were overweight and 289 (13.8%) were obese. All somatotype measures were significantly correlated with TOD parameters (p<0.05). After adjustment for age and male gender, in total population, LVMI (p<0.001), cardiac diastolic function (E/Ea, p<0.001), PWV (p<0.001), eGFR (p=0.03), and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (p<0.001) changed gradually and significantly correlated with increasing BMI values. Obesity and overweight were independently related to the incidence of LVH, LVDD, artery stiffness, carotid arterial plaque, and microalbuminuria.

Conclusion: The incidence of asymptomatic TOD was significantly correlated with overweight and obesity, especially in women, whereas the underweight may favor in the prevention of TOD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S302468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153068PMC
June 2021

Study on the application effect of bisoprolol combined with sacubitril valsartan sodium tablets in the cardiac rehabilitation of patients with acute myocardial infarction combined with left heart failure after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 19;10(5):5455-5461. Epub 2021 May 19.

Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu, China; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Background: To analyze the application effect of bisoprolol combined with sacubitril valsartan sodium tablets in the cardiac rehabilitation of patients with acute myocardial infarction combined with left heart failure after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: Patients were divided into a control group (bisoprolol), with 39 cases, and a combination group (bisoprolol combined with sacubitril valsartan sodium tablets), with 42 cases, according to their different medications after surgery. The 6-min walking test distance, heart rate, oxygen saturation, serological indicators, cardiac function, incidence of cardiac adverse events, and adverse reactions of patients were compared between the 2 groups after treatment.

Results: The 6-min walking distance of the combination group was significantly higher than that of the control group, the heart rate was lower than that of the control group (P<0.05), and there was no difference in oxygen saturation (P>0.05). The levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and aldosterone (ALD) after treatment in the combination group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD) of the combination group were significantly lower than those of the control group, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly higher (P<0.05). There was no difference in left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) level (P>0.05). The proportion of normal diastolic function in the combination group was 78.57%, which was significantly higher than 43.59% in the control group, and the proportion of grade II was significantly lower than that in the control group (4.76% vs. 25.64%) (P<0.05). The total incidence of adverse cardiac events 6 months after treatment in the combination group was 9.52%, which was significantly lower than 25.364% in the control group (P<0.05). There were no deaths in the 2 groups, and there was no difference in adverse reactions (P>0.05).

Conclusions: Bisoprolol combined with sacubitril valsartan sodium tablets has a good application effect in the cardiac rehabilitation of patients with acute myocardial infarction combined with left heart failure after PCI. It can promote cardiac rehabilitation and improve cardiac function, and reduce the incidence of cardiac adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-877DOI Listing
May 2021

Decisions and Consequences: Validation of High-Stakes Simulation-Based Assessments in Gynecologic Surgery.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2021 May 23. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Dr. Chen).

Study Objective: Simulation-based assessment is poised for application in educational promotion and credentialing in gynecologic surgery. With high-stakes assessment, validation necessitates evidence, not just about the trustworthiness of decisions but of beneficial consequences to education and healthcare as well. In this paper, we unpack the modern conceptualization of validity as it pertains to surgical simulation and high-stakes competency assessment.

Design: N/A SETTING: N/A PATIENTS: N/A INTERVENTIONS: N/A MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: N/A CONCLUSION: Validity in high-stakes simulation-based assessment necessitates evidence, not just about the trustworthiness of score-based decisions but of beneficial consequences to education and healthcare as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2021.05.013DOI Listing
May 2021

Fingerprinting triacylglycerols and aldehydes as identity and thermal stability indicators of camellia oil through chemometric comparison with olive oil.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 6;9(5):2561-2575. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition University of Minnesota St. Paul MN USA.

Camellia oil is widely recognized as a high-quality culinary oil in East Asia for its organoleptic and health-promoting properties, but its chemical composition and thermal stability have not been comprehensively defined by comparisons with other oils. In this study, the triacylglycerols (TAGs) in camellia, olive, and six other edible oils were profiled by the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based chemometric analysis. Besides observing the similarity between camellia oil and olive oil, TAG profiling showed that OOO, POO, and OOG (O: oleic acid, P: palmitic acid, and G: gadoleic acid) can jointly serve as the identity markers of camellia oil. Thermal stability of virgin camellia oil (VCO) was further evaluated by extensive comparisons with virgin olive oil (VOO) in common lipid oxidation indicators, aldehyde production, and antioxidant and pro-oxidant contents. The results showed that -anisidine value (AnV) was the sensitive lipid oxidation indicator, and C9-C11 aldehydes, including nonanal, 2-decenal, 2,4-decadienal, and 2-undecenal, were the most abundant aldehydes in heated VCO and VOO. Under the frying temperature, heated VCO had lower AnV and less aldehydes than heated VOO. Interestedly, the VCO had lower levels of pro-oxidant components, including α-linolenic acid, free fatty acids, and transition metals, as well as lower levels of antioxidants, including α-tocopherol and phenolics, than the VOO. Overall, great similarities and subtle differences in TAG and aldehyde profiles were observed between camellia and olive oils, and the thermal stability of camellia oil might be more dependent on the balance among its unsaturation level, pro-oxidant, and antioxidant components than a single factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116833PMC
May 2021

Function and disability status among women with fistula using WHODAS2.0: A descriptive study from Rwanda and Democratic Republic of Congo.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: To assess function and disability among women in Rwanda and Democratic Republic of Congo living with fistula and identify characteristics associated with higher disability scores.

Methods: Women presenting for fistula care were recruited. Eligible participants underwent a physical examination to classify fistula type and completed the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 questionnaire to ascertain the impact of fistula on function across six domains: cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, life activities, and participation. Disability scores were calculated (where 0 = no disability and 100 = complete disability). Participants were grouped according to no, low, or high disability status; results were examined to determine the domains most affected.

Results: Among 69 participants, fistula type included: vesicovaginal (59.4%), ureterovaginal (14.5%), total absence of proximal urethra (11.6%), and rectovaginal (14.5%). Median disability score was 43.0/100 (interquartile range 26.0-67.0); 83% exhibited high disability status. Life activities and participation in society domains were most affected. Women with rectovaginal fistula reported the lowest scores, and those with total absence of proximal urethra reported the highest scores.

Conclusion: WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 represents a simple, robust measure of global disability status, aligns with research efforts to estimate maternal disability, and may inform health needs and resource allocation for this population. In this study, disability was common, varied by fistula type, and affected physical, mental, and social domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13740DOI Listing
May 2021

Validity of Chinese Version of Attitudes Toward Interprofessional Health Care Teams Scale.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 28;14:951-959. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Nursing, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Effective teamwork can provide safe and effective care in various medical systems. Thus, there is increasing recognition of the value of interprofessional collaborative practice. The Attitudes Toward Interprofessional Health Care Teams Scale (ATIHCTS) has been applied to a wide variety of health professions for evaluating attitudes toward health care teams. The ATIHCTS has been widely used internationally, but no Chinese version has been developed. The aim of this study was to adapt a Chinese version of the ATIHCTS among Chinese health care professionals and to test its validity.

Methods: The English version of the ATIHCTS was translated into Chinese, back-translated, and modified for cultural adaptation according to Brislin's guideline. A total of 306 health professionals in a Shanghai tertiary hospital were investigated using the Chinese version of the ATIHCTS to test its validity.

Results: The Chinese version of the ATIHCTS was adjusted based on expert review and pilot testing. According to expert opinions, the text that did not conform to the Chinese language habits and the Chinese medical environment was adjusted. A total of five adjustments were made. After the pilot testing, minor corrections were made to improve the sentence structure of the scale instructions to make it easier to understand. Factor analysis was subsequently conducted with 306 respondents. The Chinese version of the ATIHCTS had 14 items. Exploratory factor analysis extracted two common factors, quality of care and time constraints, with the cumulative variance contribution rate reaching 70.011% and the load value of each entry on its common factor > 0.4. In addition, for scale confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the chi-square/degrees of freedom ratio (X/df) was 1.46, the normed fit index (NFI) was 0.97, the Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) was 0.99, the incremental fit index (IFI) was 0.99, the comparative fit index (CFI) was 0.99, and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was 0.04. The fitting values all met the judgment criteria, and the scale had good structural validity. Cronbach's α of the Chinese version of the ATIHCTS was 0.861, and the Cronbach's α values of each factor were 0.949 and 0.838, respectively. The split-half reliability was 0.644, and the Guttman split-half coefficients of each factor were 0.904 and 0.779, respectively.

Conclusion: The Chinese version of the ATIHCTS has good validity. It is a valuable tool for evaluating attitudes toward interprofessional health care teams among the health care professionals in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S305768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092114PMC
April 2021

A Systematic Review of Validity Evidence for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery Examination in Gynecology.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Women's Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (Dr. Lerner); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (Dr. DeStephano); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (Dr. Ulrich); Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (Dr. Han); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Dr. LeClaire); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Dr. Chen).

Objective: The Fundamentals in Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) examination is designed to test laparoscopic surgery skills. Our aim for this systematic review was to examine validity evidence supporting or refuting the FLS examination specifically as a high-stakes summative assessment tool in gynecology.

Data Sources: The data sources were PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus.

Methods Of Study Selection: The study eligibility criterion was the subject of the FLS examination as an assessment tool in gynecology. We developed a data extraction tool and assigned articles for screening and extraction to all authors, who then abstracted data independently. Conflicts that arose during the extraction process were resolved by consensus. We organized validity evidence for the cognitive and manual skills portions on the basis of the categories of current validation standards.

Tabulation, Integration, And Results: From 1971 citations identified, 9 studies were included, involving 319 participants. For the cognitive portion of the test, the results were mixed in 5 studies in relationships with the other variables category. For the manual portion of the test, most of the studies focused on the relationships with other variables evidence with mixed findings. The concerning findings in the manual skills portion included the lack of transferability of skills to the operating room, limited mixed evidence for improvement in operating room performance, and worse performance by obstetrics and gynecology surgeons compared with other specialties. We did not find supportive content-based, response process, or consequential evidence in either the cognitive or manual skills portion of the test.

Conclusion: Validity evidence for the FLS examination was either mixed, as it pertained to relationships with other variables, or lacking in other important evidence categories. Further evidence is required to justify the use of the FLS examination scores as a high-stakes summative assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2021.04.010DOI Listing
April 2021

Metabolites in the association between early-life famine exposure and type 2 diabetes in adulthood over a 5-year follow-up period.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 04;9(1)

Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

Introduction: Exposure to malnutrition in early life has been found to significantly elevate type 2 diabetes risk in adulthood. However, the changes in metabolites resulting from malnutrition in early life have not been studied. The aim of this study was to identify metabolites with levels associated with type 2 diabetes resulting from exposure to China's Great Famine (1959-1962).

Research Design And Methods: Participants were from SPECT-China 2014 and SPECT-China2 2019, two cross-sectional studies performed at the same site. In total, 2171 subjects participated in SPECT-China and SPECT-China2 simultaneously. The sample size of fetal-exposed (1959-1962) versus non-exposed (1963-1974) individuals was 82 vs 79 in 2014 and 97 vs 94 in 2019. Metabolomic profiling was performed between famine-exposed and non-exposed groups.

Results: Among the different famine exposure groups, the fetal-exposed group (1959-1962) had the greatest incidence rate (12.5%), with an OR of 2.11 (95% CI 1.01 to 4.44), compared with the non-exposed group (1963-1974). Moreover, compared with those in the non-exposed group (1963-1974), four metabolites (indole-3-carbinol (I3C), phosphatidylcholine (PC) (22:6(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)/16:1(9Z)), pyrimidine, and PC(16:1(9Z)/22:5(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z))) showed significantly lower relative intensities in the famine and diabetes groups both in 2014 and 2019. Pyrimidine significantly mediated the association of famine exposure with diabetes, and I3C marginally mediated this association.

Conclusions: Famine exposure in the fetal period could increase type 2 diabetes risk in adults, even those in their 60s. I3C and pyrimidine are potential mediators of the effects of famine exposure on diabetes development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070877PMC
April 2021

Early-life exposure to the Chinese famine, genetic susceptibility and the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

Diabetologia 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aims/hypothesis: Early famine exposure has been related to the development of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about whether the genetic background modifies this association. We aimed to investigate the joint effects of famine exposure at different stages of early life and genetic susceptibility on diabetes risk in adulthood.

Methods: The study included 8350 participants from the Survey on Prevalence in East China for Metabolic Diseases and Risk Factors (SPECT-China) who were born around the time of the Chinese Great Famine. We determined famine exposure subgroups according to the birth year as nonexposed (1963-1974), fetal-exposed (1959-1962), childhood-exposed (1949-1958), and adolescence-exposed (1941-1948). We developed a genetic risk score of 21 variants previously associated with type 2 diabetes in East Asians. Hierarchical logistic models were used to examine the association of famine exposure and genetic risk with diabetes.

Results: The age-standardised prevalence of diabetes in nonexposed, fetal-exposed, childhood-exposed and adolescence-exposed subgroups was 13.0%, 18.2%, 15.1% and 13.2%, respectively. Compared with nonexposed participants, fetal-exposed participants showed an increased risk of diabetes in adulthood (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.13, 1.93). A higher genetic risk score was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.15, 1.31 per SD increment). The association between famine exposure and diabetes was consistent across genetic risk strata (all p for interaction >0.05). When considered jointly, fetal- or childhood-exposed participants at high genetic risk (highest tertile of genetic risk score) had 2.60-fold (95% CI 1.71, 3.93) and 1.95-fold (95% CI 1.24, 3.05) higher risks of diabetes, respectively, compared with nonexposed participants at low genetic risk (lowest tertile).

Conclusions/interpretations: Prenatal exposure to famine was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults independent of genetic risk score using 21 variants common in the East Asian population. Famine exposure and genetic susceptibility may exhibit an additive effect on diabetes development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05455-xDOI Listing
April 2021

Activation of GPR30 with G1 inhibits oscillatory shear stress-induced adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to HAECs by increasing KLF2.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 04 19;13(8):11942-11953. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Geriatrics, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072, Sichuang, China.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease known to be mediated by numerous factors, among which endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role. Oscillatory shear stress induces endothelial cells to lose their anti-atherosclerotic properties and downregulates the expression of the innate protective transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), which is typically upregulated in vascular endothelial cells in response to harmful stimuli. Oxidative stress and inflammation impair endothelial function and damage their survival. Oscillatory shear stress also promotes generation of reactive oxygen species and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), thereby further promoting endothelial dysfunction and formation of atherosclerotic plaque. A major event in the development of atherosclerotic plaque is rolling and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is mediated by adhesion molecules including vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 and endothelial-selectin. Expression of these molecules is also upregulated by oscillatory shear stress. Estrogen has long been recognized as a protective agent against atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms through which estrogen receptors prevent atherogenesis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the G-coupled protein estrogen receptor (GPR30) in oscillatory shear stress- induced endothelial dysfunction. We show that agonism of GPR30 by its specific agonist G1 prevented oscillatory shear stress -induced oxidative stress markers and production of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. As a result, GPR30 activation suppresses monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GPR30 prevents oscillatory shear stress- induced downregulation of KLF2 via ERK5 pathway. These findings suggest that endothelial GPR30 is potential target to suppress oscillatory shear stress mediated atherogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109116PMC
April 2021

Quantitative Assessment of Occipital Metabolic and Energetic Changes in Parkinson's Patients, Using In Vivo P MRS-Based Metabolic Imaging at 7T.

Metabolites 2021 Mar 1;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Abnormal energy metabolism associated with mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to be a major contributor to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent advancements in the field of magnetic resonance (MR) based metabolic imaging provide state-of-the-art technologies for non-invasively probing cerebral energy metabolism under various brain conditions. In this proof-of-principle clinical study, we employed quantitative P MR spectroscopy (MRS) imaging techniques to determine a constellation of metabolic and bioenergetic parameters, including cerebral adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other phosphorous metabolite concentrations, intracellular pH and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) redox ratio, and ATP production rates in the occipital lobe of cognitive-normal PD patients, and then we compared them with age-sex matched healthy controls. Small but statistically significant differences in intracellular pH, NAD and ATP contents and ATPase enzyme activity between the two groups were detected, suggesting that subtle defects in energy metabolism and mitochondrial function are quantifiable before regional neurological deficits or pathogenesis begin to occur in these patients. Pilot data aiming to evaluate the bioenergetic effect of mitochondrial-protective bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) were also obtained. These results collectively demonstrated that in vivo P MRS-based neuroimaging can non-invasively and quantitatively assess key metabolic-energetic metrics in the human brain. This provides an exciting opportunity to better understand neurodegenerative diseases, their progression and response to treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11030145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000945PMC
March 2021

Relationship between Gene Polymorphisms and Urine Iodine Levels on Susceptibility to Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Positivity in the Chinese Population.

Eur Thyroid J 2021 Mar 21;10(1):79-85. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background/aims: Hashimoto thyroiditis, characterized by positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs), is caused by the interaction of genetic and environment factors. The aim of this study was to clarify the interaction of gene polymorphisms and iodine intake in the incidence of TPOAb positivity.

Methods: 1,733 subjects were included in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood white cells. Four SNPs (rs11675434 [TPO], rs3094228 [HCP5], rs9277555 [HLA-DPB1], and rs301799 [RERE]) were selected for genotyping. Weighted TPOAb genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on these 4 SNPs. Thyroid hormones and autoimmune antibodies (TPOAb and thyroglobulin antibody) were determined using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method.

Results: The mean serum thyrotropin level in TPOAb-positive subjects was higher than in TPOAb-negative subjects ( < 0.01). Genotype GG of rs9277555 was associated with an increased risk of TPOAb positivity (OR = 1.64, 5-95% CI 1.09, 2.47, = 0.02). Genotype TT of rs11675434 showed marginal increased risk of TPOAb positivity (OR = 1.57, 5-95% CI 1.01, 2.43, = 0.048). Logistic regression analysis showed TPOAb-GRS and rs9277555 were associated with TPOAb positivity (OR = 5.09, 5-95% CI 1.30, 19.91, = 0.02 and OR = 1.30, 5-95% CI 1.05, 1.61, = 0.02). Subjects with a high TPOAb-GRS had a 52% increased risk of TPOAb positivity compared to subjects with a low TPOAb-GRS (OR 1.52, 5-95% CI 1.05, 2.21, = 0.03).

Conclusion: TPOAb-GRS was associated with an increased risk of TPOAb positivity in a Chinese Han population. This effect might be attribute to rs9277555.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983603PMC
March 2021

First Report of Binucleate AG-L Causing Root and Stem Rot of Wishbone Flower () in Taiwan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

National Chung Hsing University, Department of Plant Pathology, 250 Kuo Kuang Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan R.O.C., Taichung, Taiwan, 402;

Wishbone flower ( L.) is a common ornamental plant for flower bed in Taiwan. In August 2018, root and stem rot of wishbone flower occurred on the flower bed in the campus of National Chung Hsing University, Taichung city, with 100% incidence. Symptoms were dark brown discoloration of basal stems and brown necrosis of roots. Lesions from base of stems were excised into 5 mm long fragments, which were then surface sterilized in 1% sodium hydrochloride for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water, dried on filter paper and thereafter placed onto 2% water agar. After 24 h, hyphae characteristic of (Sneh et al. 1991) appeared and dominated in every isolation. Hyphal tips were transferred to potato dextrose agar (PDA). After 5 days of incubation at 28°C, characteristic brown colonies of (Sneh et al. 1991) were observed. Hyphal width was 4.29±0.52 μm. No sclerotia were visibly present after 21 days of growth on PDA at 28°C. Hyphae were stained by 0.3% safranin-O and 1% KOH. There were two nuclei in each hyphal compartment, suggesting a binucleate fungus. ITS sequence has been used as the best tool to identify specific anastomosis group (AG) of as shown by Sharon et al. (2006, 2008). ITS sequence was amplified using the primers Bd1a and ITS4 (Goka et al. 2009; White et al. 1990). Blast search analysis of this acquired sequence (acc. no. LC498494) revealed the highest similarity (98.75 to 99.83%) with the reference sequences (acc. nos. AB286934, AB286933, and AB196653) of binucleate AG-L, namely sp. AG-L. Pathogenicity test was carried out using seedlings of 4-week-old wishbone flower each grown in a pot of 6.35 cm diameter. To prepare the inoculum, a PDA agar block (6 mm in diameter) excised from the growing front of 5-day-old colony was transferred into a flask with 200 ml of potato dextrose broth (PDB) incubated in a shaker at 26°C and 120 rpm for 6 days. The PDB broth was then blended into slurry. Ten pots each with a seedling were inoculated by pouring 50 ml of slurry onto the potting medium. Five pots were served as the controls by pouring PDB only. Pots were maintained in a greenhouse (26 to 33°C). Three days after inoculation, all inoculated plants exhibited symptom of root and stem rot. The same fungus was reisolated and confirmed by sequencing rDNA-ITS. This is the first report of root and stem rot of wishbone flower caused by binucleate AG-L in Taiwan and in the world. Although this is the second cases, since Wang and Hsieh (1993), for binucleate AG-L to be pathogenic, this study shows that this fungus has the potential to cause damages and is worth of further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-20-2428-PDNDOI Listing
March 2021

Low-level lead exposure promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis and contributes to the elevation of fasting glucose level.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 1;276:130111. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huangpu Branch, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Lead (Pb) is considered an endocrine-disrupting chemical. However, few studies have investigated the effects of low-level Pb exposure on plasma glucose levels. Herein, we aimed to investigate whether low-level Pb exposure causes elevated plasma glucose levels and the possible mechanisms involved.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5747 participants from 16 sites in China. The participants underwent measurements of anthropometric factors, blood lead level (BLL) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Wistar rats were exposed to 0.05% Pb through drinking water or fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 28 weeks. The relevant parameters of glucose homeostasis, hepatic glucose production (HGP) and gene expression levels of hepatic gluconeogenesis enzymes, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), were measured. In addition, gene expression levels of gluconeogenesis enzymes were also measured in HepG2 cells administered with different concentrations of lead acetate for 24 h.

Results: In humans, after adjusting for confounders, the odds of having High_FPG (≥5.6 mmol/L) were significantly increased by 25% in the participants in the fourth BLL quartile (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05, 1.49). In the animals exposed to 0.05% Pb, FPG, HGP and hepatic gene expression levels of PEPCK, G6PC and FBP1 were increased. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of PEPCK, G6PC and FBP1 in HepG2 cells were also increased in response to Pb exposure.

Conclusions: These findings support the possibility that low-level Pb exposure may increase HGP by affecting key enzymes of hepatic gluconeogenesis, eventually resulting in impaired FPG and hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130111DOI Listing
August 2021

Vitamin D is associated with blood lead exposure through bone turnover in type 2 diabetes patients.

Endocr Connect 2021 Apr;10(4):378-386

Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Bone is thought to be the reservoir of the human lead burden, and vitamin D is associated with bone turnover. We aimed to explore whether exposure to lower 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels was associated with higher blood lead levels (BLLs) by increasing the bone turnover rate in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A total of 4103 type 2 diabetic men and postmenopausal women in Shanghai, China, were enrolled in 2018. Their 25(OH)D, β-C-terminal telopeptide (β-CTX), N-MID osteocalcin and procollagen type 1 N-peptide (P1NP) levels were detected. Their BLLs were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mediation analyses were performed to identify the possible role that bone turnover played in the underlying mechanisms.

Results: In both the men and postmenopausal women, all three bone turnover markers were inversely associated with 25(OH)D and positively associated with the BLL (all P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, current smoking habits, metabolic parameters, duration of diabetes, vitamin D intake, and use of anti-osteoporosis medication. In the mediation analyses, none of the direct associations between 25(OH)D and BLL was significant for the three bone turnover markers, but all three bone turnover markers were found to be significant mediators of the indirect associations between 25(OH)D and BLL.

Conclusion: The association between vitamin D and BLL was fully mediated by bone turnover markers in type 2 diabetic patients (mediation effect). This finding suggested that vitamin D may protect against blood lead exposure from the bone reservoir by decreasing bone turnover in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-21-0006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133370PMC
April 2021

Soybean Yellow Stripe-like 7 is a symbiosome membrane peptide transporter important for nitrogen fixation.

Plant Physiol 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

School of Life Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia.

Legumes form a symbiosis with rhizobia that convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia and provide it to the plant in return for a carbon and nutrient supply. Nodules, developed as part of the symbiosis, harbor rhizobia that are enclosed in a plant-derived symbiosome membrane (SM) to form an organelle-like structure called the symbiosome. In mature nodules exchanges between the symbionts occur across the SM. Here we characterize Yellow Stripe-like 7 (GmYSL7), a Yellow stripe-like family member localized on the SM in soybean (Glycine max) nodules. It is expressed specifically in infected cells with expression peaking soon after nitrogenase becomes active. Unlike most YSL family members, GmYSL7 does not transport metals complexed with phytosiderophores. Rather, it transports oligopeptides of between four and 12 amino acids. Silencing GmYSL7 reduces nitrogenase activity and blocks infected cell development so that symbiosomes contain only a single bacteroid. This indicates the substrate of YSL7 is required for proper nodule development, either by promoting symbiosome development directly or by preventing inhibition of development by the plant. RNAseq of nodules where GmYSL7 was silenced suggests that the plant initiates a defense response against rhizobia with genes encoding proteins involved in amino acid export downregulated and some transcripts associated with metal homeostasis altered. These changes may result from the decrease in nitrogen fixation upon GmYSL7 silencing and suggest that the peptide(s) transported by GmYSL7 monitor the functional state of the bacteroids and regulate nodule metabolism and transport processes accordingly. Further work to identify the physiological substrate for GmYSL7 will allow clarification of this role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiab044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154080PMC
February 2021

Blood lead, vitamin D status, and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 5;276:116653. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Environmental lead exposure has been linked with reduced kidney function. However, evidence about its role in diabetic kidney damage, especially when considering the nutritional status of vitamin D, is sparse. In this observational study, we investigated the association between low-level lead exposure and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and assessed potential impact of vitamin D among 4033 diabetic patients in Shanghai, China. Whole blood lead was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was tested using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. The associations of blood lead with UACR and albuminuria, defined as UACR ≥30 mg/g, according to 25(OH)D levels were analyzed using linear and Poisson regression models. A doubling of blood lead level was associated with a 10.7% higher UACR (95% CI, 6.19%-15.5%) in diabetic patients with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L, whereas the association was attenuated toward null (2.03%; 95% CI, -5.18% to 9.78%) in those with 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L. Similarly, the risk ratios of prevalent albuminuria per doubling of blood lead level between the two groups were 1.09 (95% CI, 1.03-1.15) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.86-1.14), respectively. Joint analysis demonstrated that a combination of high blood lead and low 25(OH)D corresponded to significantly higher UACR. Among diabetic patients with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L, the increment of UACR relative to blood lead was more remarkable in those with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.73 m). These results suggested that higher blood lead levels were associated with increased urinary albumin excretion in diabetic patients with vitamin D deficiency. Further prospective studies are needed to validate our findings and to determine whether vitamin D supplementation yields a benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116653DOI Listing
May 2021

Natural variations in a pectin acetylesterase gene, MdPAE10, contribute to prolonged apple fruit shelf life.

Plant Genome 2021 03 18;14(1):e20084. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

College of Horticulture, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100193, China.

Room-temperature shelf life is a key factor in fresh market apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality and commercial value. To investigate the genetic and molecular mechanism underlying apple shelf life, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using bulked segregant analysis via sequencing (BSA-seq). Ethylene emission, flesh firmness, or crispness of apple fruit from 1,273 F plants of M. asiatica Nakai 'Zisai Pearl' × M. domestica 'Golden Delicious' were phenotyped prior to and during 6 wk of room-temperature storage. Segregation of ethylene emission and the flesh firmness or crispness traits was detected in the population. Thirteen QTL, including three major ones, were identified on chromosome 03, 08, and 16. A candidate gene encoding pectin acetylesterase, MdPAE10, from the QTL Z16.1 negatively affected fruit shelf life. A 379-bp deletion in the coding sequence of MdPAE10 disrupted its function. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MdPAE10 promoter region reduced its transcription activity. These findings provided insight into the genetic control of fruit shelf life and can be potentially used in apple marker-assisted selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tpg2.20084DOI Listing
March 2021

Multifunctional conductive hydrogels and their applications as smart wearable devices.

J Mater Chem B 2021 03 18;9(11):2561-2583. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, P. R. China.

Recently, hydrogel-based conductive materials and their applications as smart wearable devices have been paid tremendous attention due to their high stretchability, flexibility, and excellent biocompatibility. Compared with single functional conductive hydrogels, multifunctional conductive hydrogels are more advantageous to match various demands for practical applications. This review focuses on multifunctional conductive hydrogels applied for smart wearable devices. Representative strategies for conduction of hydrogels are discussed firstly: (1) electronic conduction based on the conductive fillers and (2) ionic conduction based on charged ions. Then, the common and intensive research on multiple functionalities of conductive hydrogels, such as mechanical properties, conductive and sensory properties, anti-freezing and moisturizing properties, and adhesion and self-healing properties is presented. The applications of multifunctional conductive hydrogels such as in human motion sensors, sensory skins, and personal healthcare diagnosis are provided in the third part. Finally, we offer our perspective on open challenges and future areas of interest for multifunctional conductive hydrogels used as smart wearable devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb02929gDOI Listing
March 2021

Association between hypertension-mediated organ damage and obesity defined by novel anthropometric indices in community-dwelling elderly individuals.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Body mass index (BMI), the most common anthropometric index, has recently been challenged by two emerging parameters: a body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI). The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD) with conventional and novel anthropometric parameters.

Methods: This is a multistage community-based observational and cross-sectional study. A total of 3077 elderly Chinese individuals (mean age 70.92 ± 5.84, 1329 (43%) men) from the communities in the northern area of Shanghai were enrolled from June 2014 to August 2019. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), ABSI and BRI were calculated with validated formulas. HMOD, including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), arterial stiffness (AS), lower limb atherosclerosis (LLA), and microalbuminuria (MAU), was assessed using standardized methods. Correlation and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to detect the relations between HMOD and anthropometric indices.

Results: In the total population, compared to those with ABSI, BRI and WHR in the lowest quartiles, participants with values in the highest quartiles exhibited a significantly higher risk of LVH, AS and MAU independent of BMI and other confounders (all P for trend <0.01). In females but not in males, compared to BMI, BRI and WHR had a greater area under the curve (AUC) for detecting HMOD. In the further stepwise logistic regression with all anthropometric indices put into models simultaneously, only BRI remained in the LVH (odds ratio [OR]: 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-1.55) and LLA (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.23-1.77) models, and WHR remained in the AS (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18-1.43) and MAU (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.28-1.72, all P < 0.01) models.

Conclusion: Compared to BMI, the novel anthropometric parameter BRI, together with the conventional parameter WHR, exhibits a closer relationship with HMOD in the elderly population, especially in females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.12.035DOI Listing
January 2021

Identification of Quinone Degradation as a Triggering Event for Intense Pulsed Light-Elicited Metabolic Changes in by Metabolomic Fingerprinting.

Metabolites 2021 Feb 10;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Ave, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Intense pulsed light (IPL) is becoming a new technical platform for disinfecting food against pathogenic bacteria. Metabolic changes are deemed to occur in bacteria as either the causes or the consequences of IPL-elicited bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects. However, little is known about the influences of IPL on bacterial metabolome. In this study, the IPL treatment was applied to K-12 for 0-20 s, leading to time- and dose-dependent reductions in colony-forming units (CFU) and morphological changes. Both membrane lipids and cytoplasmic metabolites of the control and IPL-treated were examined by the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomic fingerprinting. The results from multivariate modeling and marker identification indicate that the metabolites in electron transport chain (ETC), redox response, glycolysis, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism were selectively affected by the IPL treatments. The time courses and scales of these metabolic changes, together with the biochemical connections among them, revealed a cascade of events that might be initiated by the degradation of quinone electron carriers and then followed by oxidative stress, disruption of intermediary metabolism, nucleotide degradation, and morphological changes. Therefore, the degradations of membrane quinones, especially the rapid depletion of menaquinone-8 (MK-8), can be considered as a triggering event in the IPL-elicited metabolic changes in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11020102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916761PMC
February 2021

Association of Total Dietary Intake of Sugars with Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Concentrations: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010.

Biomed Res Int 2021 9;2021:4140767. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Urology, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province 550002, China.

Background: There is increasing evidence that dietary intake of sugars may be a risk factor for prostate cancer (PCa) and elevate the concentration of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, there is limited evidence of the correlation between total dietary intake of sugars and serum PSA concentrations for adult American males. Herein, we evaluated the association between total dietary intake of sugars and serum PSA concentrations in men without a malignant tumor diagnosis in the United States (US) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. . In this secondary data analysis, a total of 6,403 men aged ≥40 years and without malignant tumor history were included from 2003 to 2010. The independent variable of this study was the total dietary intake of sugars, and the dependent variable was serum PSA concentrations. Covariates included dietary, comorbidity, physical examination, and demographic data.

Results: The average age of participants included in this study was 58.1 years (±13.6). After adjusting for the dietary, comorbidity, physical examination, and demographic data, we observed that a dietary intake increase of one gram of total dietary intake of sugars was associated with an increase of serum PSA concentrations by 0.003 ng/mL (after log2 transformed, 95% CI: 0.001 to 0.005) with a value for trend less than 0.05. Sensitivity analysis using the generalized additive model (GAM) supported the linear association between total dietary intake of sugars and serum PSA concentrations.

Conclusion: The total dietary intake of sugars is independently and positively associated with serum PSA concentrations in adult American males who are without a personal history of malignant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4140767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811566PMC
May 2021

Dietary Fiber and Human Papillomavirus Infection among US Women: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2016.

Nutr Cancer 2021 Jan 26:1-8. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

The impact of dietary fiber on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is still underway. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between intake of dietary fiber and HPV infection. Overall, 14,151 eligible women, aged 18-59 years old, who submitted an adequate sample for HPV test, were collected from an ongoing, large scale population-based survey for seven cycles. The association of dietary fiber intake and HPV infection was assessed in multivariate logistic models. For sensitivity analysis, generalized additive model (GAM) and smooth curve fitting were employed to verify the robustness of the results. Among 14,151 eligible participants, intake of dietary fiber was negatively associated with HPV infection. Each additional increase in log dietary fiber consumption was associated with a 57% lower risk of HPV infection (OR, 0.43; 95% CI 0.38-0.48). The result is stable in minimally and fully adjusted model. The possibility of nonlinear association of dietary fiber and HPV infection has been excluded by GAM and smooth curve fitting. There was an inverse linear correlation between intake of dietary fiber and HPV infection. Our findings obtained from NHANES dataset suggested that increasing dietary fiber consumption may be associated with the prevalence of HPV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2020.1836242DOI Listing
January 2021

A U-shaped association between baseline neutrophil count and COVID-19-related mortality: A retrospective cohort study.

J Med Virol 2021 07 12;93(7):4265-4272. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Empower U, X&Y solutions Inc., Boston, USA.

Several descriptive studies have reported that higher neutrophil count (NC) may be correlated with poor prognosis in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. However, the findings from these studies are limited by methodology and data analysis. This study is a cohort study. We nonselectively and consecutively collected a total of 663 participants in a Chinese hospital from January 7 to February 28. Standardized and two-piecewise Cox regression model were employed to evaluate the association between baseline neutrophil count (bNC), neutrophil count change rate (NCR), and death. bNC had a U-shaped association with death. In the range of 0.1 to ≤1.49 × 10 /L (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.05-0.66) and >3.55 × 10 /L of bNC (HR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.19-6.67), the trends on bNC with mortality were opposite. By recursive algorithm, the bNC at which the risk of the death was lower in the range of >1.49 to ≤3.55 × 10 /L (HR = 13.64, 95% CI = 0.25-74.71). In addition, we find that NCRs (NCR1 and NCR2) are not associated with COVID-19-related deaths. Compared with NCR, bNC has the potential to be used for early risk stratification in patients with COVID-19 infection. The relationship between bNC and mortality was U-shaped. The safe range of bNC was 1.64-4.0 × 10 /L. Identifying the correlation may be helpful for early risk stratification and medical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014534PMC
July 2021