Publications by authors named "Cheryl M Paradis"

6 Publications

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Evaluations of Urban Sovereign Citizens' Competency to Stand Trial.

J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2018 Jun;46(2):158-166

Drs. Paradis and Owen are Associate Clinical Professors, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY. Dr. Paradis is Professor, Marymount Manhattan College, New York, NY. Dr. Owen is Director, Forensic Psychiatry Service, Kings County Hospital Center, New York City Health and Hospitals, Brooklyn, NY, and Adjunct Associate Professor, Columbia University Teachers College, New York, NY. Mr. McCullough is a Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner in the Department of Psychiatry at Mount Sinai West Hospital, New York, NY.

There are few studies of sovereign citizens undergoing competency-to-stand-trial evaluations and little has been written about African-American or urban sovereign citizens. In this study, we examined competency-to-stand-trial reports of 36 New York City defendants who declared themselves to be sovereign citizens during their evaluations. All were men and 33 were African American. The majority denied recent or remote histories of psychiatric hospitalizations or substance use. Sixty-nine percent were deemed competent. Compared with those deemed competent, those deemed not competent were significantly more likely to have diagnosed psychotic disorders and to have reported histories of psychiatric hospitalizations. The 36 who declared themselves sovereign citizens were compared with 200 who did not, from a study conducted in the same forensic clinic. The sovereign citizens were significantly more likely to be male, African American, and high school graduates and were significantly less likely to report a history of psychiatric hospitalization or substance use. Compared with the nonsovereign citizens, they were less likely to receive a diagnosis of psychotic or mood disorders during the competency evaluation and were more likely to be deemed competent. Included are suggestions to assist forensic examiners conducting evaluations of these difficult cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29158/JAAPL.003758-18DOI Listing
June 2018

Competency to stand trial evaluations in a multicultural population: Associations between psychiatric, demographic, and legal factors.

Int J Law Psychiatry 2016 Jul-Aug;47:79-85. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai-Roosevelt Hospital, 1111Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10025, USA.

Data were examined from an archival sample of Competency to Stand Trial (CST) reports of 200 consecutive New York City pre-trial defendants evaluated over a five-month period. Approximately a fourth of defendants in the present study were immigrants; many required the assistance of interpreters. The examiners conducting the CST evaluation diagnosed approximately half of the defendants with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and deemed over half not competent. Examiners reached the same conclusion about competency in 96% of cases, about the presence of a psychotic disorder in 91% of cases, and affective disorder in 85% of cases. No significant differences between psychologists and psychiatrists were found for rates of competency/incompetency opinions. Compared to those deemed competent, defendants deemed not competent had significantly higher rates of prior psychiatric hospitalization and diagnosis of psychotic illness at the time of the CST evaluation but lower rates of reported substance abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2016.02.039DOI Listing
January 2018

Two cases of zolpidem-associated homicide.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2012 23;14(4). Epub 2012 Aug 23.

Department of Psychology, Marymount Manhattan College, New York, and Department of Psychiatry, The State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, USA.

Zolpidem is the most commonly prescribed medication for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Adverse reactions include nightmares, confusion, and memory deficits. Reported rare adverse neuropsychiatric reactions include sensory distortions such as hallucinations. Previous research has identified 4 factors that may place a patient at increased risk of zolpidem-associated psychotic or delirious reactions: (1) concomitant use of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), (2) female gender, (3) advanced age, and (4) zolpidem doses of 10 mg or higher. In this article, 2 cases are presented in which individuals killed their spouses and claimed total or partial amnesia. Neither individual had a history of aggressive behavior. Both had concomitantly taken 10 mg or more of zolpidem in addition to an SSRI (paroxetine).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/PCC.12br01363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3505131PMC
June 2013

Sleep paralysis in African Americans with panic disorder.

Transcult Psychiatry 2005 Mar;42(1):123-34

Marymount Manhattan College and State University of New York, USA.

Studies have reported a wide range in lifetime prevalence of sleep paralysis (SP). This variation may stem from cultural factors, stressful life events and genetic differences in studied populations. We found that recurrent SP was more common among African-American participants, especially those with panic disorder. Recurrent SP was reported by 59% of African Americans with panic disorder, 7% of whites with panic disorder, 23% of African-American community volunteers and 6% of white community volunteers. Significantly more early life stressors were reported by African Americans than whites. Higher levels of psychosocial stressors, including poverty, racism and acculturation, may contribute to the higher rates of SP experienced by African Americans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1363461505050720DOI Listing
March 2005

The effects of the September 11 World Trade Center attack on a man with a preexisting mental illness.

Psychiatr Serv 2004 Nov;55(11):1313-4

Napa State Hospital, 2100 Napa Vallejo Highway, Program 2, Napa, CA 94558, USA.

Research has demonstrated an association between direct exposure to traumatic events and the exacerbation of mental illness. This report describes the case of a man who had a preexisting mental illness with psychotic symptoms and no history of psychiatric hospitalization who was evacuated from the World Trade Center area after the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001. He did not receive any intensive, specialized treatment during the ensuing months as his mental state deteriorated, and he eventually required psychiatric hospitalization for a full-blown psychotic episode. Given the continuing threat of terrorist attacks, recognition of preexisting psychiatric conditions and early, specialized interventions for those at risk are essential in providing effective treatment and preventing decompensation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.55.11.1313DOI Listing
November 2004

Flashbulb memories of personal events of 9/11 and the day after for a sample of New York City residents.

Psychol Rep 2004 Aug;95(1):304-10

Marymount Manhattan College, State University of New York, Health Science Center at Brooklyn, USA.

The present study assessed consistency of recollections of personal circumstances of the 9/11 World Trade Center attack and events of the day before (9/10), and the day after (9/12), in a sample of 100 New York City college students. The day before 9/11 represented an ordinary event. A questionnaire was administered twice, 1 wk. and 1 yr. after the 9/11 attack. Students were asked to describe their personal circumstances when hearing about the news of the World Trade Center attack and for the same time of day for 9/10 and 9/12. 18 students returned the follow-up questionnaire. Consistency of initial and follow-up responses for the central categories for both 9/11 and 9/12 of where, who, and activity was very high (9/11: "Where"--100%, "Who"--100%, "What"--94%; 9/12: "Where"--100%, "Who"--100%, "What"--80%). Recollections of 9/10 were significantly less consistent ("Where"--79%, "Who"--71%, "What"--71%). Analysis indicated that students formed vivid, consistent recollections during the events of both 9/11 and 9/12. It is likely that the events of 9/12 also became flashbulb memories, vivid recollections of traumatic events, because the emotional impact of the stressful events, i.e., police and military presence, disrupted schedules, relating to the 9/11 attack endured beyond the day of the attack.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.95.1.304-310DOI Listing
August 2004