Publications by authors named "Cheol Woong Yu"

117 Publications

Differential Factors for Predicting Outcomes in Left Main versus Non-Left Main Coronary Bifurcation Stenting.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 7;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Background: No large-scale study has compared the clinical and angiographic predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with left main bifurcation (LMB) and non-LMB stenting after second-generation DES implantation. Herein, we investigated differential clinical and angiographic factors for predicting outcomes in LMB versus non-LMB stenting.

Methods: A total of 2648 patients with bifurcation lesions treated with second-generation DESs from the retrospective patient cohort were divided into an LMB group ( = 935) and a non-LMB group ( = 1713). The primary outcome was the 7-year incidence of target lesion failure (TLF), defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization.

Results: The incidence of TLF was 9.8%. Those in the LMB group were associated with a higher risk of TLF (14.2% versus 7.5%, < 0.001) than those in the non-LMB group. Regarding the LMB group, independent predictors of TLF were chronic kidney disease (CKD), reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and two-stenting. Regarding the non-LMB group, CKD, reduced LVEF, old age, diabetes, and small diameter of the main vessel stent were independent predictors of TLF.

Conclusions: The two-stent strategy could potentially increase TLF for the LMB lesions, and achieving the maximal diameter of the main vessel stent could result in better clinical outcomes for non-LMB lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10143024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306985PMC
July 2021

Effects of deferred versus immediate stenting on left ventricular function in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(28):e26598

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Previous studies have shown conflicting results on the benefits of deferred stenting (DS) in infarct size and the incidence of microvascular obstruction in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, effect of DS on left ventricular (LV) function was not known. We aimed to evaluate whether DS improve LV function and relevant clinical outcomes after STEMI, using follow-up data from the INNOVATION study (NCT02324348).

Methods: In total, 114 patients were randomly assigned to DS group or immediate stenting (IS) group at a 1:1 ratio. LV functional remodeling indices and MACE (major adverse cardiac events: a composite of death, non-fatal MI, unplanned target vessel revascularization, or hospitalization due to heart failure) were compared between DS and IS groups.

Results: Serial echocardiographic analyses were completed in 89 subjects (78%). There were no significant changes in LV volume in either group. While LV ejection fraction and wall motion score index (WMSI) improved in both groups during follow-up, the increments were not statistically different between the 2 groups (4.3 ± 8.2 vs 3.2 ± 7.1, P = .504 for ΔLV ejection fraction; -0.16 ± 0.25 vs -0.16 ± 0.25, P = .99 for ΔWMSI). However, E/e'' was decreased and e' was increased only in the DS group (-3.31 ± 5.60 vs -0.46 ± 3.10, P = .005 for ΔE/e'; 0.77 ± 1.71 vs -0.22 ± 1.64, P = .009 for Δe'). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events was numerically lower in the DS group than in the IS group without a statistical significance at 1-year follow-up.

Conclusions: Routine DS improved LV diastolic function but not systolic function compared with IS in patients with STEMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284705PMC
July 2021

Association between polyvascular disease and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiogenic shock: Results from the RESCUE registry.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Cardiology, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Clinical implications of systemic atherosclerosis in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) remain unclear. This study investigated the association between polyvascular disease (PVD) and clinical outcome in CS patients.

Methods: A total of 1247 CS patients was enrolled from the RESCUE registry, a multicenter, observational cohort between January 2014 and December 2018. They were divided into two groups according to presence of PVD, defined as ≥2 coexistence of coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, or cerebrovascular disease. Primary outcome was all-cause death during 12 months of follow-up.

Results: 136 (10.9%) patients were diagnosed with PVD. The risk of 12-month all-cause death was significantly higher in the PVD group than in the non-PVD group (54.4% versus 40.4%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.69, p = 0.034). There was a significant interaction between PVD and vasoactive inotropic score (VIS) (p for interaction = 0.014). Among the 945 patients with VIS <84, PVD was associated with a higher risk of 12-month all-cause death (unadjusted HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.30-2.41, p = 0.030); among the 302 patients with VIS ≥84, the incidence of 12-month all-cause death was similar between the PVD and non-PVD groups (unadjusted HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.68-1.56, p = 0.301).

Conclusions: Presence of PVD was associated with 12-month all-cause mortality in patients with CS, especially for less severe forms of CS patients with VIS <84. Clinicaltrials.govnumber:NCT02985008.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.07.008DOI Listing
July 2021

Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Yields Favorable Neurological Outcomes in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation.

Korean Circ J 2021 Jul;51(7):626-638

Department of Cardiology, Charite University Hospital Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany.

Background And Objectives: Prior studies have shown that stroke patients treated with percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) experience better outcomes than similar patients treated with warfarin. We investigated the impact of percutaneous left atrial appendage closure on post-stroke neurological outcomes in NVAF patients, compared with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy.

Methods: Medical records for 1,427 patients in multiple registries and for 1,792 consecutive patients at 6 Korean hospitals were reviewed with respect to LAAO or NOAC treatment. Stroke severity in patients who experienced ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack after either treatment was assessed with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scoring at hospital discharge and at 3 and 12 months post-stroke.

Results: mRS scores were significantly lower in LAAO patients at 3 (p<0.01) and 12 months (p<0.01) post-stroke, despite no significant differences in scores before the ischemic cerebrovascular event (p=0.22). The occurrences of disabling ischemic stroke in the LAAO and NOAC groups were 36.7% and 44.2% at discharge (p=0.47), 23.3% and 44.2% at 3 months post-stroke (p=0.04), and 13.3% and 43.0% at 12 months post-stroke (p=0.01), respectively. Recovery rates for disabling ischemic stroke at discharge to 12 months post-stroke were significantly higher for LAAO patients (50.0%) than for NOAC patients (5.6%) (p<0.01).

Conclusions: Percutaneous LAAO was associated with more favorable neurological outcomes after ischemic cerebrovascular event than NOAC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263298PMC
July 2021

Comparison of in-hospital outcomes of patients with vs. without ischaemic cardiomyopathy undergoing veno-arterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, 282 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon, 35015, Republic of Korea.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate differences in baseline and treatment characteristics, and in-hospital mortality according to the aetiologies of cardiogenic shock in patients undergoing veno-arterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO).

Methods And Results: The RESCUE registry is a multicentre, observational cohort that includes 1247 patients with cardiogenic shock from 12 centres. A total of 496 patients requiring VA-ECMO were finally selected, and the study population was stratified by cardiogenic shock aetiology [ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM, n = 342) and non-ICM (NICM, n = 154)]. The primary outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. Sensitivity analyses including propensity-score matching adjustments were performed. Mean age of the entire population was 61.8 ± 14.2, and 30.8% were women. There were significant differences in baseline characteristics; notable differences included the older age of patients with ICM (65.1 ± 13.7 vs. 58.2 ± 13.8, P < 0.001), preponderance of males [258 (75.4%) vs. 85 (55.2%), P < 0.001], and higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus [140 (40.9%) vs. 39 (25.3%), P = 0.001] compared with patients in the NICM aetiology group. Patients with ischaemic cardiogenic shock were more likely to have longer shock duration before VA-ECMO implantation (518.7 ± 941.4 min vs. 292.4 ± 707.8 min, P = 0.003) and were less likely to undergo distal limb perfusion than those with NICM [108 (31.6%) vs. 79 (51.3%), P < 0.001]. In-hospital mortality in the overall cohort was 52.2%; patients with ICM had a higher unadjusted risk of in-hospital mortality [203 (59.4%) vs. 56 (36.4%); unadjusted hazard ratio, 2.295; 95% confidence interval, 1.698-3.100; P < 0.001]. There were no significant differences in the primary outcome between the two aetiologies following propensity-score matching multiple adjustments (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.265; 95% confidence interval, 0.840-1.906; P = 0.260).

Conclusions: Results of the current study indicated among patients with cardiogenic shock undergoing VA-ECMO, ischaemic aetiology does not seem to impact in-hospital mortality. These findings underline that early initiation and appropriate treatment strategies of VA-ECMO for patients with ICM shock are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13481DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock: Results From the RESCUE Registry.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e008141. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center (J.H.Y., K.H.C., T.K.P., J.M.L., Y.B.S., J.-Y.H., S.-H.C., H.-C.G.), Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: In the current era of mechanical circulatory support, limited data are available on prognosis of cardiogenic shock (CS) caused by various diseases. We investigated the characteristics and predictors of in-hospital mortality in Korean patients with CS.

Methods: The RESCUE study (Retrospective and Prospective Observational Study to Investigate Clinical Outcomes and Efficacy of Left Ventricular Assist Device for Korean Patients With CS) is a multicenter, retrospective, and prospective registry of patients that presented with CS. Between January 2014 and December 2018, 1247 patients with CS were enrolled from 12 major centers in Korea. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.

Results: In-hospital mortality rate was 33.6%. The main causes of shock were ischemic heart disease (80.7%), dilated cardiomyopathy (6.1%), myocarditis (3.2%), and nonischemic ventricular arrhythmia (2.5%). Vasopressors were used in 1081 patients (86.7%). The most frequently used vasopressor was dopamine (63.4%) followed by norepinephrine (57.3%). An intraaortic balloon pump was used in 314 patients (25.2%) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenator in 496 patients (39.8%). In multivariable analysis, age ≥70years (odds ratio [OR], 2.73 [95% CI, 1.89-3.94], <0.001), body mass index <25 kg/m (OR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.08-2.16], =0.017), cardiac arrest at presentation (OR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.44-3.23], <0.001), vasoactive-inotrope score >80 (OR, 3.55 [95% CI, 2.54-4.95], <0.001), requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (OR, 4.14 [95% CI, 2.88-5.95], <0.001), mechanical ventilator (OR, 3.17 [95% CI, 2.16-4.63], <0.001), intraaortic balloon pump (OR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.07-2.24], =0.020), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (OR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.25-2.76], =0.002) were independent predictors for in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: The in-hospital mortality of patients with CS remains high despite the high utilization of mechanical circulatory support. Age, low body mass index, cardiac arrest at presentation, amount of vasopressor, and advanced organ failure requiring various support devices were poor prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02985008.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.008141DOI Listing
June 2021

Incremental value of QT interval for the prediction of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain.

Sci Rep 2021 May 18;11(1):10513. Epub 2021 May 18.

Division of Cardiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Identification of obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD) in patients with chest pain is a clinical challenge. The value of corrected QT interval (QTc) for the prediction of OCAD has yet to be established. We consecutively enrolled 1741 patients with suspected angina. The presence of obstructive OCAD was defined as ≥ 50% diameter stenosis by coronary angiography. The pre-test probability was evaluated by combining QTc prolongation with the CAD Consortium clinical score (CAD2) and the updated Diamond-Forrester (UDF) score. OCAD was detected in 661 patients (38.0%). QTc was longer in patients with OCAD compared with those without OCAD (444 ± 34 vs. 429 ± 28 ms, p < 0.001). QTc was increased by the severity of OCAD (P < 0.001). QTc prolongation was associated with OCAD (odds ratio (OR), 2.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.81-2.85). With QTc, the C-statistics increased significantly from 0.68 (95% CI 0.66-0.71) to 0.76 (95% CI 0.74-0.78) in the CAD2 and from 0.64 (95% CI 0.62-0.67) to 0.74 (95% CI 0.72-0.77) in the UDF score, respectively. QT prolongation predicted the presence of OCAD and the QTc improved model performance to predict OCAD compared with CAD2 or UDF scores in patients with suspected angina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90133-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131710PMC
May 2021

Predictors of Favorable Angiographic Outcomes After Drug-Coated Balloon Use for de novo Small Vessel Coronary Disease (DCB-ONLY).

Angiology 2021 May 13:33197211015534. Epub 2021 May 13.

Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

We evaluated the angiographic parameter and clinical outcomes of drug-coated balloon (DCB) to assess the optimal angiographic criteria in de novo small vessel disease (SVD). Patients (n = 424, mean age: 64.4 ± 11.2 years, men: 69.8%) at 20 sites in Korea were prospectively enrolled. The primary end point was late luminal loss (LLL) at 9-month follow-up angiography. Secondary end points included restenosis rates, target lesion failure (TLF), and DCB-related thrombosis during the 12-month follow-up period. We included 403 patients for analysis excluding 21 patients who required bailout stenting. Baseline mean reference vessel .diameter was 2.52 ± 0.39 mm and mean minimal luminal diameter (MLD) was 0.71 ± 0.40 mm. The mean MLD was 1.54 ± 0.37 mm after DCB. Late luminal loss was -0.01 ± 0.43 mm and restenosis was noted in 26 patients (12.2%). Minimal luminal diameter >1.6 mm and %DS <45% after DCB was associated maintenance of MLD without LLL at 9-months. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that %DS at baseline and post-MLD was associated with the restenosis. During 12-month follow-up, TLF was 2.6% including 1 cardiac death, 1 myocardial infarction, and 10 ischemia-driven target lesion revascularizations. Drug-coated balloon showed a low restenosis and lower LLL despite high in-segment DS. Post-MLD and % DS may be helpful to get optimal results in de novo SVD after DCB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00033197211015534DOI Listing
May 2021

First Asian Experience with the BASILICA Technique in Failed Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve.

Korean Circ J 2021 May;51(5):474-476

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2021.0052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112181PMC
May 2021

Relationship between Coronary Iodine Concentration Determined Using Spectral CT and the Outcome of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Chronic Total Occlusion.

Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging 2020 Aug 20;2(4):e190203. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Radiology (J.Y.L., Y.W.O., S.H.H.) and Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.L., C.W.Y., J.H.P., H.J.J.), Korea University Anam Hospital, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea; Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea (H.S.Y., E.Y.K.); and Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Republic of Korea (C.K., K.Y.L.).

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of coronary iodine concentration (CIC) by using spectral CT in the assessment of the outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO).

Materials And Methods: In total, 50 consecutive patients underwent preprocedural coronary CT angiography with spectral CT prior to their staged PCI for CTO between June 2017 and July 2018. Iodine density maps, referred to as iodine-no-water maps throughout, with spectral CT provided the CIC at proximal CTO (CTO-CIC). Depending on the outcome of PCI, all CTO lesions were divided into two groups: failed PCI and successful PCI. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the cutoff values of CTO-CIC in the assessment of the outcome of PCI for CTO.

Results: Of the 50 CTO lesions in 50 patients, 34 (68%) and 16 (32%) were assigned to the successful PCI and failed PCI groups, respectively. The mean CTO-CIC was significantly less in the failed PCI group than in the successful PCI group (1.3 mg/mL ± 0.9 [standard deviation] vs 5.2 mg/mL ± 2.5; < .001). A low CTO-CIC (≤ 2.5 mg/mL) predicted failed PCI with 87% sensitivity, 79% specificity, 79% positive predictive value, and 90% negative predictive value. At multivariable analysis, the low CTO-CIC was significantly associated with the failed PCI (odds ratio, 27.0; 95% confidence interval: 4.9, 147.6; < .0001).

Conclusion: The CTO-CIC determined by using spectral CT may be useful in the assessment of the outcome of staged PCI for CTO.See also the commentary by Rubinshtein and Blankstein in this issue.© RSNA, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/ryct.2020190203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977875PMC
August 2020

Differential Prognostic Implications of Vasoactive Inotropic Score for Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock According to Use of Mechanical Circulatory Support.

Crit Care Med 2021 May;49(5):770-780

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: To identify whether the prognostic implications of Vasoactive Inotropic Score according to use of mechanical circulatory support differ in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

Design: A multicenter retrospective and prospective observational cohort study.

Setting/patient: The REtrospective and prospective observational Study to investigate Clinical oUtcomes and Efficacy registry includes 1,247 patients with cardiogenic shock from 12 centers in Korea. A total of 836 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock were finally selected, and the study population was stratified by quartiles of Vasoactive Inotropic Score (< 10, 10-30, 30-90, and > 90) for the present study.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality and secondary endpoint was follow-up mortality. Among the study population, 326 patients (39.0%) received medical treatment alone, 218 (26.1%) received intra-aortic balloon pump, and 292 (34.9%) received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In-hospital mortality occurred in 305 patients (36.5%) and was significantly higher in patients with higher Vasoactive Inotropic Score (15.6%, 20.8%, 40.2%, and 67.3%, for < 10, 10-30, 30-90, and > 90; p < 0.001). Vasoactive Inotropic Score showed better ability to predict in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction patients with cardiogenic shock who received medical treatment alone (area under the curve: 0.797; 95% CI, 0.728-0.865) than in those who received intra-aortic balloon pump (area under the curve, 0.704; 95% CI, 0.625-0.783) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (area under the curve, 0.644; 95% CI, 0.580-0.709). The best cutoff value of Vasoactive Inotropic Score for the prediction of in-hospital mortality also differed according to the use of mechanical circulatory support (16.5, 40.1, and 84.0 for medical treatment alone, intra-aortic balloon pump, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, respectively). There was a significant interaction between Vasoactive Inotropic Score as a continuous value and the use of mechanical circulatory support including intra-aortic balloon pump (interaction-p = 0.006) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (interaction-p < 0.001) for all-cause mortality during follow-up.

Conclusions: High Vasoactive Inotropic Score was associated with significantly higher in-hospital and follow-up mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. The predictive value of Vasoactive Inotropic Score for mortality was significantly higher in acute myocardial infarction patients with cardiogenic shock treated by medical treatment alone than in those treated by mechanical circulatory support such as intra-aortic balloon pump or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004815DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparison of clinical outcomes between multiple antithrombotic therapy versus left atrial appendage occlusion with dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing drug-eluting stent implantation.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(1):e0244723. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Complex antithrombotic regimens are recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation but carry high bleeding risk.

Hypothesis: We aimed to evaluate whether left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) improve clinical outcomes when compared with multiple antithrombotic therapy (MAT) in patients with AF undergoing DES implantation.

Methods: Among 475 AF patients who underwent DES, 41 patients treated by LAAO with DAPT and 434 patients on MAT were compared. MAT was defined as any combination of warfarin-based antithrombotic therapy. Among the MAT group, 34.8% were on triple antithrombotic therapy. The primary endpoint was a net adverse clinical event (NACE), a composite of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and major bleeding. Secondary endpoints were CVA, major bleeding, major adverse cardiac and cerebral event (MACCE), MI, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death. Additional analysis between the new oral anticoagulant (NOAC)-based antithrombotic therapy group (n = 45) and the LAAO group was performed for the same endpoints. To adjust the confounding factors, inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was applied during the endpoint analysis.

Results: The LAAO group showed higher incidences of diabetes mellitus, prior CVA, higher CHA2DS2-VASc score (4.56±1.55 vs. 2.96±1.60; P<0.0001), and higher HAS-BLED score (3.24±1.20 vs. 2.13±0.75; P<0.0001). NACE occurred less frequently in the LAAO group than the MAT group at 24 months (9.4% vs. 15.3%; hazard ratio 0.274; 95% confidence interval 0.136 - 0.553; P = 0.0003), mainly driven by the reduction in major bleeding (2.4% vs. 9.3%; hazard ratio 0.119; 95% confidence interval 0.032 - 0.438; P = 0.001). The LAAO group with greater thrombotic and hemorrhagic risks showed comparable primary/secondary outcomes with the NOAC-based anti-thrombotic therapy group.

Conclusions: Among patients with AF who underwent DES implantation, the LAAO group had better net clinical outcomes for preventing CVA and major bleeding than the MAT group. Further large-scale trials including comparisons with NOACs are warranted.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244723PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790384PMC
May 2021

Drug Eluting Stent vs. Drug Coated Balloon for Native Femoropopliteal Artery Disease: A Two Centre Experience.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 02 20;61(2):287-295. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: There have been limited clinical trials comparing drug eluting stents (DESs) and drug coated balloons (DCBs) in the treatment of femoropopliteal artery disease. This two centre retrospective and prospective cohort study sought to compare DES with DCB for the treatment of native femoropopliteal artery disease.

Methods: A total of 288 limbs (242 patients) with native femoropopliteal artery disease were treated with DESs (Zilver PTX; 102 limbs) or DCBs (IN.PACT Admiral; 186 limbs) in two Korean endovascular centres between 19 January 2013 and 5 May 2018 and followed for a median duration of 19.6 months. The primary endpoint was primary clinical patency. Propensity score matching (PSM, 162 limbs) and inverse probability weighted (IPW) adjustment were performed to adjust for confounding baseline characteristics.

Results: The DCB group had fewer lesions with Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II type C/D (55.9% vs. 70.6%, p = .021) or total occlusions (43.5% vs. 77.5%, p < .001) and showed shorter lesion lengths (164.2 ± 105.4 mm vs. 194.8 ± 86.8 mm, p = .009) than the DES group. After PSM, baseline clinical and lesion characteristics of the two groups were comparable except for larger reference vessel diameter in the DES group (5.4 ± 0.6 vs. 5.1 ± 0.7, p = .025). Adjunctive atherectomy was performed in 32.1% of the DCB group and in 2.5% of the DES group (p < .001). The provisional stenting was required in 14.8% of the DCB group. At two year follow up, the DCB group showed higher primary clinical patency (74.6% vs. 56.7%, hazard ratio [HR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-0.96, p = .032) and freedom from target lesion revascularisation (85.9% vs. 71.3%, HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.17-0.89, p = .021) than the DES group. Survival from all cause death did not differ between groups (87.6% vs. 92.1%, HR 1.85, 95% CI 0.62-5.52, p = .26).

Conclusion: In this two centre cohort, DCBs with selective use of adjunctive atherectomy achieved more favourable outcomes than DESs for native femoropopliteal artery disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.10.008DOI Listing
February 2021

Identification of plaque ruptures using a novel discriminative model comprising biomarkers in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

Sci Rep 2020 11 19;10(1):20228. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University School of Medicine, #73, Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, Korea.

Soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are inflammatory biomarkers involved in plaque destabilization resulting in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of a combination of biomarkers to discriminate plaque ruptures in the setting of ACS. Eighty-five ACS patients with optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the culprit plaque were included and categorized into two groups: ACS with plaque rupture (Rupture group, n = 42) or without plaque rupture (Non-rupture group, n = 43) verified by OCT. A discriminative model of plaque rupture using several biomarkers was developed and validated. The Rupture group had higher white blood cell (WBC) counts and peak creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) levels (13.39 vs. 2.69 ng/mL, p = 0.0016). sLOX-1 (227.9 vs. 51.7 pg/mL, p < 0.0001) and MMP-9 (13.4 vs. 6.45 ng/mL, p = 0.0313) levels were significantly higher in the Rupture group, whereas NGAL showed a trend without statistical significance (59.03 vs. 53.80 ng/mL, p = 0.093). Receiver operating characteristic curves to differentiate Rupture group from Non-rupture group calculated the area under the curve for sLOX-1 (p < 0.001), MMP-9 (p = 0.0274), and NGAL (p = 0.0874) as 0.763, 0.645, and 0.609, respectively. A new combinatorial discriminative model including sLOX-1, MMP-9, WBC count, and the peak CK-MB level showed an area under the curve of 0.8431 (p < 0.001). With a cut-off point of 0.614, the sensitivity and specificity of plaque rupture were 62.2% and 97.6%, respectively. The new discriminative model using sLOX-1, MMP-9, WBC count, and peak CK-MB levels could better identify plaque rupture than each individual biomarker in ACS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77413-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7677551PMC
November 2020

Clinical Significance of Low-Flow Time in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Results from the RESCUE Registry.

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 7;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Division of Cardiology, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Korea.

Limited data are available on the association between low-flow time and survival in patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) who undergo extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). We evaluated data from 183 IHCA patients who underwent ECPR as a rescue procedure. Patients were divided into two groups: patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an adjunct to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation for less than 38 min ( = 110) or for longer than 38 min ( = 73). The ECPR ≤ 38 min group had a significantly greater incidence of survival to discharge compared to the ECPR > 38 min group (40.0% versus 24.7%, = 0.032). The incidence of good neurologic outcomes at discharge tended to be greater in the ECPR ≤ 38 min group than in the ECPR > 38 min group (35.5% versus 24.7%, = 0.102). The incidences of limb ischemia ( = 0.354) and stroke ( = 0.805) were similar between the two groups, but major bleeding occurred less frequently in the ECPR ≤ 38 min group compared to the ECPR > 38 min group ( = 0.002). Low-flow time ≤ 38 min may reduce the risk of mortality and fatal neurologic damage and could be a measure of optimal management in patients with IHCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695027PMC
November 2020

Clinical impact of angiographically insignificant suboptimal poststent findings detected by optical coherence tomography after drug-eluting stent implantation.

PLoS One 2020 19;15(10):e0240860. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Although optical coherence tomography (OCT)-detected suboptimal findings (SF-OCT) such as malapposition, edge dissection, tissue protrusion, thrombus and small minimal stent area (MSA) are frequently observed after the implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES), their clinical implications are controversial.

Hypothesis: Clinical outcomes may differ between patients with SF-OCTs and without SF-OCTs after DES implantation.

Methods: A total of 576 patients undergoing OCT analysis after DES implantation were divided into SF-OCT group (n = 379, 379 lesions) and No SF-OCT group (n = 197, 197 lesions). The study population had no significant abnormal finding in final angiography. Quantification was performed for each SF-OCT. The incidences of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, and stent thrombosis) were compared between the two groups. A median follow-up duration was 21.5 months.

Results: Among 379 patients with SF-OCT, 32.4% had multiple SF-OCTs. Malapposition (32.1%, IQR of maximal depth 315-580 μm) was the most frequent, followed by small MSA (31.6%), edge dissection (12.5%, IQR of maximal flap of opening 0.27-0.52 mm), thrombus (7.6%, IQR of diameter 1.31-1.97mm) and tissue protrusion (6.8%, IQR of diameter 1.05-1.67 mm). The SF-OCT group showed smaller stent diameter and longer stent length, and lower in-stent lumen expansion rate. The incidence of MACE did not differ between the two groups (3.0% for No SF-OCT vs. 5.0% for SF-OCT; HR 1.601; 95% CI 0.639 to 4.011; P = 0.310).

Conclusions: The presence of angiographically insignificant SF-OCTs were not associated with clinical outcomes in this study.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240860PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571690PMC
December 2020

Severe Dilated Cardiomyopathy Resulted from a Large Single Coronary Artery Fistula Drained Into the Left Ventricle.

Heart Surg Forum 2020 Aug 12;23(5):E586-E589. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Korea .

Background: Coronary artery fistula (CAF) draining into the left ventricle (LV) is a rare condition and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP) that results from single coronary artery (SCA) accompanied by CAF also is extremely rare.

Case Report: We report the case of a 36-year-old man, who presented with severe DCMP that resulted from SCA with CAF draining into the LV. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) showed severe diffuse hypokinesia of the LV with ejection fraction (EF) of 15-20%. Coronary angiography (CAG) revealed SCA connected between left anterior descending artery (LAD) and posterior descending artery (PDA), course of the PDA was very tortuous from apex to base of the LV, and connected to posterior lateral (PL) branch, which was drained into the LV at distal part of the PL. Coronary artery computed tomography (CACT) showed LAD ran over the apex of the LV and connected to PDA, which was drained into the mid portion of lateral wall of the LV. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) showed no evidence of irreversible myocardial change in global wall of the LV. The patient underwent surgical ligation of PDA near the base of the posterior wall of the LV as close to the entry of CAF to the LV as possible without any surgery-related complications. Three months after the surgical ligation, follow-up TEE  showed much improved EF of 45-50%. He has been doing well without congestive heart failure (CHF) until now.

Discussion: Symptomatic CAF with hemodynamic deterioration may need mechanical correction of CAF, including surgical ligation or percutaneous interventional occlusion. How to treat this condition in terms of methodology is a very difficult issue. The detailed methods related to surgical or interventional correction of CAF have to be determined based on anatomical characteristics of CAF, underlying comorbidities, and relevant complications risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1532/hsf.3013DOI Listing
August 2020

Unnecessary PCI Attempt for Presumed CTO Which Was Revealed To Be Anomalous Coronary Arteries - Role of Coronary CT Angiography.

Heart Surg Forum 2020 Sep 15;23(5):E665-E667. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Herein, we present a brief case of anomalous coronary arteries mistaken to be chronic total occlusion. Since we first presumed the anomalous coronary arteries to be chronic total occlusion of the distal right coronary artery, percutaneous coronary intervention was attempted for the presumed lesion, but it failed. Before the second attempt of percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary computed tomography angiography revealed the coronary artery from the left anterior descending artery corresponding with the distal part of the right coronary artery without connection to the right coronary artery. Therefore, we recognized the patient had anomalous coronary arteries with no connection of the vascular wall between the main and distal segments of the right coronary artery. This case may give insights to the importance of meticulous examination of coronary computed tomography angiography imaging before chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention to avoid the unnecessary procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1532/hsf.3143DOI Listing
September 2020

Differential clinical impact of chronic total occlusion revascularization based on left ventricular systolic function.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Feb 2;110(2):237-248. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, #73, Goryeodae-ro, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul, 02841, Korea.

Background: The effect of chronic total occlusion (CTO) revascularization on survival remains controversial. Furthermore, data regarding outcome differences for CTO revascularization based on left ventricular systolic function (LVSF) are limited. The differential outcomes from CTO revascularization in patients with preserved LVSF (PLVSF) versus reduced LVSF (RLVSF) were assessed.

Methods: A total of 2,173 CTO patients were divided into either a PLVSF (n = 1661, Ejection fraction ≥ 50%) or RLVSF (n = 512, < 50%) group. Clinical outcomes were compared between successful CTO revascularization (SCR) versus optimal medical therapy (OMT) within each group. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Inverse probability of treatment weighting for endpoint analysis and a contrast test for comparison of survival probability differences according to LVSF were used.

Results: Patients with RLVSF had a mean 37% ejection fraction (EF) and 19% had EF < 30%. The median follow-up duration was 1,138 days. Regardless of LVSF, the primary endpoint incidence was significantly lower in patients treated with SCR [RLVSF: 29.7% vs. 49.7%, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.62, p < 0.0001; PLVSF 7.3% vs. 16.9%, HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.54-0.93, p = 0.0019], which was mainly driven by a reduction in cardiac death. The difference in survival probability was greater and became more pronounced over time in patients with RLVSF than with PLVSF (1-year, p = 0.197; 3-years, p = 0.048; 5-years, p = 0.036).

Conclusions: SCR was associated with better survival benefit than OMT regardless of LVSF. The benefit was greater and became more significant over time in patients with RLVSF versus PLVSF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-020-01738-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862506PMC
February 2021

Comparing the Procedural and Clinical Outcomes of Sapien XT and Sapien 3 Valves in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Korean Patients.

Korean Circ J 2020 Oct 28;50(10):907-922. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Objectives: The Sapien 3 (S3) valve has not been compared to the Sapien XT (SXT) valve in Korea. We compared procedural and clinical outcomes between the 2 devices.

Methods: A total of 189 patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with S3 (n=95) or SXT (n=94) valve was analyzed. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular mortality at 1 year. The median follow-up duration was 438 days.

Results: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was similar between the 2 groups. The device success rate (90.4% vs. 97.9%; p=0.028) was higher in the S3 than in the SXT. The S3 showed significantly fewer cases of moderate or severe paravalvular leakage (PVL) (16.7% vs. 0.0%; p=0.001) than the SXT. However, effective orifice area (EOA) (2.07±0.61 vs. 1.70±0.49 cm²; p<0.001) was smaller in the S3. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed the S3 was associated with significantly fewer cardiovascular mortality at 1 year compared to the SXT (5.4% vs. 1.1%; hazard ratio, 0.031; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.951; p=0.047). Periprocedural complication rates, composite of disabling stroke or all-cause mortality, all-cause mortality, and disabling stroke at 1 year were similar between the 2 groups.

Conclusions: Cardiovascular mortality was lower in the S3 group than in the SXT group over 1 year of follow-up. The reduction in PVL was attributed to the higher device success rate of TAVR with the S3 valve. However, the benefit of S3 obtained at the expense of reduced EOA should be meticulously re-evaluated in larger studies during long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7515760PMC
October 2020

Immediate vs Delayed Stenting in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Rationale and Design of the International PRIMACY Bayesian Randomized Controlled Trial.

Can J Cardiol 2020 11 25;36(11):1805-1814. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Hospital of Annecy, Centre Hospitalier Annecy Genevois, Annecy, France.

Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is used to restore blood flow in the infarct-related coronary artery, followed by immediate stenting to prevent reocclusion. Stents implanted in thrombus-laden arteries cause distal embolization, which paradoxically impairs myocardial reperfusion and ventricular function. Whether a strategy of delayed stenting improves outcomes in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is uncertain.

Methods: The Primary Reperfusion Secondary Stenting (PRIMACY) is a Bayesian prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point trial in which delayed vs immediate stenting in patients with STEMI were compared for prevention of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, heart failure, or unplanned target vessel revascularization at 9 months. All participants were immediately reperfused, but those assigned to the delayed arm underwent stenting after an interval of 24 to 48 hours. This interval was bridged with antithrombin therapy to reduce thrombus burden. In the principal Bayesian hierarchical random effects analysis, data from exchangeable trials will be combined into a study prior and updated with PRIMACY into a posterior probability of efficacy.

Results: A total of 305 participants were randomized across 15 centres in France and Canada between April 2014 and September 2017. At baseline, the median age of participants was 59 years, 81% were male, and 3% had a history of percutaneous coronary intervention. Results from PRIMACY will be updated from the patient-level data of 1568 participants enrolled in the Deferred Stent Trial in STEMI (DEFER; United Kingdom), Minimalist Immediate Mechanical Intervention (MIMI; France), Danish Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction-3 (DANAMI-3; Denmark), and Impact of Immediate Stent Implantation Versus Deferred Stent Implantation on Infarct Size and Microvascular Perfusion in Patients With ST Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (INNOVATION, South Korea) trials.

Conclusions: We expect to clarify whether delayed stenting can safely reduce the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular end points compared with immediate stenting in patients with STEMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.01.019DOI Listing
November 2020

Savior in Desperate Situation: Successful TAVI for Critically Ill Patient with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Concomitant Constrictive Pericarditis Accompanied by Radiation Dermatitis, Complicated by Cold Abscess in Anterior Chest Wall.

Heart Surg Forum 2020 Jun 12;23(4):E397-E400. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Constrictive pericarditis (CP) can coexist with severe aortic stenosis (AS), especially in patients with previous mediastinal radiation. Because impaired diastolic filling by CP may aggravate hemodynamic abnormalities from severe AS, leading to very low cardiac output, concomitant AS and CP result in a critical debilitating condition and pose a challenge to therapy.

Case Report: A 79-year-old woman was brought to our hospital with New York Heart Association class IV dyspnea and severe frailty (clinical frailty scale 8). She had a history of chronic constrictive pericarditis, severe aortic stenosis with reduced left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction 40%), paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and radiation dermatitis complicated by a cold abscess in the anterior chest wall from previous mediastinal radiation. She continually complained of dizziness, general weakness, and dyspnea despite optimal medical treatment, and her symptoms worsened recently while bedridden. Although simultaneous surgical pericardiectomy and aortic valve replacement is curative treatment, and the surgical risk was not high (Society of Thoracic Surgery score 4.745), her other comorbidities (radiation dermatitis, cold abscess, and severe frailty) eliminated the possibility of surgical treatment. Therefore, we decided on palliative treatment for CP after performing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe AS. We could not predict how she would recover from these conditions and were concerned about the high procedural risk associated with TAVI. Indeed, the patient had cardiac arrest during the TAVI procedure, and we implanted a 31-mm CoreValve while performing cardiac massage. After the patient recovered from cardiac arrest, we safely completed the TAVI procedure with a temporary pacemaker because of complete atrioventricular block. She recovered remarkably after TAVI with permanent pacemaker implantation, and is now able to walk without support.

Conclusion: Reduced diastolic filling by chronic CP aggravates hemodynamic deterioration through severe AS, leading to a very serious debilitating condition including severe frailty and decompensated heart failure. Although surgical pericardiectomy and aortic valve replacement are recommended as optimal therapy, TAVI alone can be an alternative therapeutic option if surgery is not possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1532/hsf.2943DOI Listing
June 2020

Transmural difference in myocardial damage assessed by layer-specific strain analysis in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction.

Sci Rep 2020 07 6;10(1):11104. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 73, Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.

We performed layer-specific strain analysis with speckle-tracking echocardiography to investigate the transmural difference of myocardial damage as the predicting factor for the viability of damaged myocardium in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We analysed patients with acute STEMI who had undergone primary percutaneous coronary intervention and echocardiography within 24 h from the intervention and 2 months after the event. Segmental strains of the left ventricular (LV) endocardium, myocardium, epicardium, and strain gradient (SG) between the endocardium and epicardium were evaluated. In 34 patients, 112 akinetic/dyskinetic and 94 hypokinetic segments were observed among 612 segments of the LV at baseline, and 65 akinetic/dyskinetic segments had viability. In our study, layer-specific strains were gradually deteriorated by their wall motion. SG was augmented in the hypokinetic segments where inhomogeneous wall motion impairment was progressed. SG in the akinetic/dyskinetic segments was different between the viable and non-viable myocardium and was maintained in viable segments. We therefore believe that significantly reduced SG is indicative of irreversible transmural damage in the acute stage of STEMI and can be suitably used as a parameter for predicting myocardial viability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68043-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338453PMC
July 2020

Prospective partially randomized comparison of clopidogrel loading versus maintenance dosing to prevent periprocedural myocardial infarction after stenting for stable angina pectoris: Results from the "Method of Clopidogrel Pre-treatment Undergoing Conventional Coronary Angiogram in Angina Patients (MECCA)" study.

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2020 Oct;58(10):523-530

What Is Known And Objective: Pre-treatment of clopidogrel 600 mg is better than 300 mg loading for reducing periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI). We aimed to evaluate pre-treatment methods for preventing PMI among patients undergoing conventional coronary angiography (CAG) for stable angina pectoris.

Materials And Methods: The study analyzed 402 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during 2010 - 2011 at three Korean hospitals. Clopidogrel-naïve patients received routine maintenance therapy (75 mg/day for ≥ 5 days) and were randomly assigned to a 300-mg reload (RL) or only the maintenance dose (MD). Patients who received a loading dose (LD; 600 mg at 2 - 24 hours before the procedure) were entered into a non-randomized group.

Results: After excluding patients who showed an abnormal creatinine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) level, the study included 233 patients in the LD group, 85 patients in the RL group and 84 patients in the MD group. The LD group had a significantly higher rate of PMI (LD: 21, RL: 3, MD: 0 cases; p = 0.007) and a significant increase in the mean CK-MB levels after 8 hours (p = 0.016) and 24 h (p = 0.01). However, there was no difference in PMI between the RL and MD groups. Furthermore, no significant differences between the three groups were observed in the P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) values (p = 0.57). Albeit not significantly, the LD group had a higher rate of moderate-to-severe GUSTO bleeding within 7 days.

What Is New And Conclusion: Clopidogrel maintenance is better than 600-mg loading for preventing PMI, and the RL protocol did not further prevent PMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CP203644DOI Listing
October 2020

Influence of preprocedural glycemic control on clinical outcomes of endovascular therapy in diabetic patients with lower extremity artery disease: an analysis from a Korean multicenter retrospective registry cohort.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2020 06 22;19(1):97. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 20, Eonju-ro 63-gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06229, South Korea.

Background: The influence of intensive glucose control in diabetic patients on the macrovascular outcomes is controversial. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the effect of preprocedural hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) on clinical outcomes after endovascular therapy for lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) in diabetic patients.

Methods: Diabetic patients were enrolled from the retrospective cohorts of a Korean multicenter endovascular therapy registry and were divided according to the HbA1c level during index admission into the optimal (< 7.0%) or suboptimal (≥ 7.0%) glycemic control groups. The primary endpoints were major adverse limb events (MALE, a composite of major amputation, minor amputation, and reintervention).

Results: Of the 1103 patients enrolled (897 men, mean age 68.2 ± 8.9 years), 432 (39.2%) were classified into the optimal glycemic control group and 671 (60.8%) into the suboptimal glycemic control group. In-hospital events and immediate procedural complications were not different between the two groups. The suboptimal group showed a trend towards a higher incidence of MALE than the optimal group (log-rank p = 0.072). Although no significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of overall survival or amputation, the risk of reintervention was significantly higher in the suboptimal group (log-rank p = 0.048). In the multivariate Cox regression model, suboptimal glycemic control was one of the independent predictors for reintervention. When our data were analyzed according to the initial presentation, suboptimal preprocedural HbA1c significantly increased the incidence of MALE compared with optimal preprocedural HbA1c only in patients with intermittent claudication.

Conclusion: In diabetic patients undergoing endovascular therapy for LEAD, suboptimal preprocedural HbA1c is associated with an increased risk of adverse limb events, especially in patients with intermittent claudication. Further prospective research will be required to validate the role of more intensive glycemic control on the reduction of adverse limb events in diabetic patients undergoing endovascular therapy for LEAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-020-01072-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310391PMC
June 2020

One-year clinical outcomes of coronary chronic total occlusion intervention in patients with acute coronary syndrome versus stable angina: from the Korean chronic total occlusion registry.

Coron Artery Dis 2020 08;31(5):430-437

Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Chronic total occlusion intervention remains challenging and detailed real-world data on the safety and efficacy of which are limited. This study sought to determine whether there are differences in the 1-year clinical outcomes between chronic total occlusion patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable angina following chronic total occlusion intervention.

Patients And Methods: Data from the Korean chronic total occlusion registry were collected from May 2003 to September 2012, and a total of 3268 patients who underwent chronic total occlusion intervention were enrolled. Cardiovascular outcomes up to 12 months in the acute coronary syndrome group were compared with stable angina group.

Results: The acute coronary syndrome group consisted of 1657 patients, and stable angina group consisted of 1264 patients. In the acute coronary syndrome group, patients with successful chronic total occlusion intervention had a lower incidence of total death and cardiac death compared to patients with failed intervention. However, there were no significant differences in cardiovascular events in the stable angina group. The successful chronic total occlusion intervention was a significant prognostic factor for lower total death (P = 0.006, hazard ratio = 0.46) and cardiac death (P = 0.003, hazard ratio = 0.36) within acute coronary syndrome group. On the other hand, successful chronic total occlusion intervention was not a prognostic factor for cardiovascular events within stable angina group.

Conclusions: Successful chronic total occlusion intervention in acute coronary syndrome patients was associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular outcome compared to patients with failed chronic total occlusion intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000880DOI Listing
August 2020

Differential efficacy between stenting and plain balloon angioplasty for femoropopliteal disease with or without total occlusion.

Korean J Intern Med 2020 09 24;35(5):1114-1124. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Whether the presence of chronic total occlusion (CTO) affects patency after stenting in femoropopliteal lesions is unknown. We determined the effects of plain balloon angioplasty (POBA) in comparison with those of stenting on patency for femoropopliteal CTO and stenosis (non-CTO).

Methods: We analyzed data from the Korean Vascular Intervention Society Endovascular Therapy in Lower-Limb Artery Diseases Registry, a multicenter cohort of patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Data from 1,329 patients and 1558 limbs treated with endovascular intervention for at least one femoropopliteal lesion were evaluated.

Results: Among the 1,558 limbs, 345, 432, 275, and 506 were in the non-CTO-POBA, non-CTO-stent, CTO-POBA, and CTO-stent groups, respectively. During follow-up, loss of clinical primary patency, a composite of freedom from restenosis or clinically driven target lesion revascularization, occurred in 65 (18.8%), 68 (15.7%), 62 (22.5%), and 113 limbs (22.3%) in the non-CTO-POBA, non-CTO-stent, CTO-POBA, and CTO-stent groups, respectively. The patients in the non-CTO-stent group showed a significantly better clinical primary patency than those in the no-CTO-POBA group, whereas those in the CTO-stent and CTO-POBA groups showed no significant differences. After inverse probability of treatment weighting to balance the differences among covariates between the non-CTO-stent and non-CTO-POBA groups, the non-CTO-stent group still showed superior clinical primary patency as compared with the non-CTO-POBA group.

Conclusion: In the patients with femoropopliteal stenosis without CTO, stenting resulted in better clinical outcomes than balloon angioplasty. The presence of CTO in the femoropopliteal lesion should be considered when selecting a suitable device for performing endovascular procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2019.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487302PMC
September 2020

A comparison between drug-eluting stent implantation and drug-coated balloon angioplasty in patients with left main bifurcation in-stent restenotic lesions.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 02 18;20(1):83. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Anam Hospital, 126-1, 5ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul, 136-705, Republic of Korea.

Background: The current guidelines recommend both repeat stenting and drug-coated balloons (DCB) for in-stent restenosis (ISR) lesions, if technically feasible. However, real-world clinical data on the interventional strategies in patients with left main bifurcation (LMB)-ISR have not been elucidated.

Methods: Seventy-five patients with LMB-ISR, who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between January 2009 and July 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for the present study (repeat drug eluting stent [DES] implantation [n = 51], DCB angioplasty [n = 24]).

Results: Analysis of the baseline characteristics showed that the patients in the DCB group had a lower incidence of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction/ST segment elevation myocardial infarction at the index PCI (8.3% vs. 25.5%; p = 0.12), higher low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level (92.9 mg/dL vs. 81.7 mg/dL; p = 0.09), and more "stent-in-stent" lesions (25% vs. 7.8%; p = 0.07) than those in the DES group. A smaller post-procedural minimal target lesion lumen diameter was also noted in the DCB group than in the DES group (2.71 mm vs. 2.85 mm; p = 0.03). The cumulative incidence rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) were similar between both groups (median follow-up duration, 868 days; MACE rate, 25% in the DCB group vs. 25.5% in the DES group; p = 0.96). The multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the true bifurcation of ISR was an independent risk predictor of MACEs (hazard ratio, 4.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.572-13.561; p < 0.01).

Conclusions: DES and DCB showed comparable long-term clinical results in patients with LMB-ISR lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01381-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7027103PMC
February 2020

A randomized, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of amlodipine/rosuvastatin in patients with dyslipidemia and hypertension.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2020 02 31;22(2):261-269. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group phase III clinical trial aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a rosuvastatin + amlodipine combination compared with that of rosuvastatin or amlodipine monotherapy in hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia. A total of 106 patients of 15 institutions in Korea were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: rosuvastatin 20 mg + amlodipine 10 mg, amlodipine 10 mg, or rosuvastatin 20 mg. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean ± SD of change in mean sitting systolic blood pressure (msSBP) was -22.82 ± 12.99 mm Hg in the rosuvastatin + amlodipine group, the most decreased among the treatment groups. The percentage of patients whose msSBP decreased ≥20 mm Hg or msDBP decreased ≥10 mm Hg was also highest in this group (74.29%). The mean ± SD percentage change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level from baseline after 8 weeks was -52.53% ± 11.21% in the rosuvastatin + amlodipine group, the most decreased among the treatment groups. More patients in the rosuvastatin + amlodipine group achieved their target LDL-C goal at 8 weeks, compared with the other treatment groups (97.14%). No serious adverse events or adverse drug reactions were observed in all groups. In hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia, combination treatment with rosuvastatin 20 mg + amlodipine 10 mg effectively reduced blood pressure and LDL-C levels while maintaining safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13774DOI Listing
February 2020
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