Publications by authors named "Chenyang Jiang"

69 Publications

Topological charge-density method of identifying phase singularities in cardiac fibrillation.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jul;104(1-1):014213

Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Spiral waves represent the key motifs of typical self-sustained dynamical patterns in excitable systems such as cardiac tissue. The motion of phase singularities (PSs) that lies at the center of spiral waves captures many qualitative and, in some cases, quantitative features of their complex dynamics. Recent clinical studies suggested that ablating the tissue at PS locations may cure atrial fibrillation. Here, we propose a different method to determine the location of PSs. Starting from the definition of the topological charge of spiral waves, we obtain the expression of the topological charge density in a discrete case. With this expression, we can calculate the topological charge at each grid in the space directly, so as to accurately identify the position of PSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.104.014213DOI Listing
July 2021

Raman Thermal Maturity of Coal and Type II Kerogen Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS).

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 9;6(28):18504-18508. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Power, Environmental and Energy Research Institute, Covina, California 91722, United States.

Low-maturity organic samples generate high levels of fluorescence during Raman detection. This fluorescence will obviously affect the Raman signals from organic matter. Our research shows that surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can significantly enhance the ratio of the Raman signal from organic matter to the fluorescence background without changing the peak positions. This allows us to obtain more accurate Raman parameters for organic matter. In this study, we conducted Raman testing with SERS on coal and type II kerogen from the USA. We found that for both coal and type II kerogen, the exponential correlation between the thermal maturity and the distance between their D and G bands (Δ) in the Raman spectra was good, and the -squared values were 0.968 and 0.988, respectively. However, the Raman thermal maturity evolution curves for the coal and the type II kerogen were different. Compared with the Raman thermal maturity evolution curve of type II kerogen, that of coal was steeper. The two curves crossed each other at a Δ value of 223, which corresponds to a calculated vitrinite reflectance value of 0.61%. This study also shows that the Raman thermal maturity evolution model of organic matter is perhaps related mainly to its type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c02730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296574PMC
July 2021

Corrigendum: Impact of Serum Uric Acid Lowering and Contemporary Uric Acid-Lowering Therapies on Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 6;8:723626. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Intervention and Regenerative Medicine of Zhejiang, Department of Cardiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcvm.2021.641062.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.723626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290914PMC
July 2021

Common abnormality of gray matter integrity in substance use disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A comparative voxel-based meta-analysis.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Aug 9;42(12):3871-3886. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

The objective of the current study is to determine robust transdiagnostic brain structural markers for compulsivity by capitalizing on the increasing number of case-control studies examining gray matter volume (GMV) alterations in substance use disorders (SUD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Voxel-based meta-analysis within the individual disorders and conjunction analysis were employed to reveal common GMV alterations between SUDs and OCD. Meta-analytic coordinates and signed brain volumetric maps determining directed (reduced/increased) GMV alterations between the disorder groups and controls served as the primary outcome. The separate meta-analysis demonstrated that SUD and OCD patients exhibited widespread GMV reductions in frontocortical regions including prefrontal, cingulate, and insular. Conjunction analysis revealed that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) consistently exhibited decreased GMV across all disorders. Functional characterization suggests that the IFG represents a core hub in the cognitive control network and exhibits bidirectional (Granger) causal interactions with the striatum. Only OCD showed increased GMV in the dorsal striatum with higher changes being associated with more severe OCD symptomatology. Together the findings demonstrate robustly decreased GMV across the disorders in the left IFG, suggesting a transdiagnostic brain structural marker. The functional characterization as a key hub in the cognitive control network and casual interactions with the striatum suggest that deficits in inhibitory control mechanisms may promote compulsivity and loss of control that characterize both disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288096PMC
August 2021

NBD-based synthetic probes for sensing small molecules and proteins: design, sensing mechanisms and biological applications.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jul;50(13):7436-7495

State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites and Beijing Key Lab of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology (BUCT), Beijing 100029, China.

Compounds with a nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) skeleton exhibit prominent useful properties including environmental sensitivity, high reactivity toward amines and biothiols (including H2S) accompanied by distinct colorimetric and fluorescent changes, fluorescence-quenching ability, and small size, all of which facilitate biomolecular sensing and self-assembly. Amines are important biological nucleophiles, and the unique activity of NBD ethers with amines has allowed for site-specific protein labelling and for the detection of enzyme activities. Both H2S and biothiols are involved in a wide range of physiological processes in mammals, and misregulation of these small molecules is associated with numerous diseases including cancers. In this review, we focus on NBD-based synthetic probes as advanced chemical tools for biomolecular sensing. Specifically, we discuss the sensing mechanisms and selectivity of the probes, the design strategies for multi-reactable multi-quenching probes, and the associated biological applications of these important constructs. We also highlight self-assembled NBD-based probes and outline future directions for NBD-based chemosensors. We hope that this comprehensive review will facilitate the development of future probes for investigating and understanding different biological processes and aid the development of potential theranostic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs01096kDOI Listing
July 2021

Does Chronic Intestinal Inflammation Promote Atrial Fibrillation: A Mendelian Randomization Study With Populations of European Ancestry.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 10;8:641291. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cardiology of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising ulcerative colitis (UC), and Crohn's disease (CD), has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the causal role of the chronic intestinal inflammation (CII) in the development of AF remains controversial. We use Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to explore the causal inference of CII on AF. A two-sample MR analysis was performed to estimate the potential causal effect of CII on AF. Statistical summaries for the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes of CII were obtained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with cohorts of CD ( = 51,874), UC ( = 47,745), and IBD ( = 65,642) of European descent. The GWAS of 1,030,836 people of European ancestry, including 60,620 AF cases and 970,216 controls was collected to identify genetic variants underlying AF. The causal inference was estimated using the multiplicative random effects inverse-variance weighted method (IVW). The methods of MR-Egger, simple median, and weighted median were also employed to avoid the bias of pleiotropy effects. Using three sets of SNPs (75 SNPs of CD, 60 SNPs of UC, and 95 SNPs of IBD), multiplicative random-effect IVW model estimated a universal null effect of CII on AF (CD: OR = 1.0059, 95% CI: 0.9900, 1.0220, = 0.47; UC: OR = 1.0087, 95% CI: 0.9896, 1.0281, = 0.38; IBD: OR = 1.0080, 95% CI: 0.9908, 1.0255, = 0.37). Similar results were observed using the MR-Egger, simple median, weighted median methods. As opposing to the traditional observational studies, our two-sample MR analysis did not find enough evidence to support a causal role of either CD or UC in the development of AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.641291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141578PMC
May 2021

Rationale and design of a phase 3b, prospective, randomized, open label, blinded-endpoint, multicenter trial of the efficacy and safety of urokinase thrombolysis comparing with antiplatelet agents for patients with minor stroke.

Int J Stroke 2021 May 21:17474930211014344. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

Rationale: Minor ischemic stroke attack has taken a significant part of cerebrovascular disease burden. Benefits of thrombolysis in minor stroke is under debates and the use of urokinase in developing countries needs to be further explored.

Aim: TRUST (ThRombolysis of Urokinase for minor STroke) trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous urokinase for the treatment of acute minor ischemic stroke.

Sample Size Estimates: To reach a double-sided type I error rate of 0.05 to test our hypothesis, with β = 0.80, sample size of 1002 subjects were determined after further adjustment to account for up to 5% nonadherence.

Methods And Design: TRUST trial was developed with PROBE design, as a multicenter, randomized, open label, single-blind clinical trial with the stage of phase 3b.

Study Outcomes: The proportion of patients retaining full ability of independent living, which is defined as patients scoring 0-1 on modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days.

Discussion: TRUST trial may potentially provide promising and affordable thrombolysis for acute minor ischemic stroke in the developing parts of the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17474930211014344DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of Serum Uric Acid Lowering and Contemporary Uric Acid-Lowering Therapies on Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 23;8:641062. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Intervention and Regenerative Medicine of Zhejiang Province, Department of Cardiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the potential association between uric acid (UA) lowering and cardiovascular risk reduction among UA-lowering therapies in adults. A systematic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted according to the protocol pre-registered in PROSPERO (No. CRD42020199259). We search for RCTs in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to July 1, 2020. A meta-analysis was performed using a fixed- or random-effects model. In total, 30 studies involving 18,585 hyperuricaemic patients were included. Xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI) therapy produced a 6.0% reduction in relative risk (RR) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). The use of febuxostat was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) (RR: 1.09, 95% CI 0.998-1.19, = 0.0%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Allopurinol treatment was associated with a lower CVE risk (RR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.46-0.80, = 21.0%). Among the UA-lowering therapies, the drug treatments were associated with all-cause mortality (RR: 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.41, = 0.0%). The subgroup with a UA endpoint <7 mg/dl was not associated with a higher CVE risk (RR: 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.92, = 0.0%), and in the subgroup with a UA endpoint <5 mg/dl group, a lower risk of CVEs was not observed (RR: 0.99, 95% CI 0.69-1.44, = 0.0%). UA reduction caused by XOIs reduced the incidence of MACEs. UA-lowering medicines were associated with changes in all-cause mortality but not cardiovascular outcomes. The lower UA endpoint was not associated with reduced cardiovascular risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.641062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044896PMC
March 2021

Identification of key immune-related genes and immune infiltration in atrial fibrillation with valvular heart disease based on bioinformatics analysis.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Mar;13(3):1785-1798

Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common persistent arrhythmia. Valvular heart disease (VHD) and AF frequently coexist. In our study, from performing bioinformatics analysis, we sought to identify immune-related genes (IRGs) and explore the role of immune cell infiltration in AF-VHD in depth, aiming at investigating the potential molecular mechanism and developing new therapeutic targets for AF, including AF-VHD.

Methods: The gene expression of the GSE41177 and GSE79768 datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed via the limma package in Bioconductor with R software. Differentially expressed immune-related genes (DEIRGs) were selected via combination ImmPort database with DEGs, and the enrichment function and pathway analysis were explored. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was built with a Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins plugin in Cytoscape. The CIBERSORT algorithm was used to evaluate immune infiltration in the left atrial (LA) tissues between AF-VHD and sinus rhythm (SR) patients. Finally, a correlation analysis between key DEIRGs and infiltrating immune cells was performed.

Results: A total of 130 DEIRGs were detected. Enrichment function of DEIRGs demonstrated that they are significant in immune and inflammatory responses. The key DEIRGs assessed by the PPI network and involved in both the immune and inflammatory responses were the C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 1, pro-platelet basic protein (), , and C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 (). The immune infiltration findings indicated that, compared with the LA tissues from SR patients, the tissues from AF-VHD patients contained a higher proportion of gamma delta T cells, but a lower proportion of CD8 and regulatory T cells. The results of correlation analysis demonstrated that was positively correlated with activated mast cells and significantly negatively correlated with resting mast cells. , , and were positively correlated with the infiltration of various immune cells, such as neutrophils, plasma cells, and resting dendritic cells.

Conclusions: The key immune-related genes and the differences in immune infiltration in LA tissues play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of AF-VHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-21-168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024788PMC
March 2021

Mendelian randomization as an approach to assess causal effects of inflammatory bowel disease on atrial fibrillation.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 04 6;13(8):12016-12030. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Cardiology of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, HangZhou, China.

Background: Despite growing evidence indicating that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), owing to the potential biases of confounding effects and reverse causation, the specific relationship between IBD and AF remains controversial. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a causal effect of IBD on AF.

Methods: A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was performed to evaluate the causal effect of IBD on AF. Statistical summaries for the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and traits of interest were obtained from independent consortia with European populations. The dataset of IBD was acquired from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including more than 75,000 cases and controls. A GWAS with 60,620 AF cases and 970,216 controls was used to identify genetic variation underlying AF. The causal effect was estimated using the multiplicative random effects inverse-variance weighted method (IVW), followed by sensitivity analysis.

Results: Using 81 SNPs, there was no evidence to suggest an association between genetically predicted IBD and risk of AF with multiplicative random-effects IVW MR analysis (odds ratio = 1.0000, 95% confidence interval: 0.9994 1.0005, p = 0.88).

Conclusion: As opposed to current assumptions, no substantial evidence was found to support a causal role of IBD in the development of AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109086PMC
April 2021

Feasibility and safety of both His bundle pacing and left bundle branch area pacing in atrial fibrillation patients: intermediate term follow-up.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Cardiology, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Intervention and Regenerative Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, No. 3 Qingchun East Road, Hangzhou, 310016, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: His bundle pacing (HBP) improves heart failure (HF) in atrial fibrillation (AF) pacing-dependent patients with a potential for a progressively increased threshold. HBP with right ventricular pacing (RVP) as a backup is always the preferred choice; however, RVP may induce HF. His Purkinje system pacing (HPSP) includes HBP and left bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP). LBBAP maintains left ventricular synchrony but has not been proven to be safe over the long term. We assessed the feasibility and safety of both HBP and LBBAP in AF pacing-dependent patients and compared the parameters of both leads at baseline and at the 6-month follow-up.

Methods: A total of 16 AF patients in our center, who successfully attempted both HBP and LBBAP, were prospectively enrolled unless only one of these treatment statuses was attained. The electrocardiogram characteristics, leading parameters, echocardiography results, and clinical outcomes were assessed.

Results: Thirteen out of 16 patients achieved both HBP and LBBAP successfully in the same AF pacing-dependent patients. In symptomatic HF patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (n = 10), the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) was reduced from 51.8 ± 4.4 to 48.3 ± 3.1 mm (p = 0.01) with the use of diuretics, either reduced or stopped (n = 7). During the follow-up, one patient in the group without HF had an increased HBP threshold and developed HF symptoms. His HF symptoms disappeared when switched into LBBAP mode. Another patient in the group with HF got his LVEF elevated by HBP for 3 months by utilizing left bundle branch block(LBBB)correction and continued to increase when switched into LBBAP for another 3 months due to an increased HBP correction threshold. The average unipolar pacing threshold of LBBAP was lower than that of HBP. No perforation or dislodgement occurred in our study.

Conclusion: Both HBP and LBBAP could be attempted successfully in the same AF patients when one of the two modes could be adopted and switched according to the clinical feasibility. Compared with HBP, LBBAP yielded better and more stable parameters but showed comparable effects during the 6-month follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-021-00964-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Peripheral synucleinopathy in Parkinson disease with LRRK2 G2385R variants.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 03 1;8(3):592-602. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450052, China.

Objective: Recent studies demonstrated cutaneous phosphorylated α synuclein (p-syn) deposition in idiopathic and some monogenetic Parkinson disease (PD) patients, suggesting synucleinopathy identical to that in the brain. Although the LRRK2 Gly2385Arg (G2385R) variant is a common PD risk factor in the Chinese population, the pathogenesis of PD with G2385R variant has not been reported. We investigated whether synucleinopathy and small fiber neuropathy (SFN) are associated with the G2385R variant.

Methods: We performed genotyping in 59 PD patients and 30 healthy controls from the skin biopsy database. The scale of SFN was assessed, as well as bright-field immunohistochemistry against antiprotein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) and double-labeling immunofluorescence with anti-PGP9.5 and anti-p-syn.

Results: (1) p-syn deposited in the skin nerve fibers of G2385R carrier PD patients, which was a different pattern from noncarriers, without no difference observed between proximal and distal regions; (2) decreased distal intraepidermal nerve fiber density was found in both the G2385R carrier and the noncarrier PD group, and was negatively correlated with composite autonomic symptom score-31 item (COMPASS-31) scores; (3) PD patients with the G2385R variant showed a more peculiar clinical profile than noncarriers with a higher nonmotor symptoms scale, COMPASS-31 score, and levodopa equivalent dose, in addition to an increased prevalence of certain autonomic symptoms or rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders.

Interpretation: Synucleinopathy is related to the LRRK2 G2385R genotype and implies a different pathogenesis in G2385R variant carriers and noncarriers. This study also extended the clinical profiles of PD patients with the G2385R variant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7951097PMC
March 2021

A comparative study of Lumbar Decompression and Fusion with Internal Fixation versus Simple Decompression in elderly patients with two-segment Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 Jan-Feb;37(1):256-260

Chong-chao Yan, Department of Orthopaedics, Baoding First Hospital, Baoding, Hebei, 071000, P.R. China.

Objective: To investigate and compare the effect of decompression and fusion with internal fixation vs. simple decompression in the treatment of elderly patients with two-segment lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) in perioperative and postoperative follow-up periods.

Methods: Twenty-eight elderly patients with two-segment LSS admitted in Baoding First Hospital between Mar. 2017 and Jan. 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifteen patients who underwent simple decompression were included in the simple decompression group, and 13 who underwent decompression and fusion with internal fixation were included in the decompression-fixation group. The general data and perioperative conditions including wound complications, operation time, blood loss, and VAS (legs) and JOA score were analyzed and compared between the two groups.

Results: There was no significant difference in postoperative leg pain (VAS) between the two groups, and a statistically significant difference in JOA score was found between the two groups one month after the operation. The operation time, length of stay, and blood loss in the decompression-fixation group were significantly different from those in the simple decompression group and no significant difference in wound complications was observed between the two groups.

Conclusion: There is no significant difference in leg pain relief in elderly patients with two-segment LSS when treated with decompression and fusion with internal fixation or simple decompression. Simple decompression is associated with less intraoperative injuries, better postoperative functional recovery, and reduced hospital stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.1.2287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794151PMC
January 2021

Comparison of left atrial and left atrial appendage mechanics in the risk stratification of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2021 Jan 9;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Cardiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 3 East Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Left atrial (LA) and left atrial appendage (LAA) dysfunction has been demonstrated to contribute to atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke. However, usefulness of LA and LAA mechanics has not been fully compared. We sought to investigate the association of LA and LAA mechanics with stroke and to compare their diagnostic values in the risk stratification of stroke in patients with nonvalvular AF.

Methods: A total of 208 consecutive patients with AF (63.58 ± 10.37 years, 63.9% male,57.7% persistent AF) who underwent echocardiography before catheter ablation were prospectively enrolled. Speckle-tracking was used to measure LA and LAA global longitudinal strain (GLS). LA and LAA mechanical dispersions (MD) were defined as the standard deviation (SD) of time to peak positive strain corrected by the R-R interval.

Results: Patients with prior stroke/ transient ischemic attack (TIA) (n = 31) had significantly higher LA and LAA MD than those without (n = 177) (11.56 ± 4.38% vs. 8.43 ± 3.44%, 15.15 ± 5.46% vs. 10.94 ± 4.40%, both P < 0.01). In multivariable analysis, LA and LAA MD were independently associated with stroke/TIA (odds ratio, 1.18-1.29, 1.19-1.22, respectively, both P < 0.01), providing incremental values over clinical and standard echocardiographic parameters. In a subgroup analysis, LA MD was more useful than LAA MD in patients with normal LA volumes, while LAA MD was superior to LA MD in patients with LA enlargement.

Conclusions: Higher LA and LAA mechanical dispersion are independently associated with stroke/TIA in AF patients and had incremental values over clinical and conventional echocardiographic parameters. What's more, priorities of dispersion assessment are different depending on patients' LA size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12947-020-00232-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797160PMC
January 2021

Separated Channel Attention Convolutional Neural Network (SC-CNN-Attention) to Identify ADHD in Multi-Site Rs-fMRI Dataset.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Aug 14;22(8). Epub 2020 Aug 14.

School of Life Science and Technology, Center for Information in BioMedicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China.

The accurate identification of an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subject has remained a challenge for both neuroscience research and clinical diagnosis. Unfortunately, the traditional methods concerning the classification model and feature extraction usually depend on the single-channel model and static measurements (i.e., functional connectivity, FC) in the small, homogenous single-site dataset, which is limited and may cause the loss of intrinsic information in functional MRI (fMRI). In this study, we proposed a new two-stage network structure by combing a separated channel convolutional neural network (SC-CNN) with an attention-based network (SC-CNN-attention) to discriminate ADHD and healthy controls on a large-scale multi-site database (5 sites and = 1019). To utilize both intrinsic temporal feature and the interactions of temporal dependent in whole-brain resting-state fMRI, in the first stage of our proposed network structure, a SC- CNN is used to learn the temporal feature of each brain region, and an attention network in the second stage is adopted to capture temporal dependent features among regions and extract fusion features. Using a "leave-one-site-out" cross-validation framework, our proposed method obtained a mean classification accuracy of 68.6% on five different sites, which is higher than those reported in previous studies. The classification results demonstrate that our proposed network is robust to data variants and is also replicated across sites. The combination of the SC-CNN with the attention network is powerful to capture the intrinsic fMRI information to discriminate ADHD across multi-site resting-state fMRI data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22080893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517519PMC
August 2020

Idiopathic premature ventricular contractions arising from the proximal right bundle branch.

J Electrocardiol 2021 Jan-Feb;64:14-17. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Heart Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles 90048, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2020.07.018DOI Listing
June 2021

Intracardiac Echocardiography-Derived Right Ventricular Myocardial Strain Deformation Patterns with Segmental Dyssynchrony in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 01 9;34(1):100-102. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Cardiac Electrophysiology Laboratory, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2020.10.001DOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy in Post-Operative Atrial Fibrillation and Long-Term Mortality in Patients Among Esophageal Cancer.

Cancer Control 2020 Jan-Dec;27(1):1073274820974013

Department of Cardiology of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, 56660Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China.

Aims: Postoperative Atrial fibrillation (POAF) after esophagectomy may prolong stay in intensive care and increase risk of perioperative complications. A minimally invasive approach is becoming the preferred option for esophagectomy, yet its implications for POAF risk remains unclear. The association between POAF and minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) was examined in this study.

Methods: We used a dataset of 575 patients who underwent esophagectomy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between MIE and POAF. A cox proportional hazards model was applied to assess the long-term mortality (MIE vs open esophagectomy, OE).

Results: Of the 575 patients with esophageal cancer, 62 developed POAF. MIE was negatively associated with the occurrence of POAF (Odds ratio: 0.163, 95%CI: 0.033-0.801). No significant difference was observed in long-term mortality (Odds ratio: 2.144, 95%CI: 0.963-4.775).

Conclusions: MIE may reduced the incidence of POAF without compromising the survival of patients with esophageal cancer. Moreover, the specific mechanism of MIE providing this possible advantage needs to be determined by larger prospective cohort studies with specific biomarker information from laboratory tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073274820974013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791452PMC
July 2021

Optimization of the Detection Method for Phosphorylated α-Synuclein in Parkinson Disease by Skin Biopsy.

Front Neurol 2020 30;11:569446. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Recent studies have found deposition of phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-syn) in Parkinson disease (PD) patients' skin, indicating p-syn may be a potential biomarker of PD. However, the sensitivity of the p-syn detection varied largely from 5. 3 to 100%, this influenced the clinical use of this detection method to some extent. This study aimed to optimize the skin biopsy method for detecting p-syn deposition in patients with PD. Ninety PD patients and 30 healthy controls underwent skin biopsies at 2-3 of the following sites: the distal leg, thigh, cervical region, or forearm. Skin biopsy samples were cut to 50- and 15-μm thickness sections. Deposition of p-syn were detected by using double immunofluorescence labeling of protein gene production 9.5 (PGP9.5) /p-syn. Statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0 software. Deposition of p-syn were found in 75/90 PD patients but not in healthy controls ( < 0.001). The positive deposition rate of p-syn in the single cervical site was significantly higher than that in the distal leg, thigh, and forearm site. Two samples from the cervical region had a higher p-syn positive rate compared to single cervical site (90.5 vs. 66.7%, = 0.037). There was no significant difference between the p-syn positive rate of samples from the distal leg/cervical sites and 2 samples from cervical region (80 vs. 90.5%, = 0.261). Next, the p-syn positive deposition rate of 2-biopsy samples including distal leg/cervical sites and double samples in the cervical site were comparable to the 3-biopsy samples. The 50-μm section had a significantly higher p-syn positive rate than the 15-μm section ( = 0.049). Two biopsy sites (cervical/distal leg) or 2 samples from the cervical site were considered to be priority biopsy sites for detecting p-syn in PD patients. Thick sections may provide a higher p-syn positive rate than thin sections for skin biopsies. These findings provide an optimized p-syn detection method, indicate the valuable pathology biomarker of PD and will promote the clinical use of skin biopsy in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.569446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554368PMC
September 2020

The role of surgery type in postoperative atrial fibrillation and in-hospital mortality in esophageal cancer patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.

World J Surg Oncol 2020 Sep 11;18(1):244. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Cardiology of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, No. 3 Qingchun East Road, Zhejiang, 310000, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is one of the most common complications of esophagectomy, which may extend the inpatient hospital stay. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) has been increasingly used in clinical practice; however, its POAF risk and short-term mortality remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the POAF risk and in-hospital mortality rate between patients receiving MIE and open esophagectomy (OE).

Methods: Esophageal cancer patients who underwent MIE or OE from a retrospective cohort study were evaluated. A multivariate logistic regression model was built to assess the associations between esophagectomy (MIE vs. OE) and various outcomes (POAF, in-hospital mortality). Covariates included age, sex, body mass index, neoadjuvant therapy, tumor stage, surgery incision type, comorbidities, cardia conditions, peri-operative medication, and complications.

Results: Of the 484 patients with esophageal cancer, 63 received MIE. A total of 53 patients developed POAF. Compared to patients receiving OE, MIE patients had 81% reduced odds of POAF (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.185, 95% CI 0.039-0.887, P = 0.035). No statistically significant association was found for in-hospital mortality (aOR 0.709, 95% CI 0.114-4.409, P = 0.712).

Conclusions: MIE is associated with a lower risk of POAF, compared to traditional surgery. No significant short-term survival benefit was found for MIE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-020-02011-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488674PMC
September 2020

Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the dermal fibroblasts of a patient with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy carrying a PKP2/c.2489 + 1G > A mutation.

Stem Cell Res 2020 10 27;48:101965. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, China; Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China. Electronic address:

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited disease in which the right ventricular myocardium is replaced by progressive fibrous adipose tissue. ARVC is clinically characterized by right ventricular enlargement, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death. It eventually leads to heart failure, and thus has a significant impact on the patient's health. In this study, human dermal fibroblasts were obtained from a patient with ARVC, which were subsequently reprogrammed with a non-integrated Sendai virus to generate a patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line. The iPSC line exhibited normal karyotype and morphology, expressed pluripotency markers, and was capable of differentiating into three germ layers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.101965DOI Listing
October 2020

Loss of Bcl-6-Expressing T Follicular Helper Cells and Germinal Centers in COVID-19.

Cell 2020 10 19;183(1):143-157.e13. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Humoral responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are often of limited durability, as seen with other human coronavirus epidemics. To address the underlying etiology, we examined post mortem thoracic lymph nodes and spleens in acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and observed the absence of germinal centers and a striking reduction in Bcl-6 germinal center B cells but preservation of AID B cells. Absence of germinal centers correlated with an early specific block in Bcl-6 T cell differentiation together with an increase in T-bet T cells and aberrant extra-follicular TNF-α accumulation. Parallel peripheral blood studies revealed loss of transitional and follicular B cells in severe disease and accumulation of SARS-CoV-2-specific "disease-related" B cell populations. These data identify defective Bcl-6 T cell generation and dysregulated humoral immune induction early in COVID-19 disease, providing a mechanistic explanation for the limited durability of antibody responses in coronavirus infections, and suggest that achieving herd immunity through natural infection may be difficult.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437499PMC
October 2020

Distinct viral reservoirs in individuals with spontaneous control of HIV-1.

Nature 2020 09 26;585(7824):261-267. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Sustained, drug-free control of HIV-1 replication is naturally achieved in less than 0.5% of infected individuals (here termed 'elite controllers'), despite the presence of a replication-competent viral reservoir. Inducing such an ability to spontaneously maintain undetectable plasma viraemia is a major objective of HIV-1 cure research, but the characteristics of proviral reservoirs in elite controllers remain to be determined. Here, using next-generation sequencing of near-full-length single HIV-1 genomes and corresponding chromosomal integration sites, we show that the proviral reservoirs of elite controllers frequently consist of oligoclonal to near-monoclonal clusters of intact proviral sequences. In contrast to individuals treated with long-term antiretroviral therapy, intact proviral sequences from elite controllers were integrated at highly distinct sites in the human genome and were preferentially located in centromeric satellite DNA or in Krüppel-associated box domain-containing zinc finger genes on chromosome 19, both of which are associated with heterochromatin features. Moreover, the integration sites of intact proviral sequences from elite controllers showed an increased distance to transcriptional start sites and accessible chromatin of the host genome and were enriched in repressive chromatin marks. These data suggest that a distinct configuration of the proviral reservoir represents a structural correlate of natural viral control, and that the quality, rather than the quantity, of viral reservoirs can be an important distinguishing feature for a functional cure of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, in one elite controller, we were unable to detect intact proviral sequences despite analysing more than 1.5 billion peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which raises the possibility that a sterilizing cure of HIV-1 infection, which has previously been observed only following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, may be feasible in rare instances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2651-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837306PMC
September 2020

Novel magnetic Fe3O4/g-C3N4/MoO3 nanocomposites with highly enhanced photocatalytic activities: Visible-light-driven degradation of tetracycline from aqueous environment.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(8):e0237389. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Hunan Research Center of Engineering Technology for Utilization of Environmental and Resources Plant, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, China.

In the present work, a series of magnetically separable Fe3O4/g-C3N4/MoO3 nanocomposite catalysts were prepared. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, EDX, TEM, FT-IR, UV-Vis DRS, TGA, PL, BET and VSM. The photocatalytic activity of photocatalytic materials was evaluated by catalytic degradation of tetracycline solution under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the influences of weight percent of MoO3 and scavengers of the reactive species on the degradation activity were investigated. The results showed that the Fe3O4/g-C3N4/MoO3 (30%) nanocomposites exhibited highest removal ability for TC, 94% TC was removed during the treatment. Photocatalytic activity of Fe3O4/g-C3N4/MoO3 (30%) was about 6.9, 5, and 19.9-fold higher than those of the MoO3, g-C3N4, and Fe3O4/g-C3N4 samples, respectively. The excellent photocatalytic performance was mainly attributed to the Z-scheme structure formed between MoO3 and g-C3N4, which enhanced the efficient separation of the electron-hole and sufficient utilization charge carriers for generating active radials. The highly improved activity was also partially beneficial from the increase in adsorption of the photocatalysts in visible range due to the combinaion of Fe3O4. Superoxide ions (·O2-) was the primary reactive species for the photocatalytic degradation of TC, as degradation rate were decreased to 6% in solution containing benzoquinone (BQ). Data indicate that the novel Fe3O4/g-C3N4/MoO3 was favorable for the degradation of high concentrations of tetracycline in water.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237389PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428356PMC
October 2020

The Loss of Bcl-6 Expressing T Follicular Helper Cells and the Absence of Germinal Centers in COVID-19.

SSRN 2020 Jul 16:3652322. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Humoral responses in COVID-19 disease are often of limited durability, as seen with other human coronavirus epidemics. To address the underlying etiology, we examined postmortem thoracic lymph nodes and spleens in acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and observed the absence of germinal centers, a striking reduction in Bcl-6+ germinal center B cells but preservation of AID+ B cells. Absence of germinal centers correlated with an early specific block in Bcl-6+TFH cell differentiation together with an increase in T-bet+TH1 cells and aberrant extra-follicular TNF-a accumulation.  Parallel peripheral blood studies revealed loss of transitional and follicular B cells in severe disease and accumulation of SARS-CoV-2-specific "disease-related" B cell populations. These data identify defective Bcl-6+TFH cell generation and dysregulated humoral immune induction early in COVID-19 disease, providing a mechanistic explanation for the limited durability of antibody responses in coronavirus infections and suggest that achieving herd immunity through natural infection may be difficult. Funding: This work was supported by NIH U19 AI110495 to SP, NIH R01 AI146779 to AGS, NIH R01AI137057 and DP2DA042422 to DL, BMH was supported by NIGMS T32 GM007753, TMC was supported by T32 AI007245. Funding for these studies from the Massachusetts Consortium of Pathogen Readiness, the Mark and Lisa Schwartz Foundation and Enid Schwartz is also acknowledged. Conflict of Interest: None. Ethical Approval: This study was performed with the approval of the Institutional Review Boards at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Brigham and Women's Hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3652322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385482PMC
July 2020

Does the "Weekend Effect" Extend to Friday Admissions? An Analysis of Ischemic Stroke Hospitalizations in South Carolina.

Front Neurol 2020 5;11:424. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, United States.

Weekend admission has been found to be associated with higher hospital mortality and longer hospital stay among patients with acute cardiovascular conditions. Whether those admitted on Fridays face similar risk as those admitted on Sundays and Saturdays remain uncertain. This study used 2012-2013 data from hospital records for nonfatal patients with ischemic stroke in the state of South Carolina. The database contained the records of all hospitalizations in South Carolina except military and federal institutions. Multilevel logistic, negative binomial, and log-linear regression models were performed to explore the temporal pattern by hospital admission on specific day of a week for three outcomes: discharge to hospice care (vs. other alive discharges), length of stay, and total charge, respectively. Each model controlled for the patient age, gender, race/ethnicity, year of hospital admission, season of admission, payer, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. A total of 19,346 nonfatal ischemic stroke hospitalizations were identified. Multilevel logistic regression shows that patients admitted on non-Friday weekdays had a significantly lower odds of being discharged to hospice care as compared with those admitted on Fridays [odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.65-0.99] where there was no significant difference between Friday admissions and weekend admissions. The length of hospital stay for admission on non-Friday weekdays was significantly shorter than that of Friday admissions [incident rate ratio (IRR) = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.84-0.90], whereas longer length of hospital stay was found on weekend admission (IRR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.11). Friday admissions were not associated with higher charges as compared with non-Friday weekday admissions. Some hospitalization outcomes admitted on Fridays seemed to have the "weekend effects" too. Further studies are warranted to investigate underlying mechanism for such a difference in outcomes between Friday and other weekdays. Interventions to close the weekend-weekday gap of patient outcomes need to consider the elevated risk on Friday admission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325933PMC
June 2020

Intracardiac ultrasound-guided left bundle branch pacing in a bradycardia patient.

Clin Case Rep 2020 Jun 11;8(6):1030-1033. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Cardiology Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital Zhejiang University of Medicine Hangzhou China.

Left bundle branch pacing was associated with narrower QRS in patients with pacemaker indications. LBBP guided by ICE improves the accuracy of LBBP, facilitates the lead localization, minimizes complications, and above all reduces radiation exposure time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.2798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303858PMC
June 2020

Esophageal contraction during cryoablation: A possible protective mechanism.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2020 09 21;43(9):908-912. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Heart Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Contraction of the esophagus was observed during cryoablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of esophageal contraction and the correlation between the contraction and esophageal thermal lesions.

Methods: This prospective study enrolled 64 patients with PAF undergoing second-generation cryoballoon (CB2) ablation for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). During PVI for the left inferior pulmonary vein, contrast esophagography was performed before and during cryoablation. The sample population was divided into two groups: A (31 patients) and B (33 patients). Group A consisted of patients in whom the distal half of the CB was in proximity to the esophagus, while for group B the esophagus was away from the distal half of the CB. Esophageal contraction was recorded as a variation in the width of the esophageal lumen during PVI. Postablation esophageal endoscopy was done on all patients.

Results: The reduction in the width of the esophageal lumen in group A was greater than in group B during freezing (40.12 ± 23.24% vs 8.14 ± 10.35%, P < .001). Following endoscopy, no apparent esophageal lesion was detected in all patients.

Conclusion: The extent of esophageal contraction is correlated with the positioning of the esophagus at the distal half of the CB. The findings of this study indicate that esophageal contraction during freezing may be a self-protective mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.13967DOI Listing
September 2020

Rationale and study design for ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation guided by ablation index: a multi-center, prospective randomized trial (PAF-AI trial).

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2021 Apr 11;60(3):439-444. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Cardiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 3 East Qingchun Road, Zhejiang, 310016, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has become the cornerstone of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, but long-term success rates remains suboptimal, due in large part to late PV reconnection and insufficient ostial substrate modification.

Objective: To evaluate whether ablation index (AI)-guided PVI with electrical isolation and quantified ostial substrate modification improves clinical outcomes when compared with contact force (CF)-guided ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF).

Methods: The PAF-AI trial (ChiCTR1900022041) is a prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled clinical trial enrolling patients with PAF with an indication for catheter ablation. Patients are randomized into a 2:1 fashion to two treatment arms: AI-guided PVI (n = 151) and CF-guided PVI (n = 75). In the AI-guided PVI group, real-time automated display of radiofrequency applications (Visitag™) is used with AI ≥ 500 recommended at the anterior/superior/inferior walls and 350-400 at the posterior wall. In CF-guided PVI group, the value and direction of CF are displayed, with the lesion dots manually annotated. The primary endpoint is the freedom from AF recurrence at 12 months following ablation, without antiarrhythmic drug. The primary pre-specified secondary endpoints include intraprocedural efficiency and peri-procedural complications.

Conclusions: PAF-AI trial compares the effectiveness and safety of two different strategies of PVI in patients with PAF, AI-guided PVI versus more established CF-guided PVI. This prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial, with comparative data evaluating procedural and long-term follow-up results, aims to evaluate the impact of AI-guided strategy on AF ablation compared with the current standard of care RF ablation approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-020-00763-5DOI Listing
April 2021
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