Publications by authors named "Chengxiao Hu"

52 Publications

Se changed the component of organic chemicals and Cr bioavailability in pak choi rhizosphere soil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University/Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizer/Research Center of Trace Elements/Hubei Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Rhizosphere organic chemicals response and its role on Cr/Se adsorption are of great importance to understand Cr/Se bioavailability in Cr-contaminated soil with the application of Se. In the current work, the processes were carried out using rhizobox experiment (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino). The results showed that in soil contaminated by 200 mg kg Cr(III), Se(IV) complexed with Cr(III) and carboxylic acid (cis-9,10-Epoxystearic acid, hexadecanedioic acid) reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III), thus increasing of Cr adsorption, furtherly decreasing Cr bioavailability. While in soil contaminated by 120 mg kg Cr(VI), Se(VI) competed for adsorption sites with Cr(VI) and salicylic acid activated insoluble Cr(III), thus decreasing Cr adsorption, finally increasing Cr bioavailability. Moreover, with Cr contamination, Se bioavailability in soil was enhanced by the secretion of carboxylic acid, which can reduce Se to lower valent state and compete the adsorption sites and complex with Se oxyanion. These results yielded a better understanding of rhizosphere dynamics regulating by Se application in Cr-contaminated soil. Moreover, the current study supplemented the theoretical basis for beneficial elements application as an environment-friendly resource to facilitate cleaner production in heavy metal contaminated soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13465-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Selenium improved the combined remediation efficiency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ryegrass on cadmium-nonylphenol co-contaminated soil.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 11;287:117552. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizer, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Research Center of Trace Elements, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Most chemical plant wastewater contains both organic and inorganic pollutants, which are easy to diffuse along with surface runoff. The combined pollution of nonylphenol (NP) and cadmium (Cd) in soil is a serious problem that has not attracted enough attention. Based on the effects of selenium (Se) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) on plant and soil microbial communities, we speculated that the application of Se and P. aeruginosa in soil could improve the phytoremediation efficiency of ryegrass on contaminated soil. In this study, pot experiments with Cd and NP co-contaminated soil were conducted, and the results showed that application of P. aeruinosa alone could improve the removal rates of NP and Cd by ryegrass, and the supplementary of Se further enhanced the effect of micro-phyto remediation, with the highest removal rates of NP and Cd were 79.6% and 49.4%, respectively. The application of P. aeruginosa plus Se reduced the adsorption of Cd and NP through C-O and Si-O-Fe of the soil, changed the enzyme activity, and also affected the changing trend of the microbial community in soil. Pseudomonas, Sphingomonadales, Nitrospira, and other beneficial bacteria were enriched after a 60-day period with P. aeruginosa and Se treatment, thus promoting the removal of NP and Cd. In light of the above results, we suggest that P. aeruginosa application can efficiently facilitate the phytoremediation of ryegrass on Cd-NP co-contaminated soil, and Se supplementation in soil showed the synergistic effect on the remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117552DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of matrix metalloproteinase-10 as a key mediator of podocyte injury and proteinuria.

Kidney Int 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Disease, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Bioland Laboratory (Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory), Guangzhou, China; Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Podocyte injury or dysfunction plays an essential role in causing proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in chronic kidney diseases. To search for new players involved in podocyte injury, we performed gene expression profiling in the glomeruli by RNA sequencing. This unbiased approach led us to discover matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10), a secreted zinc-dependent endopeptidase, as one of the most upregulated genes after glomerular injury. In animal models and patients with proteinuric chronic kidney diseases, MMP-10 was upregulated specifically in the podocytes of injured glomeruli. Patients with chronic kidney diseases also had elevated circulating levels of MMP-10, which correlated with the severity of kidney insufficiency. In transgenic mice with podocyte-specific expression of MMP-10, proteinuria was aggravated after injury induced by adriamycin. This was accompanied by more severe podocytopathy and glomerulosclerotic lesions. In contrast, knockdown of MMP-10 in vivo protected mice from proteinuria, restored podocyte integrity and reduced kidney fibrosis. Interestingly, MMP-10 reduced podocyte tight junctional protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) but did not affect its mRNA level. Incubation of purified ZO-1 with MMP-10 directly resulted in its proteolytic degradation in vitro, suggesting ZO-1 as a novel substrate of MMP-10. Thus, our findings illustrate that induction of MMP-10 could lead to podocyte injury by degrading ZO-1, thereby promoting proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in chronic kidney diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2021.05.035DOI Listing
June 2021

Soil applied Ca, Mg and B altered phyllosphere and rhizosphere bacterial microbiome and reduced Huanglongbing incidence in Gannan Navel Orange.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 26;791:148046. Epub 2021 May 26.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizer, Wuhan 430070, China; Research Center of Trace Elements, Wuhan 430070, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Huanglongbing (HLB) caused by 'Ca. Liberibacter. Asiaticus (Clas)' is one of the destructive diseases for citrus, threatening the development of citrus industry. Adopting a proper fertilization method instead of using pesticides seems particularly important, which would contribute to a sustainable development of orchard. In this study, the impact of soil application of nutrients combined with foliar spray of macro- and micro-nutrients on the incidence of HLB and the phyllosphere and rhizosphere bacterial microbiome was investigated in Gannan Navel Orange orchard from 2015 to 2018. Compared with the control (T1), the yield of Gannan Navel Orange in all other treatments applied with macro- and micro-nutrients increased significantly in 2018 (by 20.5%-45.8%), but not in the first two years (2016-17). Among treatments, Ca + Mg + B application in soil (T2) showed the highest yield and lowest HLB incidence. According to the PCR results, CLas was negative in T2 but positive in the control, which directly proved HLB incidence was reduced with Ca + Mg + B application in soil. Moreover, 16S rRNA sequencing was used to characterize rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities. Results showed that microbial biodiversity was increased and microbial community structure was altered in T2 treatment, of which the beneficial bacteria were enriched in phyllosphere and rhizosphere. The results of PICRUSt showed that in T2 treatment, rhizosphere microbe contained more membrane transport (ABC transporters) genes, while, carbohydrate metabolism genes were enriched in the control rhizosphere due to HLB obstruct the photosynthetic metabolite transport. In summary, results indicated that macro- and micro-nutrients application improved the yield of Gannan Navel Orange and soil application of Ca + Mg + B reduced HLB incidence by altering microbial community structure and increasing microbial biodiversity. This study developed an environment-friendly way to reduce HLB incidence and improve the yield of citrus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148046DOI Listing
May 2021

Role of nitrogen and magnesium for growth, yield and nutritional quality of radish.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 May 18;28(5):3021-3030. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

College of Resources and Environment/Micro-element Research Center/Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New Fertilizers, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070, PR China.

Nitrogen (N) affects all levels of plant function from metabolism to resource allocation, growth, and development and Magnesium (Mg) is a macronutrient that is necessary to both plant growth and health. Radish (vus L.) occupies an important position in the production and consumption of vegetables globally, but there are still many problems and challenges in its nutrient management. A pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen and magnesium fertilizers on radish during the year 2018-2019. Nitrogen and magnesium was applied at three rates (0, 0.200, and 0.300 g N kg soil) and (0, 0.050, and 0.100 g Mg kg soil) respectively. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) and each treatment was replicated three times. Growth, yield and quality indicators of radish (plant height, root length, shoot length, plant weight, total soluble sugar, ascorbic acid, total soluble protein, crude fiber, etc.) were studied. The results indicated that different rates of nitrogen and magnesium fertilizer not only influence the growth dynamics and yields but also enhances radish quality. The results revealed that the growth, yield and nutrient contents of radish were increased at a range of 0.00 g N. kg soil to 0.300 g N. kg soil and 0.00 g Mg. kg soil to 0.050 g Mg. kg soil and then decreased gradually at a level of 0.100 g Mg. kg soil. In contrast, the crude fiber contents in radish decreased significantly with increasing nitrogen and magnesium level but increased significantly at Mg level (0.050 g Mg. kg soil). The current study produced helpful results for increasing radish quality, decreasing production costs, and diminishing underground water contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.02.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117034PMC
May 2021

Effects of phosphorus on fruit soluble sugar and citric acid accumulations in citrus.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Mar 16;160:73-81. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New Fertilizers/Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, PR China; Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential macro-elements for plants. Sugar and organic acid are important factors affecting sensory characteristics of citrus fruit quality. The aim of this study was to investigate how P fertilizer affects quality improvement particularly sucrose (Suc), fructose (Fru), glucose (Glu) and citric acid (CA) accumulations in Cara Cara navel. P fertilizer improved fruit quality of Cara Cara navel, as supported by decreasing titratable acid (TA), CA and increasing soluble solid (TSS), sugars and the ratio of TSS and TA. At the early stage of fruit development, P fertilizer had greater roles in degrading Suc into Fru and Glu due to the increased activities of Suc-degrading enzymes including acid invertase, neutral invertase and Suc synthase-cleavage activity. Coversely, at the mid and late stages of fruit development, P fertilizer had greater roles in re-synthesizing Suc due to the increased activities of Suc-synthesizing enzymes including Suc phosphate synthase and Suc synthase-synthetic activity. These results indicated that application of P fertilizer increased soluble sugars concentrations by improving Suc metabolism and sink strength in fruit conferred by the upregulations of the activities of Suc-degrading and Suc-synthesizing enzymes. P fertilizer decreased CA accumulations at least partially by inhibiting synthesis of CA due to the decreased activities of CA-synthesizing enzymes including citrate synthetase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. This study suggested that P fertilizer, particularly fertilized with 0.40 kg/plant, increased soluble sugars but decreased CA accumulations in citrus fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.01.015DOI Listing
March 2021

Matrix metalloproteinase-10 protects against acute kidney injury by augmenting epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

Cell Death Dis 2021 01 12;12(1):70. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Disease, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in regulating a wide range of biologic processes, such as apoptosis, cell proliferation, and tissue remodeling. However, the role of MMP-10 in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. In this study, we show that MMP-10 was upregulated in the kidneys and predominantly localized in the tubular epithelium in various models of AKI induced by ischemia/reperfusion (IR) or cisplatin. Overexpression of exogenous MMP-10 ameliorated AKI, manifested by decreased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, tubular injury and apoptosis, and increased tubular regeneration. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous MMP-10 expression aggravated kidney injury. Interestingly, alleviation of AKI by MMP-10 in vivo was associated with the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Blockade of EGFR signaling by erlotinib abolished the MMP-10-mediated renal protection after AKI. In vitro, MMP-10 potentiated EGFR activation and protected kidney tubular cells against apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation or cisplatin. MMP-10 was colocalized with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in vivo and activated it by a process of proteolytical cleavage in vitro. These studies identify HB-EGF as a previously unrecognized substrate of MMP-10. Our findings also underscore that MMP-10 can protect against AKI by augmenting EGFR signaling, leading to promotion of tubular cell survival and proliferation after injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03301-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803968PMC
January 2021

Role of Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO) in Resistance to Cadmium Stress in Two Rice ( L.) Genotypes.

Biomolecules 2020 12 18;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

The impact of heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), on the growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants machinery (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants), ions uptake, organic acids exudation, and ultra-structure of membranous bounded organelles of two rice ( L.) genotypes (Shan 63 and Lu 9803) were investigated with and without the exogenous application of ferrous sulfate (FeSO). Two genotypes were grown under different levels of CdCl [0 (no Cd), 50 and 100 µM] and then treated with exogenously supplemented ferrous sulfate (FeSO) [0 (no Fe), 50 and 100 µM] for 21 days. The results revealed that Cd stress significantly ( < 0.05) affected plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, affected antioxidant machinery, sugar contents, and ions uptake/accumulation, and destroy the ultra-structure of many membranous bounded organelles. The findings also showed that Cd toxicity induces oxidative stress biomarkers, i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, hydrogen peroxide (HO) initiation, and electrolyte leakage (%), which was also manifested by increasing the enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds (phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin) and organic acids exudation pattern in both genotypes. At the same time, the results also elucidated that the genotypes Lu 9803 are more tolerant to Cd stress than Shan 63. Although, results also illustrated that the exogenous application of ferrous sulfate (FeSO) also decreased Cd toxicity in both genotypes by increasing antioxidant capacity and thus improved the plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, and decrease oxidative stress in the roots and shoots of genotypes. Here, we conclude that the exogenous supplementation of FeSO under short-term exposure of Cd stress significantly improved plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, regulate antioxidant defense system, and essential nutrients uptake and maintained the ultra-structure of membranous bounded organelles in genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10121693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766819PMC
December 2020

Cannabinoid receptor type 2 promotes kidney fibrosis through orchestrating β-catenin signaling.

Kidney Int 2021 02 2;99(2):364-381. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Disease, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Bioland Laboratory (Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health, Guangdong Laboratory), Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The endocannabinoid system has multiple effects. Through interacting with cannabinoid receptor type 1 and type 2, this system can greatly affect disease progression. Previously, we showed that activated cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) mediated kidney fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain underdetermined. Here, we report that CB2 was upregulated predominantly in kidney tubular epithelial cells in unilateral urinary obstruction and ischemia-reperfusion injury models in mice, and in patients with a variety of kidney diseases. CB2 expression was closely correlated with the progression of kidney fibrosis and accompanied by the activation of β-catenin. Furthermore, CB2 induced the formation of a β-arrestin 1/Src/β-catenin complex, which further triggered the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and caused fibrotic injury. Incubation with XL-001, an inverse agonist to CB2, or knockdown of β-arrestin 1 inhibited CB2-triggered activation of β-catenin and fibrotic injury. Notably, CB2 potentiated Wnt1-induced β-arrestin 1/β-catenin activation and augmented the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis in mice with unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury or folic acid-induced nephropathy. Knockdown of β-arrestin 1 inhibited the CB2 agonist AM1241-induced β-catenin activation and kidney fibrosis. By promoter sequence analysis, putative transcription factor binding sites for T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor were found in the promoter regions of the CB2 gene regardless of the species. Overexpression of β-catenin induced the binding of T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor-1 to these sites, promoted the expression of CB2, β-arrestin 1, and the proto-oncogene Src, and triggered their accumulation. Thus, the CB2/β-catenin pathway appears to create a reciprocal activation feedback loop that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.09.025DOI Listing
February 2021

Molybdenum-induced effects on leaf ultra-structure and rhizosphere phosphorus transformation in Triticum aestivum L.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Aug 16;153:20-29. Epub 2020 May 16.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Micro-elements Research Center, College of Resource and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New Fertilizers, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Soil phosphorus (P) occurs in pools of lower availability due to soil P fixation and therefore, it is a key constrain to crop production. Long term molybdenum-induced effects in wheat and rhizosphere/non-rhizosphere soil P dynamics have not yet been investigated. Here, a long term field experiment was conducted to explore these effects in wheat consisting of two treatments i.e. with molybdenum (+Mo) and without molybdenum (-Mo). The results revealed that molybdenum (Mo) supply increased plant biomass, grain yield, P uptake, preserved the configuration of chloroplast, stomata, and mesophyll tissue cells, suggesting the complementary effects of Mo on wheat yield and P accumulation. During the periods of vegetative growth, soil organic carbon, organic matter, and microbial biomass P were higher and tended to decrease in rhizosphere soil at maturity stage. In +Mo treatment, the most available P fractions [HO-Pi (16.2-22.9 mg/kg and 4.24-7.57 mg/kg) and NaHCO-Pi (130-149 mg/kg and 77.2-88 mg/kg)] were significantly increased in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, respectively. In addition, the +Mo treatment significantly increased the acid phosphatase activity and the expression of phoN/phoC, aphA, olpA/lppC gene transcripts in rhizosphere soil compared to -Mo. Our research findings suggested that Mo application has increased P availability not only through biochemical and chemical changes in rhizosphere but also through P assimilation and induced effects in the leaf ultra-structures. So, it might be a strategy of long term Mo fertilizer supply to overcome the P scarcity in plants and rhizosphere soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.05.010DOI Listing
August 2020

Enhancement and improvement of selenium in soil to the resistance of rape stem against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and the inhibition of dissolved organic matter derived from rape straw on mycelium.

Environ Pollut 2020 Oct 19;265(Pt A):114827. Epub 2020 May 19.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizer, Research Center of Trace Elements, Hubei Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Wuhan, 430070, China; Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (S. sclerotiorum), one of the most destructive diseases in many crops including Brassica napus L. The extensive use of fungicides to control S. sclerotiorum caused severe damage to the environment in the long term. Increasing study reported that selenium (Se) is a beneficial element for plant by promoting growth and enhancing disease resistance. In this study, it was found that Se in soil shortened lesion length by 19.14% on rape stem infected with S. sclerotiorum. While resistance mechanism of rape stem against S. sclerotiorum remains unknown. Transcriptomic analysis of rape stem was performed and the results indicated that genes related to antifungal pathways were up-regulated. Moreover, metabonomic analysis was carried out to study the inhibitive effect of the dissolved organic matter derived from rape straw with Se pretreatment in soil (RSDOM) on S. sclerotiorum mycelium, results showed that RSDOM caused severe damage to energy metabolism of mycelium. Further study indicated that RSDOM decreased the pathogenicity of mycelium on rape leaves significantly, and enhanced content of chlorophyII, carotenoids, OD phenol and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in rape leaves, which suggested that RSDOM plays a positive role in regulating oxidative stress responses of plant when infected with S. sclerotiorum. In addition, when compared with dimcthachlon (DIM) treatment alone, DIM combined with RSDOM resulted in higher inhibition on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum (the inhibition ratio of nearly 60%). Results in this study suggested that Se enhanced the resistance of rape stem against S. sclerotiorum because of the up-regulated genes related to antifungal pathways, and RSDOM improved the mycelial growth inhibition and decreased the pathogenicity of mycelium on rape leaves. Overall, Se as well as Se-enrich byproducts, possessed great potential to be developed as ecological fungicides for controlling S. sclerotiorum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114827DOI Listing
October 2020

Molybdenum induces alterations in the glycerolipidome that confer drought tolerance in wheat.

J Exp Bot 2020 08;71(16):5074-5086

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Molybdenum (Mo), which is an essential microelement for plant growth, plays important roles in multiple metabolic and physiological processes, including responses to drought and cold stress in wheat. Lipids also have crucial roles in plant adaptions to abiotic stresses. The aim of this study was to use glycerolipidomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the changes in lipids induced by Mo that are associated with Mo-enhanced drought tolerance in wheat. Mo treatments increased the transcript levels of genes involved in fatty acid and glycerolipid biosynthesis and desaturation, but suppressed the expression of genes involved in oxylipin production. Wheat plants supplemented with Mo displayed higher contents of monogalactosyldiacyglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldoacylglycerol (DGDG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) with increased levels of unsaturation. The levels of MGDG, DGDG, PG, and PC increased under PEG-simulated drought (PSD), and the magnitude of the responses varied in the presence and absence of Mo. Mo increased the accumulation of the most abundant glycerolipid species of C36:6, C34:4, and C34:3 by increasing the expression of genes related to desaturation under PSD, and this contributed to maintaining the fluidity of membranes. In addition, Mo attenuated the decreases in the ratios of DGDG/MGDG and PC/PE that were observed under PSD. These changes in lipids in Mo-treated wheat would contribute to maintaining the integrity of membranes and to protecting the photosynthetic apparatus, thus acting together to enhance drought tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa215DOI Listing
August 2020

Antimony symplastic and apoplastic absorption, compartmentation, and xylem translocation in Brassica parachinensis L. under antimonate and antimonite.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Jul 15;197:110621. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Public Monitoring Center for Agro-Product of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China; Key Laboratory of Testing and Evaluation for Agro-product Safety and Quality (Guangzhou), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, China; Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizer, China; Microelement Research Center for Huazhong Agricultural University, China. Electronic address:

Antimony (Sb) excess accumulation in edible parts of crops causes potential risks to human health. However, knowledge about the mechanisms of its accumulation within vegetable plants is still not well known. Here, we investigated the physiological processes of Sb involved in symplastic and apoplastic absorption, compartmentation by roots, and translocation in xylem in Brassica parachinensis L. exposed to antimonate (SbV) and antimonite (SbIII) forms. The results showed that plants treated with SbIII emerged to be more toxic than SbV as proved by the lower biomass and the higher concentrations of malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (HO) in plant tissues, especially at high dosages. The Sb concentration showed more in shoots but less in roots treated with SbV than with SbIII. The total Sb accumulation was higher under the SbV treatment than the SbIII treatment, mainly due to the higher accumulation in shoots. Additionally, the Sb concentration in symplastic flow of roots was higher exposed to SbV than SbIII, while no differences were found for the Sb concentration in apoplastic flow between them. Moreover, the Sb concentration in cell walls of roots was higher exposed to SbIII than SbV, especially at high levels. Furthermore, the Sb concentration in xylem was higher exposed to SbV than SbIII, and a greatly positive correlation was observed between the Sb concentrations in xylem and shoots. Overall, these findings revealed that vegetable plants accumulated more SbV than SbIII in edible parts mainly due to xylem translocation rather than root absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110621DOI Listing
July 2020

Biochar is superior to lime in improving acidic soil properties and fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Apr 15;714:136722. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, PR China; Microelement Research Center/Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New Fertilizers/Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

A better understanding is required for using biochar as an alternative option to lime materials for sustainable amelioration of soil acidity and improvement of fruit quality in acidic soils. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the comparative effects of biochar (three different dosages of biochar, 1%, 2% and 4%, were denoted by BC-1, BC-2 and BC-3, respectively) and lime (three different dosages of lime, 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 g kg, were denoted by L-1, L-2 and L-3, respectively) on soil properties and fruit acidity of Satsuma mandarin. The decreased rates of fruit titratable acid (TA) by BC-1, BC-2 and BC-3 were 16.18%, 25.00% and 14.71%, which were higher than those by L-1, L-2 and L-3 were 11.76%, 16.18% and 5.88%. Moreover, the increased rates of fruit total soluble solid (TSS)/TA were 14.94%, 31.73%, 28.04% by BC-1, BC-2 and BC-3, but were 11.42%, 21.77%, 10.15% by L-1, L-2 and L-3, suggesting that biochar had better effects on improving fruit quality. Acidic soil properties were improved by biochar and lime, but biochar had better amelioration effects, as evidenced by soil-treated with BC-2 and BC-3 had greater increases of soil pH, soil respiration (SR) and microbial metabolic quotient, activities of soil urease (SU), invertase (SI), catalase (CAT) and cellulose (SC), and concentrations of soil phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg). Principal component analysis showed that soil pH, SR, SU, SI and CAT were main contributors to the differences of improvement effects of biochar and lime. Correlation analysis showed that fruit TA had negative relationships with soil pH, SU, SI, CAT, SC and soil P, K, Mg. This study indicates that the better effects of biochar on improving fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin were associated with the greater effects of it on improving acidic soil properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136722DOI Listing
April 2020

Transcriptome Changes Induced by Different Potassium Levels in Banana Roots.

Plants (Basel) 2019 Dec 19;9(1). Epub 2019 Dec 19.

College of Resource and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Potassium plays an important role in enhancing plant resistance to biological and abiotic stresses and improving fruit quality. To study the effect of potassium nutrient levels on banana root growth and its regulation mechanism, four potassium concentrations were designed to treat banana roots from no potassium to high potassium. The results indicated that K2 (3 mmol/L KSO) treatment was a relatively normal potassium concentration for the growth of banana root, and too high or too low potassium concentration was not conducive to the growth of banana root. By comparing the transcriptome data in each treatment in pairs, 4454 differentially expressed genes were obtained. There were obvious differences in gene function enrichment in root systems treated with different concentrations of potassium. Six significant expression profiles (profile 0, 1, 2, 7, 9 and 13) were identified by STEM analysis. The hub genes were , and in the profile 0; in profile 1; in profile 7; , chitinase and peroxidase in profile 9. Our results provide a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the gene regulation network in banana roots under different potassium stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9010011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020221PMC
December 2019

Ammonium nutrition mitigates cadmium toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) through improving antioxidase system and the glutathione-ascorbate cycle efficiency.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Feb 29;189:110010. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Public Monitoring Center for Agro-Product of Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China; Key Laboratory of Testing and Evaluation for Agro-product Safety and Quality (Guangzhou), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, China; Research Center of Trace Elements/College of Resources and Environment for Huazhong Agricultural University, China. Electronic address:

Nitrogen (N) forms not only affect cadmium (Cd) accumulation in plants, but also affect plant resistance to Cd toxicity. However, few researches have been reported underlying the mechanism of the relationship between nitrogen forms and plant resistance under Cd exposure. Here, we explored the mechanism on how different NO/NH ratios affect antioxidase system and the glutathione-ascorbate cycle under five different ratios of NO/NH (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 0:1) and three dosages of Cd exposure (0, 1, 5 μmol L Cd) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The results showed that high NO and high Cd exposure both significantly inhibited tissue growth of rice plants, and this inhibiting trend was mitigated with increasing NH ratios as proved by the increased biomass and the decreased concentrations of malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (HO), as well as the levels of Cd contents in rice tissues. Additionally, high NH ratios elevated the SOD activities in rice tissues, especially at high Cd treatment. However, other two antioxidases (CAT and APX) were insensitive to changes of NO/NH ratios (except the full NO). Furthermore, high NH ratios induced increasing of the efficiency of glutathione-ascorbate cycle (GSH-AsA) under two levels of Cd exposure, as evidenced by increasing concentrations of GSH and AsA and the activities of GR and DHAR in rice tissues. Overall, these results revealed that ammonium nutrition caused an enhancement resistance to Cd stress in rice plants was responsible for increasing of partial antioxidase system and the efficiencies of GSH-AsA cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.110010DOI Listing
February 2020

Selenium as a potential fungicide could protect oilseed rape leaves from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection.

Environ Pollut 2020 Feb 31;257:113495. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University / Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizer / Research Center of Trace Elements / Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (S. sclerotiorum) is a soil-borne pathogen causing serious damage to the yield of oilseed rape. Selenium (Se) acted as a beneficial element for plants, and also proved to inhibit the growth of plant pathogens. However, whether Se could reduce S. sclerotiorum infection in oilseed rape, the related mechanism is still unclear. In this study, proper Se levels (0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg) applied in soil decreased the lesion diameter and incidence of S. sclerotiorum in rape leaves. Se enfeebled the decrease of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr), and maintained leaf cell structure. Se enhanced the antioxidant system of leaves, as evidenced by the maintenance of mitochondrial function, reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and the improvement of antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). The upregulated defense gene expressions (CHI, ESD1, NPR1 and PDF1.2) of leaves were also observed under Se treatments. Furthermore, metabolome analysis revealed that Se promoted the metabolism of energy and amino acids in leaves infected with S. sclerotiorum. These findings inferred that Se could act as a potential eco-fungicide to protect oilseed rape leaves from S. sclerotiorum attack. The result arising from this study not only introduces an ecological method to control S. sclerotiorum, but also provides a deep insight into microelement for plant protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113495DOI Listing
February 2020

Selenium (Se) reduces Sclerotinia stem rot disease incidence of oilseed rape by increasing plant Se concentration and shifting soil microbial community and functional profiles.

Environ Pollut 2019 Nov 14;254(Pt B):113051. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New Fertilizers/Research Center of Trace Elements, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), a soil-borne plant disease, cause the yield loss of oilseed rape. Selenium (Se), a beneficial element of plant, improves plant resistance to pathogens, and regulates microbial communities in soil. Soil microbial communities has been identified to play an important role in plant health. We studied whether the changes in soil microbiome under influence of Se associated with oilseed rape health. SSR disease incidence of oilseed rape and soil biochemical properties were investigated in Enshi district, "The World Capital of Selenium", and soil bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed by 16S rRNA and ITS sequencing, respectively. Results showed that Se had a strong effect on SSR incidence, and disease incidence inversely related with plant Se concentration. Besides, soil Se enhanced the microbiome diversities and the relative abundance of PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria), such as Bryobacter, Nitrospirae, Rhizobiales, Xanthobacteraceae, Nitrosomonadaceae and Basidiomycota. Furthermore, Soil Se decreased the relative abundance of pathogenic fungi, such as Olpidium, Armillaria, Coniosporium, Microbotryomycetes and Chytridiomycetes. Additionally, Se increased nitrogen metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and cell processes related functional profiles in soil. The enrichment of Se in plants and improvement of soil microbial community were related to increased plant resistance to pathogen infection. These findings suggested that Se has potential to be developed as an ecological fungicide for biological control of SSR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113051DOI Listing
November 2019

Selenium reduces the pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by inhibiting sclerotial formation and germination.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Nov 5;183:109503. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University / Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizer / Research Center of Trace Elements / Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (S. sclerotiorum) is a devastating fungal pathogen with worldwide distribution, and threatened the agro-ecological safety in the long term. To control the damage caused by Sclerotinia diseases, as well as consider the fungicide resistance and chemical residues, strategy of which plant nutritional regulation, as an eco-friendly approach, is gaining much significance. Selenium (Se), as a beneficial microelement for plant, has been manifested to be effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of S.sclerotiorum in our previous study. In the present study, we observed that Se (both selenate and selenite) inhibited the formation of sclerotia, which is an important life form in the disease cycle of S. sclerotiorum. And the inhibition ratios of number of sclerotia in treatments of Se(VI) and Se(IV) were 54.55% and 43.84%, respectively; the inhibition ratios of weight of sclerotia in treatments of Se(VI) and Se(IV) were 42.29% and 25.67%, respectively. Results suggested that Se inhibited mycelial growth, severely damaged sclerotial ultrastructure, reduced the capacity of acid production, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, increased the content of hydrogen peroxide (HO) and superoxide anion (O) in mycelium, and all of these resulted in the reduction in sclerotial formation. Further studies revealed that Se application in medium increased Se concentration in sclerotia and thus inhibited sclerotial germination. Moreover, the pathogenicity of mycelia germinating from sclerotia that pretreated with Se, decreased significantly to rape leaves. These findings broadened our understanding of Se application in plant protection, as well as provided evidences for developing environment-friendly fungicide for S. sclerotiorum control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109503DOI Listing
November 2019

Molybdenum-induced effects on photosynthetic efficacy of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under different nitrogen sources are associated with nitrogen assimilation.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Aug 25;141:154-163. Epub 2019 May 25.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People's Republic of China, Wuhan 430070, PR China; Microelement Research Center, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

Different nitrogen (N) sources have been reported to significantly affect the photosynthesis (P) and its attributes. However, molybdenum (Mo) induced effects on photosynthetic efficacy of winter wheat under different N sources have not been investigated. A hydroponic study was carried out comprising of two winter wheat cultivars '97003' and '97014' as Mo-efficient and Mo-inefficient, respectively to underpin the effects of Mo supply (0 and 1 μM) on photosynthetic efficacy of winter wheat under different N sources (NO, NHNO or NH). The results revealed that Mo-induced increases in dry weight, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll contents, NR activities, NO assimilation, total N contents and transcripts of TaNR and TaNRT1.1 genes under different N sources followed the trend of NHNO > NO > NH, suggesting that Mo has more complementary effects to nitrate nutrition than sole ammonium. Interestingly, under Mo-deprivation environments, cultivar '97003' recorded more pronounced alterations in Mo-dependent parameters than '97014' cultivar. Moreover, Mo application significantly improved the chlorophyll contents and chloroplast configuration in all N sources showing that Mo has a key role in chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast integrity. The results also highlighted that Mo-induced enhancements in total N contents and photosynthetic characteristics followed the same order as NHNO > NO > NH, suggesting that Mo might affect P through N metabolism. In crux, our study findings imply that Mo supply increased P not only through chlorophyll synthesis and chloroplast configuration but also by N uptake and assimilation which may represent a strategy of Mo fertilizer to strengthen the photosynthetic machinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.05.024DOI Listing
August 2019

Selenium induces changes of rhizosphere bacterial characteristics and enzyme activities affecting chromium/selenium uptake by pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis Makino) in chromium contaminated soil.

Environ Pollut 2019 Jun 24;249:716-727. Epub 2019 Mar 24.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture / Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New Fertilizers / Research Center of Trace Elements, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Understanding the chemical response and characteristics of bacterial communities in soil is critical to evaluate the effects of selenium (Se) supplement on plant growth and chromium (Cr)/Se uptake in Cr contaminated soil. The rhizosphere soil characteristics of pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis Makino) were investigated in soil contaminated with different levels and forms of Cr when supplemented with Se. Although inhibition of plant growth caused by Cr stress was not completely alleviated by Se, Cr content in plant tissues decreased in Cr(VI)120Se5 treatment (Cr(VI): 120 mg kg soil; Se: 5 mg kg soil) and its bioavailability in soil decreased in Cr(III)200Se5 (Cr(III): 200 mg kg soil; Se: 5 mg kg soil) treatment. Moreover, antagonism of Cr and Se on soil enzyme activities and bacterial communities were revealed. Notably, results of Cr(VI) reduction and Se metabolism functional profiles confirmed that bacterial communities play a critical role in regulating Cr/Se bioavailability. Additionally, the increases of Se bioavailability in Cr contaminated soil were ascribed to oxidation of Cr(VI) and reduction of Se reductases proportions, as well as the enhancing of pH in soil. These findings reveal that Se has the potential capacity to sustain the stability of microdomain in Cr contaminated soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.079DOI Listing
June 2019

Dissolved organic matter derived from rape straw pretreated with selenium in soil improves the inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum growth.

J Hazard Mater 2019 05 15;369:601-610. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University/Research Center of Trace Elements/Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430070, China; Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizer, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (S. sclerotiorum) is a soil-borne pathogen with broad host range. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a vital role in regulating microbial activity in soil. Exogenous selenium (Se) inhibits plant pathogen growth and enhances the capacity of plants to resist disease. DOM from rape straw with Se treated in soil (RSDOM) was extracted, and the inhibitory effect on S. sclerotiorum growth was investigated. RSDOM inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth, which not only caused severe damage to S. sclerotiorum hyphae but also enhanced soluble protein leakage, thereby improving the growth inhibition ratio by 20.9%. As the action in intercellular, RSDOM led to a significant increase in oxalic acid and decrease in CWDE (cell wall-degrading enzyme, which helps pathogens to invade plants) activities, downregulation of Bi1 (BAX inhibitor-1, required for S. sclerotiorum virulence), Ggt1 (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, regulates the ROS antioxidant system), CWDE2 and CWDE10 gene expression levels, compared with non-Se treated RSDOM (RSDOM). Eight metabolites upregulated in RSDOM were identified by GC-TOF-MS, and among these metabolites, fumaric acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, mucic acid, saccharic acid, succunic acid and phenylacetic acid showed significant inhibition on S. sclerotiorum growth. These findings provide valuable insight into a new approach for developing eco-friendly fungicides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.02.055DOI Listing
May 2019

Selenium alleviated chromium stress in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) by regulating root morphology and metal element uptake.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 May 18;173:314-321. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizers, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Research Center of Trace Elements, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Key Laboratory of Testing and Evaluation for Agro-product Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture, Guangzhou 510640, China. Electronic address:

Excessive chromium (Cr) causes toxicity to plants, while the beneficial effects of selenium (Se) have been verified in plants under various adverse conditions. Under Cr stress, the impacts of exogenous Se on root morphology and metal element uptake were investigated in root of Chinese cabbage by cellular and biochemical approaches. Exogenous Se alleviated Cr-induced irreversible damage to root morphology, plasma membrane integrity and ultrastructure of root tip cells. Compared with Cr treatment alone, exogenous Se reduced root Cr content by 17%. Se supply changed the subcellular distribution of Cr in root, and the concentration of Cr was reduced in the fractions of plastids and mitochondria, while increased in soluble fraction. Besides, exogenous Se counteracted the nutrient elements (Na, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) loss induced by Cr. For plant with Se pretreatment, the increase rate of Cr influx was lower than that of plant without Se pretreatment, particularly in solution containing high concentration (100-400 μmol L) of Cr. In addition, higher K value was observed in plant with Se pretreatment, which indicated a lower Cr affinity than that of plant without Se pretreatment. The results suggest that Se modified root morphology and regulated nutrient elements uptake by root, which might play a combined role in reducing Cr uptake by root, consequently alleviating Cr stress and maintaining plant growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.01.090DOI Listing
May 2019

Wnt/β-catenin links oxidative stress to podocyte injury and proteinuria.

Kidney Int 2019 04 12;95(4):830-845. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Disease, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou 510005, China; Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Podocyte injury is the major cause of proteinuria in primary glomerular diseases. Oxidative stress has long been thought to play a role in triggering podocyte damage; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we show that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is involved in mediating oxidative stress-induced podocyte dysfunction. Advanced oxidation protein products, a marker and trigger of oxidative stress, were increased in the serum of patients with chronic kidney disease and correlated with impaired glomerular filtration, proteinuria, and circulating level of Wnt1. Both serum from patients with chronic kidney disease and exogenous advanced oxidation protein products induced Wnt1 and Wnt7a expression, activated β-catenin, and reduced expression of podocyte-specific markers in vitro and in vivo. Blockade of Wnt signaling by Klotho or knockdown of β-catenin by shRNA in podocytes abolished β-catenin activation and the upregulation of fibronectin, desmin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and Snail1 triggered by advanced oxidation protein products. Furthermore, conditional knockout mice with podocyte-specific ablation of β-catenin were protected against podocyte injury and albuminuria after treatment with advanced oxidation protein products. The action of Wnt/β-catenin was dependent on the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-mediated NADPH oxidase induction, reactive oxygen species generation, and nuclear factor-κB activation. These studies uncover a novel mechanistic linkage of oxidative stress, Wnt/β-catenin activation, and podocyte dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.10.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431566PMC
April 2019

Cadmium in plants: uptake, toxicity, and its interactions with selenium fertilizers.

Metallomics 2019 02;11(2):255-277

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Research Center of Trace Elements, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Cd is the third major contaminant of greatest hazard to the environment after mercury and lead and is considered as the only metal that poses health risks to both humans and animals at plant tissue concentrations that are generally not phytotoxic. Cd accumulation in plant shoots depends on Cd entry through the roots, sequestration within root vacuoles, translocation in the xylem and phloem, and Cd dilution within the plant shoot throughout its growth. Several metal transporters, processes, and channels are involved from the first step of Cd reaching the root cells and until its final accumulation in the edible parts of the plant. It is hard to demonstrate one step as the pivotal factor to decide the Cd tolerance or accumulation ability of plants since the role of a specific transporter/process varies among plant species and even cultivars. In this review, we discuss the sources of Cd pollutants, Cd toxicity to plants, and mechanisms of Cd uptake and redistribution in plant tissues. The metal transporters involved in Cd transport within plant tissues are also discussed and how their manipulation can control Cd uptake and/or translocation. Finally, we discuss the beneficial effects of Se on plants under Cd stress, and how it can minimize or mitigate Cd toxicity in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8mt00247aDOI Listing
February 2019

Research on the nitrogen transformation in rhizosphere of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under molybdenum addition.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jan 22;26(3):2363-2374. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Resource and Environment/Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New Fertilizers/Research Center of Trace Elements, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Molybdenum (Mo), an essential microelement for plants, animals, and microorganisms, is reported can reduce soil nitrogen (N) residues and regulate plant root growth, but little is known about its effect on soil N transformation in plant-root region. A specially designed rhizobox was used in the present study to investigate the N processes in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of winter wheat applied with different rates of Mo fertilizer. (1) In the rhizosphere soil, pH values increased with increasing rates of Mo application, nitrate (NO-N) accumulated at the rates of 0.15 and 0.3 mg Mo kg, potential denitrification activity (PDA) was significantly reduced by application of 0.15-1 mg Mo kg, and the copy numbers of narG and nosZ genes were increased by application of 0.15-1 mg Mo kg. (2) In the non-rhizosphere soil, NO-N content decreased by application of 0.15-0.3 mg Mo kg, and narG gene abundance increased obviously by application of 0.3-1 mg Mo kg. (3) Soil pH, NO-N, apparent nitrification rate (ANR), and nosZ gene abundance were significantly higher in rhizosphere than in non-rhizosphere soil. On the contrary, NH-N and total N, PDA, the abundance of AOB, and nirK and nirS genes were significantly higher in non-rhizosphere soil. The results indicated that the N transformations in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were differently affected by soil application of Mo fertilizer, and rhizosphere played a more important role in soil N cycle processes. The regulatory effects of Mo on these processes were to increase plant biomass and N uptake, promote the NO-N accumulation in rhizosphere soil, and weaken the denitrification in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3565-yDOI Listing
January 2019

Non-invasive microelectrode cadmium flux measurements reveal the decrease of cadmium uptake by zinc supply in pakchoi root (Brassica chinensis L.).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jan 2;168:363-368. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 China; Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizers, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 China; Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Ministry of Education, Hangzhou, China, 310058. Electronic address:

Zinc (Zn) possesses similar properties to cadmium (Cd) and inhibits Cd uptake in plants. To get more detailed mechanisms of Zn-inhibited Cd uptake in pakchoi, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various Zn levels on Cd concentrations, real time flux of Cd, expressions of genes related to Cd uptake under Cd exposure. The results showed that the Cd concentrations and Cd accumulations in pakchoi root decreased with increasing Zn levels, which were coincident with that real time Cd influx and net Cd influx of pakchoi root decreased with increasing Zn levels by non-invasive micro-test technology (NMT). Additionally, the expressions of Cd-related transporters including BcNRAMP5, BcIRT1 and BcMGT1 decreased with the increase of Zn levels under Cd exposure, especially BcIRT1 with the highest decreased rates. Furthermore, the expressions of these genes decreased gradually with the prolongation of Zn treated time under Cd toxicity. The results indicate that Zn inhibits Cd uptake by inhibition of the expressions of Cd-related transporters, especially BcIRT1 in pakchoi root.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.10.081DOI Listing
January 2019

Earthworms, Rice Straw, and Plant Interactions Change the Organic Connections in Soil and Promote the Decontamination of Cadmium in Soil.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 10 29;15(11). Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Research Center of Micro-Elements, College of Resource and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

The joint effects of earthworms and crop straw on toxic metal speciation are not clear, and very limited information is available regarding the effects of their interaction on Cd mobility in Cd contaminated soil or in remediation processes involving plants. This study evaluated their impacts on Cd mobile form changes in soil and their effects on Cd uptake by plants. Treatments included both planted and unplanted-Cd-contaminated soil with or without rice straw and/or earthworms. The results revealed that earthworms, rice straw, and plant interactions change the Cd mobile forms in soil. The order of Cd concentration of different chemical forms was as follows: exchangeable > residual > bound to Fe-Mn oxide > bound to organic matter for earthworms, and exchangeable > bound to organic matter > residual > bound to Fe-Mn oxide for rice straw treatment, with a recovery rate of 96 ± 3%. The accumulation of Cd in plants increased in the presence of earthworms and decreased in the presence of rice straw. FT-IR spectra indicated that the degradation of rice straw increases C⁻O, C⁻O⁻H, C⁻H, and O⁻H functional groups which could complex with Cd ions. These findings highlighted that earthworms' activities and crop straw can modify soil properties and structure and promote the remediation of heavy metal. This study suggests that the ecological context of remediation instead of being limiting on soil-earthworms-plant interaction, should integrate the natural resources forsaken which can provide a positive influence on both plant health and the remediation of heavy metal in contaminated soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266151PMC
October 2018

Phenanthrene Mitigates Cadmium Toxicity in Earthworms (Epigeic Specie) and (Endogeic Specie) in Soil.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 10 27;15(11). Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture, Research Center of Micro-elements, College of Resource and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

In classical toxicology studies, the interaction of combined doses of chemicals with dissimilar modes of toxic action in soil is complex and depending on the end point investigated and the experimental protocol employed. This study was used to examine the interactive effect of phenanthrene and Cadmium on two ecologically different species of earthworms; and . This interactive effect was scrutinized by using the acute toxicity test with the concentrations of 2.51 mg kg and 3.74 mg kg, respectively, being lethal for 50% of and . The results showed that in the mixture treatment, phenanthrene at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg kg significantly mitigated both earthworms species mortality and body-mass loss. Moreover, the factor of Cd accumulated in and tissues was significantly decreased by about 12% and 16%, respectively. Linear regression correlation coefficient revealed that the reduction of both earthworm species mortality was negatively and significantly correlated (² = 0.98 ± 0.40 and 1 ± 3.9 < 0.001) with phenanthrene concentration in soil. However, over 20 mg kg of phenanthrene, both organisms mortality rate increased again, as was the Bioaccumulation factor of phenanthrene. Thus, this study proposes that the antagonistical effect of phenanthrene on Cd at a degree of concentration can be used to mitigate Cd effect on soil living organisms. However, as an implication of these results, the interpretation of standardized toxicity bioassays, including whole effluent toxicity tests and single-compound toxicity tests, should be performed with caution. In addition, risk assessment protocols for environment pollution by a mixture of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons should include robust methods that can detect possible interactive effects between contaminants to optimize environmental protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266886PMC
October 2018

Action of selenium against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: Damaging membrane system and interfering with metabolism.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2018 Sep 23;150:10-16. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New Fertilizers / Research Center of Trace Elements /Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture / College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Selenium (Se) in soil is beneficial for environmental stress tolerance of plants, and it has widespread toxic effects on pathogens. Based on the fact that Se significantly inhibited the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, we set experiments with different concentrations of Se to investigate the action of Se against S. sclerotiorum in this study. The results showed that Se (>0.5 mg L) changed the morphology of S. sclerotiorum mycelia, and higher Se concentrations severely damaged mycelial structures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that Se treatment induced the chemical composition of mycelia with much abundance of functional groups such as alcohols, ketones, ammonium and esters, and 0.5 mg L Se maximized their concentrations. Under Se treatments, the electrical conductivity of mycelia increased in a time-dependent manner, and osmolyte concentrations of mycelia increased as well. Se supplementation significantly reduced polymethylgalacturonase (PMG) and carboxymethylcellulase (Cx) activities, which protecting plants from infection, and increased the energy expenditure in S. sclerotiorum. Combined action of Se damage on membrane system, osmoregulation, reduction of cell wall degrading enzymes activities and improvement of energy expenditure resulted in the inhibition of S. sclerotiorum growth. Findings in this study provided evidences for using Se as a potential fungicide to control S. sclerotiorum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2018.06.003DOI Listing
September 2018
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