Publications by authors named "Cheng Wu"

336 Publications

Light absorption of black carbon and brown carbon in winter in North China Plain: comparisons between urban and rural sites.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 27;770:144821. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China. Electronic address:

The light absorption black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) are two important sources of uncertainties in radiative forcing estimate. Here we investigated the light absorption enhancement (E) of BC due to coated materials at an urban (Beijing) and a rural site (Gucheng) in North China Plain (NCP) in winter 2019 by using a photoacoustic extinctiometer coupled with a thermodenuder. Our results showed that the average (±1σ) E was 1.32 (±0.15) at the rural site, which was slightly higher than that at the urban site (1.24 ± 0.15). The dependence of E on coating materials was found to be relatively limited at both sites. However, E presented considerable increases as a function of relative humidity below 70%. Further analysis showed that E during non-heating period in Beijing was mainly caused by secondary components, while it was dominantly contributed by enhanced primary emissions in heating season at both sites. In particular, aerosol particles mixed with coal combustion emissions had a large impact on E (>1.40), while the fresh traffic emissions and freshly oxidized secondary OA (SOA) had limited E (1.00-1.23). Although highly aged or aqueous-phase processed SOA coated on BC showed the largest E, their contributions to the bulk absorption enhancement were generally small. We also quantified the absorption of BrC and source contributions. The results showed the BrC absorption at the rural site was nearly twice that of urban site, yet absorption Ångström exponents were similar. Multiple linear regression analysis highlighted the major sources of BrC being coal combustion emissions and photochemical SOA at both sites with additional biomass burning at the rural site. Overall, our results demonstrated the relatively limited winter light absorption enhancement of BC in different chemical environments in NCP, which needs be considered in regional climate models to improve BC radiative forcing estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144821DOI Listing
May 2021

Immune cell function assays in the diagnosis of infection in pediatric liver transplantation: an open-labeled, two center prospective cohort study.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Feb;10(2):333-343

Department of Liver Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Limited studies have been performed in assessment of immune status of pediatric liver transplants (PLTs). We conducted this study to evaluate Cylex immune cell function assay in diagnosis of infection and its potential clinical application in Chinese infant PLTs.

Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 227 infant PLTs from two medical centers were enrolled, and 216 completed the study. Cylex ATP values were measured before and after liver transplantation (LT) at week 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 24 respectively. Accordingly, patients' clinical records, including demographic data, liver function results, tacrolimus dosages and concentrations were collected and analyzed.

Results: One hundred and sixty of 216 PLTs (74.1%) were diagnosed infection based on the parameters including abnormal vital signs, imaging changes, and pathogens detection, while 44 (20.4%) were clinically stable and 12 (5.6%) experienced acute rejection. The median Cylex ATP value in infant PLTs post-surgery reduced significantly in infection group compared to stable group (median, 137 . 269 ng/mL, P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis determined that the cut-off value of Cylex ATP was 152 ng/mL in diagnosis of infection [area under the curve (AUC): 0.784, 95% CI: 0.720-0.848]. Meanwhile, Cylex ATP value showed no correlation to tacrolimus dosage, blood concentration, dose-normalized concentration/dose ratio or Kaup index. However, it tended to correlate weakly with the white blood cell (WBC) number (R =0.462, P<0.0001) and lymphocyte counts (R =0.363, P<0.0001).

Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrated that low Cylex ATP represented partly over-immunosuppression and had diagnostic value in infant PLTs with infections, which might assist individualized immunosuppression in PLT patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-20-256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944184PMC
February 2021

Non-line-of-sight imaging over 1.43 km.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(10)

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China;

Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) imaging has the ability to reconstruct hidden objects from indirect light paths that scatter multiple times in the surrounding environment, which is of considerable interest in a wide range of applications. Whereas conventional imaging involves direct line-of-sight light transport to recover the visible objects, NLOS imaging aims to reconstruct the hidden objects from the indirect light paths that scatter multiple times, typically using the information encoded in the time-of-flight of scattered photons. Despite recent advances, NLOS imaging has remained at short-range realizations, limited by the heavy loss and the spatial mixing due to the multiple diffuse reflections. Here, both experimental and conceptual innovations yield hardware and software solutions to increase the standoff distance of NLOS imaging from meter to kilometer range, which is about three orders of magnitude longer than previous experiments. In hardware, we develop a high-efficiency, low-noise NLOS imaging system at near-infrared wavelength based on a dual-telescope confocal optical design. In software, we adopt a convex optimizer, equipped with a tailored spatial-temporal kernel expressed using three-dimensional matrix, to mitigate the effect of the spatial-temporal broadening over long standoffs. Together, these enable our demonstration of NLOS imaging and real-time tracking of hidden objects over a distance of 1.43 km. The results will open venues for the development of NLOS imaging techniques and relevant applications to real-world conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2024468118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958383PMC
March 2021

Identification of Primary and Metastatic Lung Cancer-Related lncRNAs and Potential Targeted Drugs Based on ceRNA Network.

Front Oncol 2020 3;10:628930. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Lung cancer metastasis is the leading cause of poor prognosis and death for patients. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been validated the close correlation with lung cancer metastasis, but few comprehensive analyses have reported the specific association between lncRNA and cancer metastasis, especially both competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory relationships and functional regulatory networks. Here, we constructed primary and metastatic ceRNA networks, identified 12 and 3 candidate lncRNAs for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) respectively and excavated some drugs that might have potential therapeutic effects on lung cancer progression. In summary, this study systematically analyzed the competitive relationships and regulatory mechanism of the repeatedly dysregulated lncRNAs in lung cancer carcinogenesis and metastasis, and provided a new idea for screening potential therapeutic drugs for lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.628930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886985PMC
February 2021

Severe contralateral carotid stenosis or occlusion drive 30-day risk after carotid endarterectomy.

Vascular 2021 Feb 17:1708538121993619. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: The significant effects on the treatment of severe carotid stenosis by carotid endarterectomy have been widely recognized. However, it is controversial whether patients with severe contralateral carotid stenosis or occlusion (SCSO) can benefit from carotid endarterectomy surgery. This study aimed to estimate the SCSO effects on early outcomes after carotid endarterectomy with selective shunting.

Methods: Between August 2011 and October 2019, a total of 617 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy with selective shunting were analyzed. SCSO was defined as >70% luminal narrowing of the contralateral extracranial carotid stenosis or occlusion. Of these patients, 116 were categorized into an SCSO group while the rest were assigned to the non-SCSO group. Primary study outcomes were the occurrence of major adverse events, defined as stroke, all-cause mortality, and myocardial infarction during the perioperative period after carotid endarterectomy. Traditional multivariable logistic regression model and logistic regression model adjusted for propensity scores were used to estimate the SCSO effects on primary outcomes. Interaction and stratified analyses were conducted according to age, sex, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes), preoperative neurological deficit, preoperative symptoms, and shunt use.

Results: Mean age was 68.5 ± 9.2 years (86.1% men). Overall major adverse events rate within 30 days was 2.5%. Major adverse events rates in SCSO and non-SCSO groups were 9.5% and 1.6%, respectively. This difference was statistically significant ( < 0.001). In multivariable regression analysis, patients with SCSO had a higher risk of major adverse events (non-SCSO vs. SCSO: aOR 5.05 [95% CI, 1.78-14.55]). In 342 propensity score matched patients, results were consistent (propensity score: aOR, 3.78 [95% CI, 1.13-12.64]).

Conclusions: SCSO is an independent predictor of 30-day major adverse events. Whether these patients with SCSO are suitable for carotid endarterectomy should be carefully considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1708538121993619DOI Listing
February 2021

Aqueous production of secondary organic aerosol from fossil-fuel emissions in winter Beijing haze.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Feb;118(8)

John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138;

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced by atmospheric oxidation of primary emitted precursors is a major contributor to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution worldwide. Observations during winter haze pollution episodes in urban China show that most of this SOA originates from fossil-fuel combustion but the chemical mechanisms involved are unclear. Here we report field observations in a Beijing winter haze event that reveal fast aqueous-phase conversion of fossil-fuel primary organic aerosol (POA) to SOA at high relative humidity. Analyses of aerosol mass spectra and elemental ratios indicate that ring-breaking oxidation of POA aromatic species, leading to functionalization as carbonyls and carboxylic acids, may serve as the dominant mechanism for this SOA formation. A POA origin for SOA could explain why SOA has been decreasing over the 2013-2018 period in response to POA emission controls even as emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have remained flat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2022179118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923588PMC
February 2021

Discharge Against Medical Advice in Acute Ischemic Stroke: the Risk of 30-Day Unplanned Readmission.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Discharge against medical advice may be associated with more readmissions.

Objective: To evaluate DAMA in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and identify the relationship between DAMA and 30-day unplanned readmissions.

Design: A retrospective cohort study.

Participants: The National Readmission Database was used to identify inpatients with a primary diagnosis of AIS who were either discharged home or DAMA between 2010 and 2017 in the USA.

Measures: Demographic features, hospital type, comorbidities, stroke risk factors, severity indices, and treatments were compared between patients discharged routinely and DAMA. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of DAMA, and a double robust inverse probability of treatment weighting method was used to assess the association between DAMA and 30-day unplanned readmissions.

Key Results: Overall, 1,335,484 patients with AIS were included, of whom 2.09% (n = 27,892) were DAMA. The prevalence of DAMA in AIS patients increased from 1.65 in 2010 to 2.57% in 2017. The rates of 30-day unplanned readmissions for DAMA and non-DAMA patients were 16.81% and 7.78%, respectively. Patients with drug abuse, alcohol abuse, smoking, prior stroke, psychoses, and intravenous thrombolysis had greater odds of DAMA. DAMA was associated with all-cause readmissions (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 2.01-2.07) and remained a strong predictor for transient ischemic attack/stroke-specific and cardiac-specific causes of readmissions.

Conclusions: Although the DAMA rate is low in AIS patients, DAMA is a risk factor for all-cause and recurrent stroke-specific readmissions. Future studies are needed to address issues around compliance and engagement with health care to reduce DAMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-06366-0DOI Listing
February 2021

Identification novel prognostic signatures for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma based on ceRNA network construction and immune infiltration analysis.

Int J Med Sci 2021 19;18(5):1297-1311. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, P.R. China.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common malignancy with high mortality and morbidity worldwide, but the underlying biological mechanisms of molecules and tumor infiltrating-immune cells (TIICs) are still unknown. We obtained mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs expression profiles of 546 HNSCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to develop a ceRNA network. CIBERSORT was employed to estimate the fraction of 22 types of TIICs in HNSCC. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression and lasso regression analyses were used to develop prognostic signatures. Then, two novel risk signatures were constructed respectively based on six ceRNAs (ANLN, KIT, PRKAA2, NFIA, PTX3 and has-miR-148a-3p) and three immune cells (naïve B cells, regulatory T cells and Neutrophils). Kaplan-Meier (K-M) analysis and Cox regression analysis further proved that these two signatures were significant prognostic factors independent of multiple clinicopathological characteristics. Two nomograms were built based on ceRNAs-riskScore and TIICs-riskScore that could be used to predict the prognosis of HNSCC. Co-expression analysis showed significant correlations between miR-148a-3p and naive B cells, naive B cells and plasmas cells. Through construction of the ceRNA network and estimation of TIICs, we established two risk signatures and their nomograms with excellent utility, which indicated the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms, and predicted the prognosis of HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.53531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847625PMC
January 2021

Deviation of Trypsin Activity Using Peptide Conformational Imprints.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jan 27;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Life Science, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan.

In this study, a methodology utilizing peptide conformational imprints (PCIs) as a tool to specifically immobilize porcine pancreatic alpha-trypsin (PPT) at a targeted position is demonstrated. Owing to the fabrication of segment-mediated PCIs on the magnetic particles (PCIMPs), elegant cavities complementary to the PPT structure are constructed. Based on the sequence on targeted PPT, the individual region of the enzyme is trapped with different template-derived PCIMPs to show certain types of inhibition. Upon hydrolysis, -benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) is employed to assess the hydrolytic activity of PCIMPs bound to the trypsin using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Further, the kinetic data of four different PCIMPs are compared. As a result, the PCIMPs presented non-competitive inhibition toward trypsin, according to the Lineweaver-Burk plot. Further, the kinetic analysis confirmed that the best parameters of PPT/PCIMPs were = 1.47 × 10 mM s, = 0.42 mM, = 1.16 s, and / = 2.79 mM s. As PPT is bound tightly to the correct position, its catalytic activities could be sustained. Additionally, our findings stated that the immobilized PPT could maintain stable activity even after four successive cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11020334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911952PMC
January 2021

Dynamic Disintegration of Explosively-Driven Metal Cylinder with Internal V-Grooves.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jan 27;14(3). Epub 2021 Jan 27.

State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Machining V-shaped grooves to the internal surface of cylindrical shells is one of the most common technologies of controlled fragmentation for improving warhead lethality against targets. The fracture strain of grooved shells is a significant concern in warhead design. However, there is as yet no reasonable theory for predicting the fracture strain of a specific grooved shell; existing approaches are only able to predict this physical regularity of non-grooved shells. In this paper, through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, a new model was established to study the fracture strain of explosively driven cylindrical shells with internal longitudinal V-grooves. The model was built based on an energy conservation equation in which the energy consumed to create a new fracture surface in non-grooved shells was provided by the elastic deformation energy stored in shells. We modified the energy approach so that it can be applicable to grooved shells by adding the elastic energy liberated for crack penetration and reducing the required fracture energy. Cylinders with different groove geometric parameters were explosively expanded to the point of disintegration to verify the proposed model. Theoretical predictions of fracture strain showed good agreement with experimental results, indicating that the model is suitable for predicting the fracture strain of explosively driven metal cylinders with internal V-grooves. In addition, this study provides an insight into the mechanism whereby geometric defects promote fracturing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14030584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865264PMC
January 2021

The Clinical Significance of DNA Damage Repair Signatures in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Front Genet 2020 8;11:593039. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei, Wuhan.

DNA damage repair plays an important role in cancer's initiation and progression, and in therapeutic resistance. The prognostic potential of damage repair indicators was studied in the case of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Gene expression profiles of the disease were downloaded from cancer genome databases and gene ontology was applied to the DNA repair-related genes. Twenty-six differentially expressed DNA repair genes were identified, and regression analysis was used to identify those with prognostic potential and to construct a risk model. The model accurately predicted patient outcomes and distinguished among patients with different expression levels of immune evasion genes. The data indicate that DNA repair genes can be valuable for predicting the progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and the clinical benefits of immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.593039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820869PMC
January 2021

Regularizing Deep Networks with Semantic Data Augmentation.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Jan 21;PP. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Data augmentation is widely known as a simple yet surprisingly effective technique for regularizing deep networks. In this paper, we propose a novel semantic data augmentation algorithm to complement traditional schemes, such as flipping, translation and rotation. The proposed method is inspired by the intriguing property that deep networks are effective in learning linearized features, such that certain directions in the deep feature space correspond to meaningful semantic transformations. Consequently, translating training samples along many such directions in the feature space can effectively augment the dataset in a semantic manner. The proposed implicit semantic data augmentation (ISDA) first obtains semantically meaningful translations using an efficient sampling based method. Then, an upper bound of the expected cross-entropy (CE) loss on the augmented training set is derived, leading to a novel robust loss function. In addition, we show that ISDA can be applied to semi-supervised learning under the consistency regularization framework, where ISDA minimizes the upper bound of the expected KL-divergence between the predictions of augmented samples and original samples. Although being simple, ISDA consistently improves the generalization performance of popular deep models (ResNets and DenseNets) on a variety of datasets, e.g., CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, ImageNet and Cityscapes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3052951DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of gestational weight gain with cesarean section: a prospective birth cohort study in Southwest China.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jan 14;21(1):57. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Background: Cesarean section (CS) is a rising public health issue globally, and is particularly serious in China. Numerous studies have suggested that gestational weight gain (GWG) control may be an effective way to reduce the rate of CS. However, rare study has examined the association between GWG and CS among women in Southwest China. We proposed to examine their association based on a prospective birth cohort, and further to explore the optimal GWG range.

Methods: We retrieved data from a prospective birth cohort from Sichuan Provincial Hospital for Women and Children, Southwest China. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between GWG and CS by adjusting for potential confounders. In one analysis, we incorporated the GWG as a categorical variable according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendation, similar to the method used in the majority of previous studies. In the other analysis, we directly incorporated GWG as a continuous variable and natural cubic splines were used to characterize the potential nonlinear exposure-response relationship, aiming to identify the optimal GWG. We further stratified the above analysis by pre-pregnancy BMI and GDM, and then a heterogeneity test based on a multivariate meta-analysis was conducted to examine whether the stratum specific estimations agreed with each other.

Results: A total of 1363 participants were included. By adopting the IOM recommendation, the adjusted OR of CS was 0.63 (0.47, 0.84) for insufficient GWG and 1.42 (1.06, 1.88) for excessive GWG. After stratification by pre-pregnancy BMI, we found a higher risk of CS in associated with excessive GWG in the stratum of underweight compared with the other strata, which implied that pre-pregnancy BMI may be an effect modifier. By applying a flexible spline regression, the optimal GWG levels in terms of reducing the CS rate based on our data were more stringent than those of IOM recommendation, which were 9-12 kg for underweight women, < 19 kg for normal weight women and < 10 kg for overweight/obese women.

Conclusions: These results suggested that a more stringent recommendation should be applied in Southwest China, and that more attention should be given to underweight women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-03527-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807892PMC
January 2021

Preliminary clinical experience applying donor-derived cell-free DNA to discern rejection in pediatric liver transplant recipients.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1138. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Liver Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 1630 Dongfang Road, Shanghai, 200127, People's Republic of China.

Donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) has been of major interest recently as a non-invasive marker of graft injury, but has not yet been extensively tested in children. From May to September in 2019, a total of 76 pediatric patients receiving a liver graft were enrolled and there were 27 patients excluded. Ultimately plasma samples and matched liver specimens from 49 patients were successfully collected whenever rejection was suspected clinically. Dd-cfDNA were analyzed and then compared to biopsy. Of these, 11 (22.4%) patients were found to have rejection by biopsy. Dd-cfDNA levels were higher among patients with rejection compared to those with no rejection. In subgroup analysis, dd-cfDNA% among patients with rejection differed from those with EBV/CMV infection and DILI patients. Similarly, observations were available concerning dd-cfDNA (cp/mL). The AUC for dd-cfDNA% and dd-cfDNA (cp/mL) were 0.878, 0.841, respectively, both of which were higher than conventional LFTs. For rejection, dd-cfDNA% ≥ 28.7% yielded a sensitivity of 72.7%, specificity 94.7% and dd-cfDNA (cp/mL) ≥ 2076 cp/mL, yielded a sensitivity of 81.8%, specificity 81.9%. Of note, the dd-cfDNA distribution was significantly different between whole liver and LLS transplantation. In the setting of pediatric LTx, dd-cfDNA appears to be a sensitive biomarker indicating the presence of rejection.International Clinical Trails Registry Platform: ChiCTR1900022406.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80845-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807012PMC
January 2021

Duration and quality of sleep during pregnancy are associated with preterm birth and small for gestational age: A prospective study.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Jan 9. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Nutrition, Food Safety and Toxicology, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: To explore the associations of duration and quality of sleep during pregnancy with preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA).

Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 1082 healthy women with singleton pregnancies from Chengdu, China. Self-report questionnaires, including duration and quality of sleep and other information, were administered at 8-12, 24-28, and 32-36 weeks of pregnancy. Data on gestational age and weight and length of the neonates were recorded after delivery. After controlling the potential confounders, a multivariable logistic regression model was performed to evaluate whether duration and quality of sleep were associated with preterm birth and SGA.

Results: Participants with short duration of sleep during the third trimester were more likely to report preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-4.81) and SGA (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.18-6.54). Participants with poor quality of sleep during the third trimester were at high risk for preterm birth (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.29-5.84) and SGA (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.19-5.38).

Conclusion: Short duration and poor quality of sleep during pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and SGA. Sleep characteristics should be assessed during prenatal evaluations to decrease adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13584DOI Listing
January 2021

Poor Neurological Deficit Was an Independent 30-day Risk Factor in Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis after CEA with Selective Shunting.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Background: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) prevents the occurrence of stroke in the future, although its efficacy depends on the detection and control of high perioperative risk factors. We aimed to analyze the association between preoperative neurological deficit and the 30-day risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in CEA with selective shunting for symptomatic carotid stenosis.

Methods: We assessed 653 patients who underwent CEA with selective shunting for symptomatic carotid stenosis between August 2011 and August 2019. The primary outcomes of the study were the occurrence of MACEs, defined as stroke (ischemic stroke or cerebral hemorrhage), all-cause mortality, and myocardial infarction during the perioperative period after CEA. Baseline patient characteristics were analyzed to identify factors associated with perioperative (<30 days) MACEs. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between preoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the 30-day risk of MACEs. Interaction and stratified analyses were conducted according to age, drinking, history of hypertension and coronary artery disease, and surgical side.

Results: The mean age of patients was 68.7 ± 9.1 years, and 86.4% were men. The 30-day MACEs rate was 2.5%. In univariate logistic regression, histories of coronary artery disease (odds ratio (OR), 2.57 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-6.34]), a severe contralateral carotid stenosis or occlusion (OR, 4.52 [95% CI, 1.84-11.11]), and a poor neurological deficit (mRS ≥ 3 versus mRS < 3: OR, 3.78 [95% CI, 1.21-11.82]) were associated with higher primary outcome rates. A history of hypertension did not increase the risk of MACEs (OR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.15-0.89]). In the multivariable regression analysis, poor neurological deficit was associated with a higher risk of the MACEs within 30 days (mRS ≥ 3 versus mRS < 3: 11.1% vs. 2.0%, adjusted OR 5.70 [95% CI, 1.50-21.60]). The interaction analysis revealed no interactive role in the association between neurological deficit and 30-day risk of MACEs.

Conclusions: Poor neurological deficit was an independent risk factor associated with the 30-day risk of MACEs in symptomatic patients who underwent CEA with selective shunting. Our findings may provide guidance to surgeons when treating patients with poor neurological deficit. The decision to perform surgery should be made after careful consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.11.045DOI Listing
January 2021

Outcomes after readmission at the index or nonindex hospital following acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Feb 7;44(2):200-209. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Little is known about the prevalence and outcomes of readmission to nonindex hospitals after an admission for acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). We aimed to determine the rate of nonindex readmissions following AMI-CS and to evaluate its association with clinical factors, hospitalization cost, length of stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality rates.

Hypothesis: Nonindex readmission may lead to worse in-hospital outcomes.

Methods: We reviewed the data of inpatients with AMI-CS between 2010 and 2017 using the National Readmission Database. The survey analytical methods recommended by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project were used for national estimates. Multiple regression models were used to evaluate the predictors of nonindex readmission, and its association with hospitalization cost, LOS, and in-hospital mortality rates.

Results: Of 238 349 patients with AMI-CS, 28028 (11.76%) had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Of these patients, 7423 (26.48%) were readmitted to nonindex hospitals. Compared with index readmission, nonindex readmission was associated with higher hospitalization costs (p < .0001), longer LOS (p < .0001), and increased in-hospital mortality rates (p = .0016). Patients who had a history of percutaneous coronary intervention, received intubation/mechanical ventilation, or left against medical advice during the initial admission had greater odds of a nonindex readmission.

Conclusions: Over one-fourth of readmissions following AMI-CS were to nonindex hospitals. These admissions were associated with higher hospitalization costs, longer LOS, and higher in-hospital mortality rates. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether a continuity of care plan in the acute hospital setting can improve outcomes after AMI-CS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852161PMC
February 2021

Development and validation of a prognostic nomogram for gastric marginal zone lymphoma: a Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-based population study.

Future Oncol 2021 Feb 6;17(5):529-539. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

General Surgery Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, PR China.

This initial study was conducted with the aim of constructing an accurate nomogram for gastric marginal zone lymphoma patients. Data from 4414 patients diagnosed with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma from 2004 to 2015 were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. Multivariate analyses were conducted for the construction of the nomogram. Age, sex, race, marital status, Ann Arbor stage and radiotherapy were significantly associated with overall survival, while age, marital status, Ann Arbor stage, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy were independent prognostic predictors of cause-specific survival. Stratified analysis indicated that radiotherapy alone resulted in better overall survival and cause-specific survival than chemotherapy alone. However, the present study also has several limitations; for example, patients'  infection status and the chemotherapy regimen used were unknown. This study constructed and validated an accurate prognostic nomogram for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-0981DOI Listing
February 2021

Planning priority conservation areas for biodiversity under climate change in topographically complex areas: A case study in Sichuan province, China.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(12):e0243425. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Power China Kunming Engineering Corporation Limited, Kuming, China.

Identifying priority conservation areas plays a significant role in conserving biodiversity under climate change, but uncertainties create challenges for conservation planning. To reduce uncertainties in the conservation planning framework, we developed an adaptation index to assess the effect of topographic complexity on species adaptation to climate change, which was incorporated into the conservation framework as conservation costs. Meanwhile, the species distributions were predicted by the Maxent model, and the priority conservation areas were optimized during different periods in Sichuan province by the Marxan model. Our results showed that the effect of topographic complexity was critical for species adaptation, but the adaptation index decreased with the temperature increase. Based on the conservation targets and costs, the distributions of priority conservation areas were mainly concentrated in mountainous areas around the Sichuan Basin where may be robust to the adaptation to climate change. In the future, the distributions of priority conservation areas had no evident changes, accounting for about 26% and 28% of the study areas. Moreover, most species habitats could be conserved in terms of conservation targets in these priority conservation areas. Therefore, our approach could achieve biodiversity conservation goals and be highly practical. More importantly, quantifying the effect of topography also is critical for options for planning conservation areas in response to climate change.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243425PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757871PMC
January 2021

[Effect of testicular autophagy on spermatogenic cells in varicocele rats].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2020 Feb;26(2):111-117

Department of Urology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, China .

Objective: To study the effect of different levels of autophagy in the testis on the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in the rat model of varicocele (VC).

Methods: We randomly divided 54 SD male rats into six groups, blank control (n = 6), rapamycin control (n = 6), chloroquine control (n = 6), VC model control (n = 12), VC + rapamycin (n = 12), and VC + chloroquine (n = 12). We observed the histomorphological changes of the testis and epididymis by HE staining, obtained the scores on spermatogenesis in the testis and epididymis, calculated the apoptosis index (AI) of the testicular spermatogenic cells by TUNEL, and determined the expressions of LC3-Ⅱ, LC3-Ⅰ, p62, Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in the testis tissue by Western blot.

Results: There were no significant morphological changes in the testis and epididymis of the rats in the blank control, rapamycin control and chloroquine control groups, or significant differences in the scores on testicular and epididymal spermatogenesis and AI of the testicular spermatogenic cells (P>0.05). The animals in the VC model control group exhibited significant pathological damage in the testicular and epididymal tissues, with remarkably decreased scores on spermatogenesis (P<0.01) and increased AI (P<0.01), which were markedly improved in the VC + rapamycin group and slightly aggravated in the VC + chloroquine group compared with the VC model controls. In comparison with the rats in the blank control group, those in the VC model control group showed significantly up-regulated expressions of the autophagy-related protein LC3 (including the LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ ratio) and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax in testicular tissue (P<0.01) but down-regulated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (P<0.01). The expressions of LC3 and Bcl-2 in the testis tissue were significantly higher in the VC + rapamycin (P<0.01) but lower in the VC + chloroquine group (P<0.01), while those of p62 and Bax remarkably lower in the VC + rapamycin (P<0.01) but higher in the VC + chloroquine group than in the VC model controls (P<0.01).

Conclusions: Varicocele induces autophagy in the testis and apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in rats. Up-regulating autophagy can inhibit while blocking autophagy can promote the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells.
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February 2020

[A New Generation of Radiotherapy Technology-Flash Radiotherapy].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2020 Dec;44(6):508-512

Precision Medical Advanced Innovation Center, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, 100083.

Flash radiotherapy is a kind of radiotherapy method using ultra-high dose rate radiation. Compared with the traditional dose rate radiotherapy, it has unique radiobiological advantages. In this paper, the principle of flash radiotherapy, the process and results of biological experiments are summarized. At the same time, the advantages and challenges of flash radiotherapy are analyzed, and the future clinical application is prospected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2020.06.009DOI Listing
December 2020

Overexpression of P4HA1 Is Correlated with Poor Survival and Immune Infiltrates in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Biomed Res Int 2020 24;2020:8024138. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China.

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a major pathological type of lung cancer. Understanding the mechanism of LUAD at the molecular level is important for a clinical decision. In this study, we use bioinformatic analysis to explore the prognostic value of P4HA1 in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and the relationship with prognosis and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs). The results showed that the expression of P4HA1 was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues for LUAD patients. Upregulated P4HA1 was related to stage and T classification. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that upregulation of P4HA1 was significantly related to worse overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis indicated P4HA1 remained to be an independent prognostic factor. GSEA showed that several cancer-related and immune-related signaling pathways exhibited prominently differential enrichment in P4HA1-high expression phenotype. In addition, the expression of P4HA1 was significantly correlated with proportion of several TIICs, particularly B cells and CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, our study confirmed that P4HA1 is a promising biomarker of poor prognosis and relates to immune infiltrates in LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8024138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707939PMC
November 2020

Role of the periotic mesenchyme in the development of sensory cells in early mouse cochlea.

J Otol 2020 Dec 2;15(4):138-143. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, Anhui, 241001, China.

Objective: To investigate the role of the periotic mesenchyme (POM) in the development of sensory cells of developing auditory epithelium.

Methods: Developing auditory epithelium with or without periotic mesenchyme was isolated from mice at embryonic days 11.5 (E11.5), E12.5 and E13.5, respectively, and cultured to an equivalent of E18.5's epithelium Then, the explants were co-stained with antibodies targeting myosin VIIA, Sox2 and BrdU.

Results: More hair cells in E11.5 + 7 DIV, E12.5 + 6 DIV and E13.5 + 5 DIV auditory epithelia were found upon culture with POM (225.90 ± 62.44, 476.94 ± 100.81, and 1386.60 ± 202.38, respectively) compared with the non-POM group (68.17 ± 23.74, 205.00 ± 44.23, and 1266.80 ± 38.84, respectively). Moreover, regardless of developmental stage, the mesenchymal tissue increased the amount of cochlear sensory cells as well as the ratio of differentiated hair cells to total sensory cells.

Conclusions: The periotic mesenchyme promotes the development of cochlear sensory cells, and its effect depends on the developmental stage of the auditory epithelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joto.2020.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691837PMC
December 2020

Single particle diversity and mixing state of carbonaceous aerosols in Guangzhou, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 4;754:142182. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Institute of Mass Spectrometry and Atmospheric Environment, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center for on-Line Source Apportionment System of Air Pollution, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China; Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Joint Laboratory of Collaborative Innovation for Environmental Quality, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Many field studies have investigated the formation mechanisms of organic aerosol (OA) based on bulk analysis, yet the source and formation process of individual organic particles may be quite different due to the diversity of chemical composition and mixing state in single particles. Here we present the observation results of chemical composition and mixing state of carbonaceous single particles at an urban site in Guangzhou. The carbonaceous particles accounted for 74.6% of the total detected single particles, and were grouped into four types including elemental carbon-aged (EC-aged), elemental and organic carbon (ECOC), organic carbon-rich (OC-rich) and secondary ions-rich (SEC) particles. The formation of EC-aged particles was closely associated with the absorption of organics onto fresh EC particles from primary sources, and the further enrichment of organics in EC-aged particles resulted in the production of ECOC particles. In the daytime OC-rich and SEC particles were mainly produced from the photochemical reactions, while in the nighttime their sharp increases were found along with the enrichment of nitrate and organic nitrogen fragments, suggesting the heterogeneous formation of nitrate and organic nitrogen in OC-rich and SEC particles. The production rates of carbonaceous particles were also investigated in an episodic event, and the EC-aged particles showed the highest production rate compared to the other carbonaceous particles both in the daytime and nighttime, suggesting a significant role of EC in the formation and aging process of carbonaceous particles. The results from this work have revealed different formation processes and production rates of carbonaceous particles due to their diversity in mixing state, providing further insights into the formation mechanisms of OA in field studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142182DOI Listing
February 2021

Self-Supervised Discovering of Interpretable Features for Reinforcement Learning.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2020 Nov 13;PP. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Deep reinforcement learning (RL) has recently led to many breakthroughs on a range of complex control tasks. However, the decision-making process is generally not transparent. The lack of interpretability hinders the applicability in safety-critical scenarios. While several methods have attempted to interpret vision-based RL, most come without detailed explanation for the agent's behaviour. In this paper, we propose a self-supervised interpretable framework, which can discover causal features to enable easy interpretation of RL even for non-experts. Specifically, a self-supervised interpretable network is employed to produce fine-grained masks for highlighting task-relevant information, which constitutes most evidence for the agent's decisions. We verify and evaluate our method on several Atari-2600 games and Duckietown, which is a challenging self-driving car simulator environment. The results show that our method renders causal explanations and empirical evidences about how the agent makes decisions and why the agent performs well or badly. Overall, our method provides valuable insight into the decision-making process of RL. In addition, our method does not use any external labelled data, and thus demonstrates the possibility to learn high-quality mask through a self-supervised manner, which may shed light on new paradigms for label-free vision learning such as self-supervised segmentation and detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2020.3037898DOI Listing
November 2020

Restoration of Cingulate Long-Term Depression by Enhancing Non-apoptotic Caspase 3 Alleviates Peripheral Pain Hypersensitivity.

Cell Rep 2020 11;33(6):108369

Department of Neurobiology and Department of Anesthesiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China; NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, MOE Frontier Science Center for Brain Research and Brain-Machine Integration, School of Brain Science and Brain Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Nerve injury in somatosensory pathways may lead to neuropathic pain, which affects the life quality of ∼8% of people. Long-term enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission along somatosensory pathways contributes to neuropathic pain. Caspase 3 (Casp3) plays a non-apoptotic role in the hippocampus and regulates internalization of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunits. Whether Casp3-AMPAR interaction is involved in the maintenance of peripheral hypersensitivity after nerve injury remained unknown. Here, we show that nerve injury suppresses long-term depression (LTD) and downregulates Casp3 in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Interfering with interactions between Casp3 and AMPAR subunits or reducing Casp3 activity in the ACC suppresses LTD induction and causes peripheral hypersensitivity. Overexpression of Casp3 restores LTD and reduces peripheral hypersensitivity after nerve injury. We reveal how Casp3 is involved in the maintenance of peripheral hypersensitivity. Our findings suggest that restoration of LTD via Casp3 provides a therapeutic strategy for neuropathic pain management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108369DOI Listing
November 2020

hUCMSCs Mitigate LPS-Induced Trained Immunity in Ischemic Stroke.

Front Immunol 2020 11;11:1746. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Innate immune memory is a part of the innate immune system that facilitates the elimination of pathogens. However, it may exacerbate neuropathology. In this study, we found that innate immune memory is detrimental in stroke, because it promotes the acute immune response and exacerbates ischemic infarcts. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy has been widely studied for its therapeutic potential in various diseases including stroke, but whether it diminishes innate immune memory has not been studied. Here, our study demonstrates that, after the activation of innate immune memory by lipopolysaccharide, mesenchymal stem cell therapy can diminish innate immune memory though down-regulation of H3 methylation and subsequently protect against stroke. Our results demonstrate that innate immune memory is detrimental in stroke, and we describe a novel potential therapeutic target involving the use of mesenchymal stem cells to treat stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516337PMC
April 2021

The relationship between the chemical composition and the quality of the soybean film during peeling process.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Sep 27;8(9):4944-4956. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

School of Food Science and Biotechnology Zhejiang Gongshang University Hangzhou China.

Soybean film is a traditional nonfermented soy product in China. It is a film formed on the surface of the soymilk during heating process. The nutrient components of soymilk will affect the quality of the soybean film. The results of this study showed that during the peeling process, the proportion of protein and carbohydrate in soymilk decreased, and the proportion of lipid increased. The mechanical properties (fracture extension and tensile strength) of the soybean film decreased during the peeling process. During the heating treatment, the Maillard reaction occurred and its intermediate products accumulated, which caused the change in soybean film color. White globular protein granules (<100 nm) existed on the surface of the soybean film. The lipid that was not wrapped by the protein network structure was exposed, and the evaporation of water led to the formation of black and gray holes on the skin (<500 nm). In addition, the results of correlation analysis showed that the changes in color, taste, and odor, as well as the mechanical properties of the skin, were all related to the changes in nutrients in the soybean film during peeling. This research provided a deeper understanding of the quality change in the soybean milk and the soybean film during the heating process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500776PMC
September 2020

[Associations of Dairy Consumption during Pregnancy and Neonatal Birth Body Mass: a Prospective Study].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2020 Sep;51(5):680-684

Department of Nutrition, Food Safety and Toxicology, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To investigate the dairy product intake during pregnancy in Southwest China and to explore its relationship with neonatal birth body mass.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted to select healthy singleton pregnant women at 8-14 weeks of gestation in a maternal and fetal health care institution in Chengdu City. Dairy product consumption during the first, second, third trimester of pregnancy were collected by 24-hour dietary recalls at 8-14 weeks, 24-28 weeks and 32-36 weeks of pregnancy, respectively, and the total milk intake and milk consumption rate were calculated. According to the dietary guidelines for Chinese pregnant women (2016), the recommended amount of milk (300 g/d) was used as the standard to calculate the compliance rate. The respondents were divided into three groups: no dairy consumption group, insufficient dairy consumption group and suitable dairy consumption group. The gestational age at delivery and neonatal birth body mass were collected by the hospital information system. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between milk intake during pregnancy and neonatal birth body mass.

Results: A total of 962 pregnant women were included. The average milk intake in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy were 125.0 (0, 236.1) g/d, 208.3 (0, 284.7) g/d and 250.0 (150.0, 416.7) g/d, respectively, with the compliance rates of 12.6%, 33.2% and 48.4%, respectively. The average neonatal birth body mass was (3 225.0±399.8) g. The incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) was 8.3% and 3.9%, respectively. Compared with no dairy consumption group in the second trimester of pregnancy, the risk of SGA was lower in suitable dairy consumption group (odds ratio ()=0.786, 95% confidence interval (): 0.385-0.976). Compared with no dairy consumption group in the third trimester of pregnancy, the risk of SGA was lower in insufficient dairy consumption group and suitable dairy consumption group (=0.672, 95%: 0.477-0.821 and =0.497, 95%: 0.116-0.807, respectively). No association was observed between milk intake in the first trimester and neonatal birth body mass, and milk intake in the second and third trimester of pregnancy was not associated with the risk of LGA.

Conclusion: Insufficient milk intake of pregnant women is a significant problem in southwest China and needs to be improved. Milk intake during pregnancy is associated with neonatal birth body mass, and increased milk intake in the second and third trimester of pregnancy may reduce the risk of SGA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20200960105DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparison of Activation Patterns in Mirror Neurons and the Swallowing Network During Action Observation and Execution: A Task-Based fMRI Study.

Front Neurosci 2020 21;14:867. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Observation of a goal-directed motor action can excite the respective mirror neurons, and this is the theoretical basis for action observation (AO) as a novel tool for functional recovery during stroke rehabilitation. To explore the therapeutic potential of AO for dysphagia, we conducted a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify the brain areas activated during observation and execution of swallowing in healthy participants.

Methods: Twenty-nine healthy volunteers viewed the following stimuli during fMRI scanning: an action-video of swallowing (condition 1, defined as AO), a neutral image with a Chinese word for "watching" (condition 2), and a neutral image with a Chinese word for "swallowing" (condition 3). Action execution (AE) was defined as condition 3 minus condition 2. One-sample -tests were performed to define the brain regions activated during AO and AE.

Results: Many brain regions were activated during AO, including the middle temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, pre- and postcentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, hippocampus, brainstem, and pons. AE resulted in activation of motor areas as well as other brain areas, including the inferior parietal lobule, vermis, middle frontal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus. Two brain areas, BA6 and BA21, were activated with both AO and AE.

Conclusion: The left supplementary motor area (BA6) and left middle temporal gyrus (BA21), which contains mirror neurons, were activated in both AO and AE of swallowing. In this study, AO activated mirror neurons and the swallowing network in healthy participants, supporting its potential value in the treatment of dysphagia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472888PMC
August 2020