Publications by authors named "Cheng Liu"

1,140 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy and safety of radiofrequency in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Neurol Belg 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pain and Interventional Radiology, Huai'an Hospital of Huai'an City, No. 161, Zhenhuailou East Road, Huai'an, China.

To assess the effectiveness of radiofrequency (RF) versus other percutaneous strategies (balloon compression, glycerol rhizotomy [GR], and microvascular decompression [MVD]) in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. We systematically searched the electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify eligible studies throughout October 2020. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was applied to assess effect estimates using the random-effects model. Eighteen retrospective cohort studies that enrolled 6391 patients with trigeminal neuralgia were included. We noted that RF was associated with an increased incidence of immediate pain relief compared with GR (OR 2.65; 95% CI 1.29-5.44; P = 0.008). Moreover, RF was associated with an increased risk of pain recurrence compared with MVD (OR 3.80; 95% CI 2.00-7.20; P < 0.001). Furthermore, RF was associated with an increased incidence of postoperative anesthesia compared with GR (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.11-8.13; P = 0.030) or MVD (OR 4.62; 95% CI 2.15-9.93; P < 0.001). This study found that RF was superior to GR for the improvement in immediate pain relief; whereas, RF yielded an excess risk of pain recurrence compared with MVD. Moreover, the incidence of postoperative anesthesia in patients treated with RF significantly increased compared with the incidence after treatment with GR and MVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-021-01654-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical and genetic analysis of KATP variants with heart failure risk in patients with decreased serum ApoA-I levels.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Cardiology, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510180, China.

Context: Lower serum concentration of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is causally associated with heart failure (HF) risk. ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP), as a gating channel coupling vascular reactivity and metabolism with ischemic protection, become a new potential target of management for HF. The KATP gene sequence is highly polymorphic and high degree of genetic heterogeneity.

Objective: To determine whether ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) variants predict the risks of decreased ApoA-I concentration and its related HF.

Design, Patients, Settings: A total of 634 subjects, including 317 subjects with decreased ApoA-I concentration (< 120 mg/dL) and 317 counterpart subjects (≥ 120 mg/dL), were retrospectively selected.

Methods: 5 KATP variants were genotyped through MassARRAY platform. The exosome-derived microRNAs (exo-miRs) expression profiles were identified by next-generation sequencing, and the top 10 DE exo-miRs were verified using qPCR in a validation cohort of 240 subjects with decreased ApoA-I concentration.

Results: KATP rs141294036 was related to increased risk of lower ApoA-I levels (adjusted OR=1.95, P=0.002) and HF incidence (adjusted OR=2.38, P=0.009), especially HFpEF (adjusted OR=2.13, P=0.015). After median 48.6-months follow-up, participants carrying CC genotype of rs141294036 was associated with elevated HF re-hospitalization risk (adjusted HR=1.91, P=0.005). 36 exo-miRs were significantly differentially expressed between different genotypes of rs141294036 in subjects with lower ApoA-I levels, but only 5 exo-miRs (miR-31-5p, miR-126-5p, miR-106a-5p, miR-378i and miR-181c-5p) were further confirmed.

Conclusions: The KATP rs141294036 was associated with increased risks of lower ApoA-I levels, HF incidence (especially HFpEF) and HF re-hospitalization, involving in those 5 confirmed exo-miRs and its related metabolic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab336DOI Listing
May 2021

Double Exchange Induced in situ Conductivity in Nickel Based Oxyhydroxides: An Effective Descriptor for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Nanjing University, Chemistry, 163 Xianling Road, 210023, Nanjing, CHINA.

The electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays an important role in sustainable energy conversion from water to hydrogen fuel. The most effective non-noble metal catalyst for OER is currently Fe-doped NiOOH (Ni 1-x Fe x OOH), but its overpotential (theoretically calculated η = 0.4) is too large for practical applications. Motivated by our in silico predictions that Ir dopant would lead to a very low overpotential to improve OER activity of Ni-based hydroxides, we report here an experimental confirmation on the altered OER activities for a series of metals (Mo, W, Fe, Ru, Co, Rh, Ir) doped into γ-NiOOH. Most interestingly, we observed that the in situ (intermediate) electrical conductivity for metal doped γ-NiOOH correlates well with the trend in enhanced OER activities. This correlation allows experimental screening of new candidates with fast measurements of intermediate conductivity, while also providing additional information about the catalytic mechanism. To understand the basis of this correlation, we used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to explain the in situ conductivity of the key intermediate states of metal doped γ-NiOOH during OER. The simultaneous increase of OER activity with in situ conductivity was rationalized by their intrinsic connections to the radical character promotion in the metal-oxo bond. This electrical transport characteristic, which was later linked to the double exchange (DE) interactions between adjacent metal ions with various d orbital occupancies, serves as an effective indicator for the key metal-oxo radical character, providing a facile and effective descriptor for the theoretical and experimental guidance in design and screening of efficient OER catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202101906DOI Listing
May 2021

Organics removal and microbial interaction attributes of zeolite and ceramsite assisted bioretention system in copper-contaminated stormwater treatment.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 8;292:112654. Epub 2021 May 8.

College of Environment, Hohai University, 210098, PR China.

Bioretention has been increasingly used recently to treat heavy metals contaminated stormwater. However, less is known about how metal accumulation influences microbial performance and organics removal mechanisms in different layers of the bioretention system. Two lab-scale bioretention columns (i.e., control and Cu treatment) were designed and filled with soil and fillers (zeolite and ceramsite). The results obtained from the time-series experiment of 121 days showed that the removal of organics markedly affected by Cu accumulation and microbial activities, varied between soil and filler layers of bioretention system. The overall organics removal rate was higher in filler than soil. However, at the individual level, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was higher than total organic carbon (TOC) in the soil, while the opposite trend was observed in fillers. Mixed media (soil + fillers) significantly reduced the bio-available and labile fractions of Cu from 33.5 to 8% and 67.5 to 33.4%, respectively. The bioretention column treated with Cu lost 14% more microbial biomass in soil than filler over the 121 days study period. Therefore mixed media in bioretention system can offset the substantial negative impacts of long-term metal accumulation on pollutant removal and microbial degradation function in the bioretention. The present study advanced our understanding to resolve the complex metals-impacted microbial pollutant biodegradation mechanisms and highlight importance of mixed media in the long-term maintenance of the bioretention system, which is imperative for developing effective and stormwater-specific remediation strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112654DOI Listing
May 2021

Improved Aflatoxins and Fumonisins Forecasting Models for Maize (PREMA and PREFUM), Using Combined Mechanistic and Bayesian Network Modeling-Serbia as a Case Study.

Front Microbiol 2021 13;12:643604. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Wageningen Food Safety Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Contamination of maize with aflatoxins and fumonisins is one of the major food safety concerns worldwide. Knowing the contamination in advance can help to reduce food safety risks and related health issues and economic losses. The current study aimed to develop forecasting models for the contamination of maize grown in Serbia with aflatoxins and fumonisins. An integrated modeling approach was used, linking mechanistic modeling with artificial intelligence, in particular Bayesian network (BN) modeling. Two of such combined models, i.e., the prediction model for aflatoxins (PREMA) and for fumonisins (PREFUM) in maize, were developed. Data used for developing PREMA were from 867 maize samples, collected in Serbia during the period from 2012 to 2018, of which 190 were also used for developing PREFUM. Both datasets were split randomly in a model training set and a model validation set. With corresponding geographical and meteorological data, the so-called risk indices for total aflatoxins and total fumonisins were calculated using existing mechanistic models. Subsequently, these risk indices were used as input variables for developing the BN models, together with the longitudes and latitudes of the sites at which the samples were collected and related weather data. PREMA and PREFUM were internally and externally validated, resulting in a prediction accuracy of PREMA of, respectively, 83 and 70%, and of PREFUM of 76% and 80%. The capability of PREMA and PREFUM for predicting aflatoxins and fumonisins contamination using data from the early maize growth stages only was explored as well, and promising results were obtained. The integrated approach combining two different modeling techniques, as developed in the current study, was able to overcome the obstacles of unbalanced data and deficiency of the datasets, which are often seen in historical observational data from the food safety domain. The models provide predictions for mycotoxin contamination at the field level; this information can assist stakeholders of the maize supply chain, including farmers, buyers/collectors, and food safety authorities, to take timely decisions for improved mycotoxin control. The developed models can be further validated by applying them into practice, and they can be extended to other European maize growing areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.643604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098437PMC
April 2021

Coptisine induces G2/M arrest in esophageal cancer cell via the inhibition of p38/ERK1/2/claudin-2 signaling pathway.

Pharmazie 2021 May;76(5):202-207

Laboratory of Immunology and Virology, Experiment Center for Science and Technology, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China;, Email:

In this study, we treated esophageal cancer (EC) cell lines, TE1 and KYSE450 with coptisine (COP) and investigated the biological effects of COP in EC cells. Our results showed that COP inhibited the cell viability and proliferation of EC cells, and COP induced G2/M phase arrest of EC cells and decreased the expression of claudin-2, p-cdc2, CDK1 and cyclin B1. In addition, we found the reduction of p-p38 and p-ERK1/2 in EC cells treated with COP. The effects of COP on pro-cell cycle arresting were reversed after combined with p38 and ERK1/2 inhibitors. Overall, these findings indicate that COP may possess potential for anti-tumor effects in EC and may contribute to the development as anti-cancer agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1691/ph.2021.1353DOI Listing
May 2021

LATS1 K751 acetylation blocks activation of Hippo signalling and switches LATS1 from a tumor suppressor to an oncoprotein.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, MOE Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research and State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China.

Large tumor suppressor 1 (LATS1) is the key kinase controlling activation of Hippo signalling pathway. Post-translational modifications of LATS1 modulate its kinase activity. However, detailed mechanism underlying LATS1 stability and activation remains elusive. Here we report that LATS1 is acetylated by acetyltransferase CBP at K751 and is deacetylated by deacetylases SIRT3 and SIRT4. Acetylation at K751 stabilized LATS1 by decreasing LATS1 ubiquitination and inhibited LATS1 activation by reducing its phosphorylation. Mechanistically, LATS1 acetylation resulted in inhibition of YAP phosphorylation and degradation, leading to increased YAP nucleus translocation and promoted target gene expression. Functionally, LATS1-K751Q, the acetylation mimic mutant potentiated lung cancer cell migration, invasion and tumor growth, whereas LATS1-K751R, the acetylation deficient mutant inhibited these functions. Taken together, we demonstrated a previously unidentified post-translational modification of LATS1 that converts LATS1 from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter by suppression of Hippo signalling through acetylation of LATS1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1914-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Research on the influences of two alcohol soluble glutenins on the retrogradation of wheat amylopectin/amylose.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 28;183:463-472. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology and Food Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, PR China.

Two alcohol soluble glutenins (ASGLUs) were extracted from gluten and further separated by column chromatography. The ASGLUs with Mw lower than 20,000 (ASGLU 1) and Mw higher than 70,000 (ASGLU 2) show the total amino acid contents of 86.71 g/100 g and 62.847 g/100 g respectively. Both of them are rich in Glu (45.574% and 43.224%) and Pro (15.447% and 16.370%) while poor in cys-s, met and lys (less than 1%). When wheat amylopectin/amylose retrogrades with those ASGLUs, the retrogradation rate of amylopectin with ASGLU 1 enhances significantly. UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, DSC, CD and solid C NMR suggest that the double helixes of amylopectin short-chain branching are unwound during gelatinization. The hydrogen bonds of ASGLU 1 between amide and carbonyl oxygen are destroyed, meanwhile, β-sheets are unfolded. During retrogradation, ASGLU 1 with less steric hindrance gets into the crevice of amylopectin and combines with the short-chain branching by hydrogen bond. The retrogradation dynamics show that the nucleation type of amylopectin-ASGLU 1 changes from instantaneous to rod-like growth during the process of retrogradation. β-sheet of ASGLU 1 changes to β-turn and random conformations at the meantime. The results provide a key targeting to control retrogradation of dough.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.04.174DOI Listing
April 2021

Quantitative Modeling of Climate Change Impacts on Mycotoxins in Cereals: A Review.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 12;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Wageningen Food Safety Research, 6708 WB Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Our climate is projected to change gradually over time. Mycotoxin occurrence in cereal grains is both directly and indirectly related to local weather and to climate changes. Direct routes are via the effects of precipitation, relative humidity, and temperatures on both fungal infection of the grain and mycotoxin formation. Indirect routes are via the effects of the wind dispersal of spores, insect attacks, and shifts in cereal grain phenology. This review aimed to investigate available modeling studies for climate change impacts on mycotoxins in cereal grains, and to identify how they can be used to safeguard food safety with future climate change. Using a systematic review approach, in total, 53 relevant papers from the period of 2005-2020 were retrieved. Only six of them focused on quantitative modeling of climate change impacts on mycotoxins, all in pre-harvest cereal grains. Although regional differences exist, the model results generally show an increase in mycotoxins in a changing climate. The models do not give an indication on how to adapt to climate change impacts. If available models were linked with land use and crop models, scenario analyses could be used for analyzing adaptation strategies to avoid high mycotoxin presence in cereal grains and to safeguard the safety of our feed and food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069105PMC
April 2021

Preparation and Tribological Properties of Modified MoS/SiC/Epoxy Composites.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;14(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Science and Technology of Advanced Functional Composites Laboratory, Aerospace Research Institute of Materials & Processing Technology, Beijing 100076, China.

In order to improve the tribological properties of epoxy (EP), EP composites were prepared by filling different proportions of silicon carbide (SiC) particles and molybdenum disulfide (MoS) powder. SiC and MoS particle surfaces were modified by the silane coupling agent KH560 to improve dispersion and avoid agglomeration of the inorganic particles in the EP resin matrix. The effect of different proportions of modified MoS content on the tribological properties of SiC/EP composites, and the wear mechanism of the worn surface, were investigated when the filler content was fixed at 55 wt.%. The results indicate that the friction and wear properties of modified MoS/SiC/EP composites are better than SiC/EP composites without modified MoS. When the modified MoS content is 4 wt.%, the average friction coefficient and volume wear rate of the modified MoS/SiC/EP composite are 0.447 and 14.39 × 10 mm/N·m, respectively, which is reduced by 10.06% and 52.13% in comparison with that of the 55 wt.% SiC/EP composite. Furthermore, the average friction coefficient of a composite containing 4 wt.% MoS is 16.14% lower, and the volume wear rate is 92.84% lower than that of pure EP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14071731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036452PMC
April 2021

Charge-reversal silver clusters for targeted bacterial killing.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Science and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026, P. R. China. and Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, P. R. China.

Bacterial infections have become a common global health problem, causing a wide range of properties and life loss. The development of a highly efficient, low-toxicity and targeted bacterial agent is urgently needed. As a conventional antibacterial agent, silver nanoparticles have been used for a long time, but they are still unable to achieve targeted bacterial killing. Herein, we have prepared surface positively (Ag(+) nanoparticles) and negatively (Ag(-) nanoparticles) charged silver nanoparticles by reduction of AgNO3 to construct Ag(-)/Ag(+) clusters. The zeta potential of the Ag(-)/Ag(+) nanoclusters could be controlled by changing the ratio of Ag(-) nanoparticles to Ag(+) nanoparticles. The surface negatively changed silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reaction of methyl maleic anhydride with the amino on the surface positively changed silver nanoparticles. In the acidic environment, Ag(-) nanoparticles undergo charge reversal, and Ag(-)/Ag(+) clusters with negatively charged nanoparticles and big-size are transformed into positively charged nanoparticles with small size. The in vitro experimental results demonstrate that the positively charged nanoparticles can be well adsorbed on the negatively charged bacteria, exhibiting a high bactericidal ability. Furthermore, the in vivo skin wound healing experiment showed that the Ag(-)/Ag(+) clusters could serve as an efficient antibacterial agent to combat bacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00378jDOI Listing
April 2021

Three plasma-based microRNAs as potent diagnostic biomarkers for endometrial cancer.

Cancer Biomark 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), with noticeable stability and unique expression pattern in plasma of patients with various diseases, are powerful non-invasive biomarkers for cancer detection including endometrial cancer (EC).

Objective: The objective of this study was to identify promising miRNA biomarkers in plasma to assist the clinical screening of EC.

Methods: A total of 93 EC and 79 normal control (NC) plasma samples were analyzed using Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) in this four-stage experiment. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic value. Additionally, the expression features of the identified miRNAs were further explored in tissues and plasma exosomes samples.

Results: The expression of miR-142-3p, miR-146a-5p, and miR-151a-5p was significantly overexpressed in the plasma of EC patients compared with NCs. Areas under the ROC curve of the 3-miRNA signature were 0.729, 0.751, and 0.789 for the training, testing, and external validation phases, respectively. The diagnostic performance of the identified signature proved to be stable in the three public datasets and superior to the other miRNA biomarkers in EC diagnosis. Moreover, the expression of miR-151a-5p was significantly elevated in EC plasma exosomes.

Conclusions: A signature consisting of 3 plasma miRNAs was identified and showed potential for the non-invasive diagnosis of EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-200972DOI Listing
April 2021

[Expert Consensus for Thermal Ablation of Pulmonary Subsolid Nodules (2021 Edition)].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Oncology, Tengzhou Central People's Hospital, Tengzhou 277500, China.

"The Expert Group on Tumor Ablation Therapy of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, The Tumor Ablation Committee of Chinese College of Interventionalists, The Society of Tumor Ablation Therapy of Chinese Anti-Cancer Association and The Ablation Expert Committee of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology" have organized multidisciplinary experts to formulate the consensus for thermal ablation of pulmonary subsolid nodules or ground-glass nodule(GGN). The expert consensus reviews current literatures and provides clinical practices for thermal ablation of GGN. The main contents include: (1) clinical evaluation of GGN, (2) procedures, indications, contraindications, outcomes evaluation and related complications of thermal ablation for GGN and (3) future development directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2021.101.14DOI Listing
April 2021

The synthesis of greenish phosphorus on carbon substrates.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Apr;57(33):3975-3978

Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 457, P. R. China.

A phosphorus allotrope called greenish phosphorus was successfully synthesized via a simple chemical vapor deposition method. We revealed that the critical factors in the formation mechanism of greenish phosphorus are the partial pressure of the phosphorus vapor and the structure of the substrate. On the substrates of a glassy carbon wafer and carbon paper, the edge carbon structure can activate P4 molecules, allowing them to polymerize due to strong adsorption (Ead = -1.62 eV). Greenish phosphorus possesses a distinct crystal structure, different from red phosphorus and black phosphorus, thus leading to unique physical and chemical properties, and potential applications in optical, electrical, and magnetic fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01419fDOI Listing
April 2021

Prognostic Value of Positive Lymph Nodes in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma and Tumor Thrombus Undergoing Nephrectomy and Thrombectomy.

Urol Int 2021 Apr 21:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Urology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Introductions: The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic value of positive lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and tumor thrombus (TT) and to explore risk factors predicting LNs metastasis.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 216 patients with RCC and TT treated at a single institution from January 2015 to December 2019. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curves divided by pathological LN status. Associations between clinicopathological features and survival outcomes were evaluated using Cox regression models. Logistic regression model was performed to determine risk factors associated with LN metastasis.

Results: We identified 216 patients with RCC and TT including 85 (39.4%) who did and 131 (60.6%) who did not undergo lymph node dissection. Pathologically positive LNs were found in 18 (8.3%) cases. pN1 had significant worse OS (median: 21 vs. 41 and 56 months, p < 0.001) and PFS (median:14 vs. 29 and 33 months, p < 0.001) than pN0 and pNx respectively. However, survival outcomes of OS and PFS were similar between pNx-0/M1 and pN1/M0 group and between 1- and ≥2-node-positive group. Non-CCRCC (p = 0.001), sarcomatoid differentiation (p < 0.001), and pathologically positive LNs (p = 0.025) were independent prognostic predictors predicting worse OS while distance metastasis (p = 0.009), non-CCRCC (p = 0.023), necrosis (p = 0.014), sarcomatoid differentiation (p = 0.003), and pathologically positive LNs (p = 0.007) were independent prognostic indicators predicting worse PFS. Clinically positive LNs (p = 0.014) and sarcomatoid differentiation (p = 0.009) were predictors of positive LNs.

Conclusions: LNs metastasis independently associated with worse survival outcomes in RCC and TT populations, with similar survival outcomes compared to distance metastasis. Therefore, more accurate risk stratification is warranted for guiding postoperative surveillance and adjuvant therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514057DOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnostic KASP Markers of Wheat Broad-spectrum Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes Pm21, PmV and Pm12 Developed for High Throughput Marker-assisted Selection.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Yantai University, No.30, Qingquan Road, Yantai, Shandong, China, 264005;

Wheat powdery mildew is a devastating disease that seriously threatens yield worldwide. Utilization of host resistance is considered an effective strategy to minimize powdery mildew damage. Pm21, PmV, and Pm12 confer broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew in China, of which Pm21 and PmV are allelic genes derived from the 6VS chromosome of Dasypyrum villosum, and Pm12 is derived from the 6SS chromosome of Aegilops speltoides and most likely orthologous to the former two genes. To accurately and efficiently transfer and pyramid these genes using marker-assisted selection (MAS), distinctive single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the exon sequences of Pm21, PmV, and Pm12 and their homologous sequences in the common wheat genome were identified and used for developing diagnostic Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASP) markers. The markers were validated in different genotypes including transgenic vectors, transgenic lines, translocation lines, resistance stocks with documented Pm genes, and in multiple susceptible cultivars without Pm genes. As a result, we initially developed a KASP marker that can simultaneously diagnose Pm21, Pm12, and PmV. Subsequently, we obtained a highly diagnostic KASP marker for each of the three genes that could distinguish among the three genes and also accurately distinguish them from other resistant stocks with documented Pm genes and from multiple susceptible genotypes. Compared with previously reported markers, the highly diagnostic KASP markers developed in this study have the advantages of low cost, easy assay, accuracy, and potentially high throughput for MAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-21-0308-REDOI Listing
April 2021

Long-term prognosis analysis of PARACHUTE device implantation in patients with ischemic heart failure: a single-center experience of Chinese patients.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Apr 20;16(1):98. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, Shenzhen Cardiovascular Minimally Invasive Medical Engineering Technology Research and Development Center, Shenzhen People's Hospital, Shenzhen, 518020, Guangdong, China.

Background: Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. The PARACHUTE device is designed to partition for left ventricular (LV) apical aneurysm post extensive anterior myocardial infarction (MI). However, the long-term prognosis of the PARACHUTE device post-implantation is unclear.

Methods: From November 2015 to April 2017, six subjects with New York Heart Association Classes II, III and IV ischemic HF, LV ejection fraction between (LVEF) 15 and 40%; and LV anterior apical aneurysm were enrolled in our center. The cumulative event rates for MI, hospitalization, and mortality were documented. Further assessment of LVEF, LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), and estimated pulmonary artery pressure were determined by echocardiography core laboratory. For quantitative data comparison, paired t-test was employed.

Results: Device implantation was successful in all six enrolled subjects, and acute device association adverse events were not observed. At 4.6 ± 1.7 years follow-up, major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) were found in 50% patients, and the survival rate was 86.7%. We observed that the LVEF was significantly elevated after deployment (46.00 ± 6.00% vs. 35.83 ± 1.47%, P = 0.009). Besides, the LVEDD elevated after MI (51.17 ± 3.71 vs. 62.83 ± 3.25, P < 0.001) was revealed, but the device sustained preserved LVEDD after implantation.

Conclusion: The PARACHUTE device is an alternative therapy for patients with severe LV maladaptive remodeling. However, the device seems to increase the HF ratio.

Trial Registration: NCT02240940.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-021-01484-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056655PMC
April 2021

First observation of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide from the Environmental Trace Gases Monitoring Instrument onboard the GaoFen-5 satellite.

Light Sci Appl 2020 Apr 20;9(1):66. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Optics and Technology, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, China.

The Environmental Trace Gases Monitoring Instrument (EMI) is the first Chinese satellite-borne UV-Vis spectrometer aiming to measure the distribution of atmospheric trace gases on a global scale. The EMI instrument onboard the GaoFen-5 satellite was launched on 9 May 2018. In this paper, we present the tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO) vertical column density (VCD) retrieval algorithm dedicated to EMI measurement. We report the first successful retrieval of tropospheric NO VCD from the EMI instrument. Our retrieval improved the original EMI NO prototype algorithm by modifying the settings of the spectral fit and air mass factor calculations to account for the on-orbit instrumental performance changes. The retrieved EMI NO VCDs generally show good spatiotemporal agreement with the satellite-borne Ozone Monitoring Instrument and TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (correlation coefficient R of ~0.9, bias < 50%). A comparison with ground-based MAX-DOAS (Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) observations also shows good correlation with an R of 0.82. The results indicate that the EMI NO retrieval algorithm derives reliable and precise results, and this algorithm can feasibly produce stable operational products that can contribute to global air pollution monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-0306-zDOI Listing
April 2020

Label-Free Screening of SARS-CoV-2 NSP14 Exonuclease Activity Using SAMDI Mass Spectrometry.

SLAS Discov 2021 Apr 17:24725552211008854. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

SAMDI Tech, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the global COVID-19 pandemic. Nonstructural protein 14 (NSP14), which features exonuclease (ExoN) and guanine N7 methyltransferase activity, is a critical player in SARS-CoV-2 replication and fidelity and represents an attractive antiviral target. Initiating drug discovery efforts for nucleases such as NSP14 remains a challenge due to a lack of suitable high-throughput assay methodologies. This report describes the combination of self-assembled monolayers and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry to enable the first label-free and high-throughput assay for NSP14 ExoN activity. The assay was used to measure NSP14 activity and gain insight into substrate specificity and the reaction mechanism. Next, the assay was optimized for kinetically balanced conditions and miniaturized, while achieving a robust assay (Z factor > 0.8) and a significant assay window (signal-to-background ratio > 200). Screening 10,240 small molecules from a diverse library revealed candidate inhibitors, which were counterscreened for NSP14 selectivity and RNA intercalation. The assay methodology described here will enable, for the first time, a label-free and high-throughput assay for NSP14 ExoN activity to accelerate drug discovery efforts and, due to the assay flexibility, can be more broadly applicable for measuring other enzyme activities from other viruses or implicated in various pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/24725552211008854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053483PMC
April 2021

LncRNA XIST upregulates TRIM25 via negatively regulating miR-192 in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

Mol Med 2021 04 15;27(1):41. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Huaian Hospital of Huai'an City, No. 161 Zhenhuailou East Road, Huai'an City, 223200, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) XIST has been implicated in the progression of a variety of tumor diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the molecular role of lncRNA XIST in human hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: The expression levels of lncRNA XIST, miR-192 and TRIM25 in HBV-related HCC tissues and HepG2.2.15 cells were detected by qRT-PCR. Biological information and luciferin gene reporter assay were performed to detect the interaction among lncRNA XIST, miR-192 and TRIM25. CCk-8 assay, wound healing assay and colony formation assay were conducted to detect the proliferation and migration ability of HepG2.2.15 cells.

Results: qRT-PCR results showed that the expression levels of lncRNA XIST were remarkably increased in HBV-related HCC tissues and HepG2.2.15 cells. In addition, miR-192 was a direct target gene of lncRNA XIST, and the expression of miR-192 and lncRNA XIST were negatively correlated. Moreover, overexpression of miR-192 observably inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCC cells, while overexpression of lncRNA XIST showed an opposite effect. Furthermore, TRIM25 was a direct target of miR-192, and lncRNA XIST could up-regulate the expression of TRIM25 by targeting miR-192.

Conclusion: LncRNA XIST could up-regulate the expression of TRIM25 by targeting and binding to miR-192, thus accelerating the occurrence and development of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10020-021-00278-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050905PMC
April 2021

MiR-129-5p promotes radio-sensitivity of NSCLC cells by targeting SOX4 and RUNX1.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The Third People's Hospital of Yancheng, Yancheng 224001, Jiangsu. China.

Background: Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) figures prominently in radio-sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MiR-129-5p can block the development of a variety of tumors. However, whether miR-129-5p modulates radio-sensitivity of NSCLC cells remains unknown.

Objective: This study was aimed to explore the role and the underlying mechanism of miR-129-5p in the radiosensitivity of NSCLC.

Methods: Radio-resistant NSCLC cell lines (A549-R and H1299-R) were constructed using A549 and H1299 cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to quantify miR-129-5p, SRY-box transcription factor 4 (SOX4) mRNA, and RUNX family transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) mRNA expression levels. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and colony formation experiments were used to measure cell proliferation. γ-H2AX was examined by Western blot to confirm DNA injury. Dual-luciferase reporter experiments were applied to analyze the interactions among miR-129-5p, RUNX1, and SOX4.

Results: In A549-R and H1299-R cells, compared with the wild type cell lines, miR-129-5p expression was remarkably reduced while SOX4 and RUNX1 expressions were increased. The transfection of miR-129-5p into NSCLC cell lines, markedly induced cell apoptosis, DNA injury, and cell cycle arrest, and inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation. RUNX1 and SOX4 were validated as target genes of miR-129-5p, and the restoration of RUNX1 or SOX4 could counteract the influence of miR-129-5p on A549-R cells.

Conclusion: MiR-129-5p sensitizes A549-R and H1299-R cells to radiation by targeting RUNX1 and SOX4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568009621666210415094350DOI Listing
April 2021

ALG-097111, a potent and selective SARS-CoV-2 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease inhibitor exhibits in vivo efficacy in a Syrian Hamster model.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 05 26;555:134-139. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

There is an urgent need for antivirals targeting the SARS-CoV-2 virus to fight the current COVID-19 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (3CLpro) represents a promising target for antiviral therapy. The lack of selectivity for some of the reported 3CLpro inhibitors, specifically versus cathepsin L, raises potential safety and efficacy concerns. ALG-097111 potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro (IC = 7 nM) without affecting the activity of human cathepsin L (IC > 10 μM). When ALG-097111 was dosed in hamsters challenged with SARS-CoV-2, a robust and significant 3.5 log (RNA copies/mg) reduction of the viral RNA copies and 3.7 log (TCID/mg) reduction in the infectious virus titers in the lungs was observed. These results provide the first in vivo validation for the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro as a promising therapeutic target for selective small molecule inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.03.096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997389PMC
May 2021

Evidence for continuity of interstitial spaces across tissue and organ boundaries in humans.

Commun Biol 2021 Mar 31;4(1):436. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pathology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Bodies have continuous reticular networks, comprising collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, and other extracellular matrix components, through all tissues and organs. Fibrous coverings of nerves and blood vessels create structural continuity beyond organ boundaries. We recently validated fluid flow through human fibrous tissues, though whether these interstitial spaces are continuous through the body or discontinuous, confined within individual organs, remains unclear. Here we show evidence for continuity of interstitial spaces using two approaches. Non-biological particles (tattoo pigment, colloidal silver) were tracked within colon and skin interstitial spaces and into adjacent fascia. Hyaluronic acid, a macromolecular component of interstitial spaces, was also visualized. Both techniques demonstrate interstitial continuity within and between organs including within perineurium and vascular adventitia traversing organs and the spaces between them. We suggest that there is a body-wide network of fluid-filled interstitial spaces that has significant implications for molecular signaling, cell trafficking, and the spread of malignant and infectious disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01962-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012658PMC
March 2021

Mycotoxins in wheat cultivated in the Netherlands: results from eight years of field surveys.

Mycotoxin Res 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Wageningen Food Safety Research, Akkermaalsbos 2, Wageningen, 6708 WB, The Netherlands.

In the period 2009-2018, an annual field survey with commercial arable farms in the Netherlands was held, to collect data on agronomics of wheat fields as well as mycotoxin concentrations of the specific wheat field at harvest. In total, 293 full farm field records over 8 years were obtained. This study aimed to investigate (i) the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and other mycotoxins, as well as correlations between these mycotoxins, and (ii) the relationships between agronomics and the DON concentration in wheat kernels for wheat cultivated in the Netherlands. Results showed that mycotoxins most frequently observed in concentrations above the limit of quantification were DON, enniatin B and B, HT-2 toxin, zearalenone (ZEN) and nivalenol. On average, DON was detected in 54% of the samples (> 50 µg/kg) ranging from 19 to 92% depending on the year. Positive samples (> 50 µg/kg) had DON concentrations ranging 53-15,400 µg/kg, with a median of 228 µg/kg. Co-occurrence between DON and ZEN as well as between each of DON and ZEN with their modified forms was confirmed by the data of this study. The year influenced the DON concentration in wheat the most, followed by the region. The results of this study show that DON levels in wheat can only be influenced in a limited manner by agronomic practices such as the use of fungicides against Fusarium spp. around flowering, crop rotation, or the use of resistant wheat cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12550-021-00427-xDOI Listing
March 2021

Aspirin reduces the incidence of metastasis in a pre-clinical study of Braf mutant serrated colorectal neoplasia.

Br J Cancer 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: Aspirin reduces the incidence of conventional adenomas driven by APC mutation and thus colorectal cancer. The effect of aspirin on the ~20% of colorectal cancers arising via BRAF mutation is yet to be established.

Methods: Braf;Villin-Cre mice were allocated to a control (n = 86) or aspirin-supplemented (n = 83) diet. After 14 months the incidence of murine serrated lesions, carcinoma and distant metastases were measured by histological examination. RNA was extracted from carcinomas from each cohort and subjected to sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes and molecular pathways.

Results: Aspirin did not reduce the incidence of murine serrated lesions or carcinoma when compared to control, however, did significantly reduce lesion size (P = 0.0042). Among the mice with carcinoma there was a significant reduction in the incidence of distant metastasis with aspirin treatment (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.90, P = 0.0134). Key pathways underlying metastasis of carcinoma cells include NOTCH, FGFR and PI3K signalling, were significantly downregulated in carcinomas sampled from mice on an aspirin-supplemented diet.

Conclusions: Aspirin reduces the incidence of metastatic Braf mutant carcinoma, although this is not due to a reduction in primary disease. The reduction in metastasis could be attributed to a delay or prevention of molecular changes within the primary site driving metastatic growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01339-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Ion Selective Covalent Organic Framework Enabling Enhanced Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

Nano Lett 2021 Apr 25;21(7):2997-3006. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, P. R. China.

Ion selective separators with the capability of conducting lithium ion and blocking polysulfides are critical and highly desired for high-performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Herein, we fabricate an ion selective film of covalent organic framework (denoted as TpPa-SOLi) onto the commercial Celgard separator. The aligned nanochannels and continuous negatively charged sites in the TpPa-SOLi layer can effectively facilitate the lithium ion conduction and meanwhile significantly suppress the diffusion of polysulfides via the electrostatic interaction. Consequently, the TpPa-SOLi layer exhibits excellent ion selectivity with an extremely high lithium ion transference number of 0.88. When using this novel functional layer, the Li-S batteries with a high sulfur loading of 5.4 mg cm can acquire a high initial capacity of 822.9 mA h g and high retention rate of 78% after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. This work provides new insights into developing high-performance Li-S batteries via ion selective separator strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00163DOI Listing
April 2021

Identification of primordial germ cell-like cells as liver metastasis initiating cells in mouse tumour models.

Cell Discov 2020 Mar 24;6(1):15. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA.

Liver metastasis, characterized by the spread of tumors to the liver from other areas, represents a deadly disease with poor prognosis. Currently, there is no effective therapeutic strategies and/or agents to combat liver metastasis primarily due to the insufficient understanding of liver metastasis. To develop a promising strategy for targeting liver metastasis, understanding of a cell origin responsible for liver metastasis and how this cell can be pharmacologically eliminated are therefore crucial. Using diverse tumor models including p53 genetic mouse model and syngeneic tumor models, we identified primordial germ cell (PGC)-like tumor cells, which are enriched in earliest liver micro-metastasis (up to 99%), as a cell origin of liver metastasis. PGC-like tumor cells formed earliest micro-metastasis in liver and gradually differentiated into non-PGC-like tumor cells to constitute late macro-metastasis in the course of tumor metastasis. The liver metastasis-initiating cells (PGC-like tumor cells) display cell renewal and differentiation capabilities, resemble primordial germ cells (PGCs) in morphology and PGC marker gene expression, and express higher level of the genes linked to metastasis and immune escape compared with non-PGC-like tumor cells. Of note, Stellar PGC-like tumor cells, but not Stellar non-PGC-like cells, sorted from primary tumors of p53 mice readily form liver metastasis. Depletion of PGC-like tumor cells through genetic depletion of any of key germ cell genes impairs liver metastasis, while increased PGC-like tumor cells by SMAD2 knockout is correlated with markedly enhanced liver metastasis. Finally, we present the proof of principle evidence that pharmacologically targeting BMP pathways serves as a promising strategy to eliminate PGC-like tumor cells leading to abrogating liver metastasis. Collectively, our study identifies PGC-like tumor cells as a cell origin of liver metastasis, whose depletion by genetically targeting core PGC developmental genes or pharmacologically inhibiting BMP pathways serves a promising strategy for targeting liver metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0145-3DOI Listing
March 2020

Ozone profile retrievals from TROPOMI: Implication for the variation of tropospheric ozone during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 13;764:142886. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Key Lab of Environmental Optics & Technology, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China.

During the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China in January and February 2020, production and living activities were drastically reduced to impede the spread of the virus, which also caused a strong reduction of the emission of primary pollutants. However, as a major species of secondary air pollutant, tropospheric ozone did not reduce synchronously, but instead rose in some region. Furthermore, higher concentrations of ozone may potentially promote the rates of COVID-19 infections, causing extra risk to human health. Thus, the variation of ozone should be evaluated widely. This paper presents ozone profiles and tropospheric ozone columns from ultraviolet radiances detected by TROPOospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) satellite based on the principle of optimal estimation method. We compare our TROPOMI retrievals with global ozonesonde observations, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) observation at Hefei (117.17°E, 31.7°N) and Global Positioning System (GPS) ozonesonde sensor (GPSO) ozonesonde profiles at Beijing (116.46°E, 39.80°N). The integrated Tropospheric Ozone Column (TOC) and Stratospheric Ozone Column (SOC) show excellent agreement with validation data. We use the retrieved TOC combining with tropospheric vertical column density (TVCD) of NO and HCHO from TROPOMI to assess the changes of tropospheric ozone during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China. Although NO TVCD decreased by 63%, the retrieved TOC over east China increase by 10% from the 20-day averaged before the lockdown on January 23, 2020 to 20-day averaged after it. Because the production of ozone in winter is controlled by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indicated by monitored HCHO, which did not present evident change during the lockdown, the production of ozone did not decrease significantly. Besides, the decrease of NO emission weakened the titration of ozone, causing an increase of ozone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550903PMC
April 2021

A novel antigen immunochromatography fluorometric strip for rapid detection and application of pathogenic bacterial high-quality antibody.

J Immunol Methods 2021 Mar 19;494:113014. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 20093, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Unlike traditional immunoassay strips, a novel antigen immunechromatography fluorometric strip (AICFS) using inactivated bacterial antigen instead of an antibody as a test line and goat anti-mouse IgG-FITC as a tracer was developed. The applicability survey of AICFS indicated that E. coli O157:H7 (D3) and Acidovorax citrulli (6F) hybridoma cell cultures could be detected, but Vibrio parahemolyticus (H7, C9) hybridoma cell cultures were missed compared with the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The four antibody affinity constants (Ka) were measured and compared, and AICFS could be suitable for high-affinity antibody detection. Compared with the traditional indirect ELISA, the AICFS sensitivity for D3 cell cultures, ascites, and purified antibodies was at least 2-fold more sensitive, the AICFS specific for D3 cell cultures by comparative interpretation was compliant except for the strain ATCC 43895, and the indirect ELISA missed it. More importantly, the AICFS method was confirmed by various real samples that it could be used in different scenarios regarding the antibody, including McAb preparation, the effective antibody use, and high-affinity antibody-secreted hybridoma auxiliary preparation and screening. It could be an excellent alternative method with less than 5% corresponding processing time for indirect ELISA method for pathogenic bacterial high-quality antibody detection. This is the first report of using AICFS for bacterial high-quality antibody detection and application in different samples, which demonstrates a rapid auxiliary tool for high-affinity antibody secreted-hybridoma screening and an excellent alternative method for high-quality antibody application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2021.113014DOI Listing
March 2021

Vertical distributions of tropospheric SO based on MAX-DOAS observations: Investigating the impacts of regional transport at different heights in the boundary layer.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 May 6;103:119-134. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; Key Lab of Environmental Optics & Technology, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China.

Information on the vertical distribution of air pollutants is essential for understanding their spatiotemporal evolution underlying urban atmospheric environment. This paper presents the SO profiles based on ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements from March 2018 to February 2019 in Hefei, East China. SO decrease rapidly with increasing heights in the warm season, while lifted layers were observed in the cold season, indicating accumulation or long-range transport of SO in different seasons might occur at different heights. The diurnal variations of SO were roughly consistent for all four seasons, exhibiting the minimum at noon and higher values in the morning and late afternoon. Lifted layers of SO were observed in the morning for fall and winter, implying the accumulation or transport of SO in the morning mainly occurred at the top of the boundary layer. The bivariate polar plots showed that weighted SO concentrations in the lower altitude were weakly dependent on wind, but in the middle and upper altitudes, higher weighted SO concentrations were observed under conditions of middle-high wind speed. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis suggested that potential sources of SO in spring and summer were local and transported mainly occurred in the lower altitude from southern and eastern areas; while in fall and winter, SO concentrations were deeply affected by long-range transport from northwestern and northern polluted regions in the middle and upper altitudes. Our findings provide new insight into the impacts of regional transport at different heights in the boundary layer on SO pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.09.036DOI Listing
May 2021