Publications by authors named "Cheng Li"

2,078 Publications

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Real-time confocal microscopy imaging of corneal cytoarchitectural changes induced by different stresses.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Jul 26:108706. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Eye Institute & Affiliated Xiamen Eye Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences & School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Xiamen, China. Electronic address:

Maintenance of the corneal refractive power and tissue transparency is essential for normal vision. Real-time characterization of changes in corneal cells during suffering stresses or wound healing may provide a way to identify novel targets, whose therapeutic manipulation can improve the outcome of this response induced by injury. Here we describe a novel user friendly and effective confocal real-time confocal microscopy attachment that monitors the effects of anisoosmotic stress on cell morphology and corneal thickness in situ. Corneal epithelial nuclei gradually became highly reflective in the isotonic group and the corneal stroma was slightly thickened as compared with that seen prior to 60 min exposure to a hypotonic solution. After 30 min of exposure to hypertonic stress, the corneal stromal cells became crenate and shriveled. The hyper-reflective area of the corneal stroma in the hypo-osmotic group was significantly larger than that in the other two groups, as demonstrated by 3D reconstruction imaging. The hypotonic fresh chlorinated pool water was observed to cause atrophy of corneal epithelial nuclei, while the isosmotic bee venom solution caused high reflection of the corneal stroma layer and corneal endothelial cell damage. With the microscopic attachment, the inward movement of corneal epithelial cells toward the denuded central region was detected in the serum-treated group. The microscopy attachment is an effective system for obtaining a more detailed understanding of the time dependent losses in the corneal cell structure and tissue architecture of full thickness corneas induced by osmotic stress or cytotoxic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2021.108706DOI Listing
July 2021

Effectiveness of smartphone application-based self-management interventions in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Nursing, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Aims: To synthesize evidences on smartphone application-based intervention and determine its effectiveness on glycaemic control, self-management behaviours, psychological well-being, quality of life and cardiometabolic risk factors.

Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Data Sources: Major English and Chinese electronic databases were searched from January 2008 to January 2021, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang and Sinomed.

Review Methods: RCTs were screened and selected if they used smartphone applications to support patients in the self-management of diabetes. Data extraction and methodological assessment were performed by two reviewers independently. Meta-analysis was performed to pool the intervention effect on outcomes of interest using RevMan 5.3.

Results: Across 19 included trials involving 2585 participants, smartphone application-based interventions were associated with a clinically and statistically significant reduction of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Beneficial effects were also observed in participants' behavioural performance, especially in medication adherence. Intervention effects on psychological status, quality of life and cardiometabolic risk factors were nonsignificant. Subgroup analysis showed interactive approach with medium frequency or flexible facilitator-patient interaction induced a larger effect on HbA1c reduction. Besides, patients with baseline HbA1c ≥9% benefited more than those with HbA1c <9% from the use of smartphone applications.

Conclusions: Smartphone application-based diabetes self-management intervention could optimize patients' glycaemic control and enhance participants' self-management performance. Further endeavour is required to examine the long-term effects and cost-effectiveness of smartphone application-based intervention before promoting the adoption and dissemination of such intervention.

Impact: This review supports the potential of smartphone application-based intervention as effective approach to optimize glycaemic control and promote self-management engagement among patients with type 2 diabetes. Suggestions for future research and practice are provided and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.14993DOI Listing
July 2021

rs752107(C > T) Polymorphism Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Essential Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Diseases.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 12;8:675222. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Essential Hypertension (EH) results in the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as Heart Failure (HF) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). A rapidly emerging field involving the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in cardiovascular development and dysfunction has recently drawn extensive attention. In the present study, we conducted a genetic association between genomic variants in Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and EH, HF, IS. A total of 95 SNPs in 12 Wnt signaling genes () were genotyped in 1,860 participants (440 patients with EH, 535 patients with HF, 421 patients with IS and 464 normal control subjects) using Sequenom MassArray technology. rs752107(C > T) was strongly associated with an increased risk of EH, HF and IS. Compared with rs752107 CC genotype, the CT genotype carriers had a 48% increased risk of EH (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.12-1.96, = 0.006), the TT genotype conferred a 139% increased risk of EH (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.32-4.34, = 0.003). Regarding HF and IS, the risk of HF in the T allele carriers (CT + TT) was nearly increased by 58% (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.22-2.04, = 4.40 × 10) and the risk of IS was increased by 37% (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.04-1.79, = 0.025). Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis indicated that rs752107 C allele corresponded to a significant reduction of expression. We described a genetic variant of rs752107 in Wnt/β-catenin signaling strongly associated with the risk of EH, HF and IS for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.675222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310949PMC
July 2021

Integration of Colloidal Quantum Dots with Photonic Structures for Optoelectronic and Optical Devices.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 28:e2101560. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Colloidal quantum dot (QD), a solution-processable nanoscale optoelectronic building block with well-controlled light absorption and emission properties, has emerged as a promising material system capable of interacting with various photonic structures. Integrated QD/photonic structures have been successfully realized in many optical and optoelectronic devices, enabling enhanced performance and/or new functionalities. In this review, the recent advances in this research area are summarized. In particular, the use of four typical photonic structures, namely, diffraction gratings, resonance cavities, plasmonic structures, and photonic crystals, in modulating the light absorption (e.g., for solar cells and photodetectors) or light emission (e.g., for color converters, lasers, and light emitting diodes) properties of QD-based devices is discussed. A brief overview of QD-based passive devices for on-chip photonic circuit integration is also presented to provide a holistic view on future opportunities for QD/photonic structure-integrated optoelectronic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202101560DOI Listing
July 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term Low-Dose Clarithromycin in Patients With Refractory Chronic Sinusitis After Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Prospective Clinical Trial.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Jul 27:1455613211032020. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (Capital Medical University), Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

Objective: To observe the efficacy and safety of postoperative long-term low-dose oral administration of clarithromycin in patients with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (RCRS), to explore the characteristics of postoperative microbiota in the nasal cavity in patients with RCRS, and to compare the differences and changes in microbiota in the nasal cavity before and after medication.

Methods: This was a prospective, self-controlled study. Eighteen patients with RCRS who had persistent symptoms after endoscopic sinus surgery and standard therapy with normal immunoglobulin E and eosinophil level were included. Low dose (250 mg, once daily) clarithromycin was orally administrated for 12 weeks. Symptom severity and endoscopic findings were evaluated before, after 4 weeks, and 12 weeks of treatment, and nasal cavity microbiota was analyzed simultaneously.

Results: A total of 18 patients with RCRS were enrolled and 17 patients completed the study. Four weeks after oral administration of clarithromycin, significant improvement was observed in subjective symptoms including nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, and general discomfort, as well as endoscopic findings including general surgical cavity condition, rhinedema, and rhinorrhea ( < .05). After continuous treatment to the 12th week, symptoms showed significant improvement compared with baseline, and endoscopic score showed significant improvement compared with both baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Analysis of middle nasal meatus flora revealed a significant decrease of after 12 weeks of clarithromycin treatment ( < .05), while the richness, composition, and diversity were similar before and after treatment. Patients enrolled experienced no adverse drug reaction or allergic reaction, nor clinical significant liver function impairment observed.

Conclusion: Postoperative low-dose long-term oral administration of clarithromycin in patients with RCRS can improve the clinical symptoms and facilitate the mucosal epithelialization, with good tolerance and safety. The efficacy of clarithromycin in patients with RCRS may be related to its regulatory effect on nasal cavity microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01455613211032020DOI Listing
July 2021

Interfacial Protection Engineering of Sodium Nanoparticles toward Dendrite-Free and Long-Life Sodium Metal Battery.

Small 2021 Jul 26:e2102400. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, P. R. China.

The instability of interfacial solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer of metallic sodium (Na) anode during cycles results in the rapid capacity decay of sodium metal batteries (SMBs). Herein, the concept of interfacial protection engineering of Na nanoparticles (Na-NPs) is proposed first to achieve stable, dendrite-free, and long-life SMB. Employing an ion-exchange strategy, conformal Sn-Na alloy-SEI on the interface of Na-NPs is constructed, forming [email protected] The stable alloy-based SEI layer possesses the following three advantages: 1) significantly enhancing the transport dynamics of Na ions and electrons; 2) enabling the well-distributed deposition of Na ions to avoid the growth of dendrites; and 3) protecting the [email protected] anode from the attack of electrolyte, thereby reducing the parasitic reaction and boosting the Coulombic efficiency of SMBs. Because of these virtues, the symmetric [email protected] cell shows an ultralow voltage hysteresis of 0.54 V at 10 mA cm after 600 h. Paired with the Na V (PO ) O F (NaVPF) cathode, the [email protected] full cell exhibits an initial discharge capacity of 89.2 mAh g at 1 C and a high capacity retention of 81.6% after 600 cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102400DOI Listing
July 2021

The CT morphological characteristics and the clinical management strategy of posterior malleolar fractures with talar subluxation.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6478-6487. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University Suzhou 215004, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: The optimal clinical treatment and the computed tomography (CT) morphological characteristics of posterior malleolar fractures (PMF) with talar subluxation remain inconclusive. Clinically, both plate screws and lag screws are widely used to fix posterior malleolar fragments using a direct or indirect approach. We sought to summarize the morphological characteristics and modified classification on the basis of CT and the intraoperative strategy for posterior talar subluxation in PMF.

Methods: Retrospectively, 46 adult PMF patients with subluxations of the talus were recruited as the study cohort. According to its morphological features, PMF with subluxation of the talus can be divided mainly into two types using this modified classification: a complete fracture (the single-fragment type) and PMF with two-angled fracture fragments (the double-fragment type). The cohort's demographic information, classifications, fracture morphology, fixation methods, pain levels, and functional scores were recorded for both fracture types.

Results: The average values of the depths and heights of the posterior malleolar fragments were (29.1±7.3) mm for the single-fragment type and (17.9±4.2) mm for the double-fragment type. There was a significant difference in the mean values between the two types ( < 0.05). Posterior plate fixation was suitable for the single-fragment type, while antero-posterior and postero-anterior (AP-PA) lag screws fixations were made available for the double-fragment type. Both methods achieved good results. No significant differences were found in terms of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), side, Haraguchi classification, Bartoníček and Rammelt classification, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores, or American Orthopedic Foot & Ankle Society scores (AOFAS) when comparing the single-/double-fragment type groups after the mid-term follow-up ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: According to the injury mechanism and the morphological characteristics of the fractures, the proposed improved classification system for PMF with subluxation of the talus based on the injury mechanism and the fracture morphology can provide guidance for surgical management strategies and achieve optimal outcomes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290741PMC
June 2021

Knockdown of CNN3 Impairs Myoblast Proliferation, Differentiation, and Protein Synthesis via the mTOR Pathway.

Front Physiol 2021 8;12:659272. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Guangdong Traditional Medical and Sports Injury Rehabilitation Research Institute, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Myogenesis is a complex process that requires optimal outside-in substrate-cell signaling. Calponin 3 (CNN3) plays an important role in regulating myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration; however, the precise function of CNN3 in myogenesis regulation remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of CNN3 in a knockdown model in the mouse muscle cell line C2C12.

Methods: Myoblast proliferation, migration, differentiation, fusion, and protein synthesis were examined in CNN3 knockdown C2C12 mouse muscle cells. Involvement of the mTOR pathway in CNN3 signaling was explored by treating cells with the mTOR activator MHY1485. The regulatory mechanisms of CNN3 in myogenesis were further examined by RNA sequencing and subsequent gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA).

Results: During proliferation, CNN3 knockdown caused a decrease in cell proliferation and migration. During differentiation, CNN3 knockdown inhibited myogenic differentiation, fusion, and protein synthesis in C2C12 cells via the AKT/mTOR and AMPK/mTOR pathways; this effect was reversed by MHY1485 treatment. Finally, KEGG and GSEA indicated that the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway is affected in CNN3 knockdown cell lines.

Conclusion: CNN3 may promote C2C12 cell growth by regulating AKT/mTOR and AMPK/mTOR signaling. The KEGG and GSEA indicated that inhibiting CNN3 may activate several pathways, including the NOD-like receptor pathway and pathways involved in necroptosis, apoptosis, and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.659272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295729PMC
July 2021

[Effect of CT localization of upper airway obstruction site after inducing sleep on the value of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and the effect of surgery].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Aug;35(8):683-688

Department of Otolaryngology,the Central Hospital of Wuhan,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology,Wuhan,430014,China.

To explore the value of CT location of the upper airway obstruction site after inducing sleep on the condition of obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) and its surgical efficacy. Forty patients with moderate-to-severe OSA diagnosed by polysomnography, first performed awake CT scan, then, the patient was slowly injected intravenously with dexmedetomidine to induce sleep, when the patient was apnea during sleep, CT scan of the corresponding part of the upper airway was performed. Compare and measure the cross-sectional area of the upper airway stenosis level in the two states, and evaluate the correlation between the cross-sectional area of the stenosis level after induction of sleep and the patient's AHI, blood oxygen saturation<90% of the time(CT90). According to the change value of the cross-sectional area of each plane, it was divided into 2 groups, 22 cases in first group underwent hypothermia plasma uvulapalatopharyngoplasty, and 18 cases in second group underwent multi-plane combined surgery. After 12 months of follow-up, compare the post-long-term efficacy, changes in cross-sectional area values of various narrow planes before and after surgery, and changes in indicators related to sleep quality between the two groups. Compared with the cross-sectional area of the nasopharyngeal area, posterior soft palate area, the posterior tongue area, and the epiglottis area measured by upper airway CT under awake breathing state, the cross-sectional area of each obstruction plane during sleep state decreased(<0.01). The minimum cross-sectional area of the upper airway plane sleep phase was negatively correlated with AHI and CT90, and the posterior soft palate and the posterior lingual base were highly correlated with AHI and CT90.12 months after treatment, the minimum cross-sectional area of each phase of the sleep phase in the experimental group 1 was significantly improved(<0.01) compared with that before treatment, followed by the posterior tongue area(<0.05). There was no statistical difference between the nasopharyngeal area and the epiglottis area. The differences in nasopharyngeal area, posterior soft palate area, posterior tongue area, and epiglottis area in experimental group 2 after treatment were statistically significant(<0.01 or <0.05), compared with that before treatment. The sleep-related indexes ESS, CT90, AHI, and LSaO₂ of the two groups were better than those before treatment after 12 months of treatment(<0.01). Comparison of experiment group 1 and 2, the effective rates were 72.72% and 95.23%(χ²=10.62, <0.01), the significant efficiency was 58.33% and 80.45%(χ²=8.62, <0.01), and the cure rates were 12.37% and 17.48%(x²=7.62, <0.01). CT examination of OSA patients after drug-induced sleep is safe and feasible, and it has important value for the accurate location of the upper airway obstruction site. 64-slice spiral CT upper airway scanning under induced sleep has guiding significance for the evaluation of OSA patients' condition and long-term surgical efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2021.08.003DOI Listing
August 2021

Immune-related long non-coding RNAs can serve as prognostic biomarkers for clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Jun;10(6):2478-2492

Department of Hematology, Baise People's Hospital, Baise, China.

Background: The immune microenvironment is a critical regulator of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) progression. However, the underlying mechanisms the regulatory role of immune-related long non-coding RNAs (irlncRNAs) in the ccRCC tumor microenvironment (TME) are still obscure. Herein, we investigated prognostics role of irlncRNAs for ccRCC.

Methods: The raw data of patients with ccRCC were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and immune-related genes were obtained from the ImmPort database. First, we investigated the correlation between the immune-related genes and irlncRNAs. Then, we identified the differentially expressed irlncRNA pairs (ILRPs) between normal and cancer tissue samples, and prognostic model was constructed with the differentially expressed ILRPs. We further explored whether the signature risk scores of ILRPs had a considerable impact on immune cell infiltration. Finally, we performed a drug sensitivity analysis based on risk score.

Results: There were 13 upregulated and 40 downregulated irlncRNAs between the ccRCC and normal tissue samples. We further selected the irlncRNAs that significantly affect the prognosis of patients with ccRCC via univariate Cox, lasso regression, and multivariate regression analyses. Twelve ILRPs were used to construct a prognostic signature. The model showed the ILRPs model could be used to assess the prognosis of ccRCC patients. Study of the influence of risk score and clinical characteristics on the prognosis of patients with ccRCC showed risk score to be an independent factor affecting the outcome of ccRCC. We further performed the difference analysis of immune cell abundance between ccRCC and normal tissue samples. The results showed that patients with higher abundance of M0 macrophages, plasma cells, follicular helper T cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) had a poor outcome. Finally, we performed a drug sensitivity analysis based on risk score. The results showed that high-risk score patients are sensitive to orafenib, sunitinib, temsirolimus, cisplatin, and gemcitabine.

Conclusions: Our study has developed a novel and reasonable ILPRs model for prognostic prediction, which does not require transcriptional levels to be detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261450PMC
June 2021

Original article: Spinal beta-amyloid1-42 acts as an endogenous analgesic peptide in CCI-induced neuropathic pain.

Eur J Pain 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education of China), Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, 100142, China.

Background: The mechanism for reduced pain sensitivity associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not been illustrated. We hypothesize that amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) in the spinal cord acts as an endogenous analgesic peptide to suppress pain induced by nerve injury.

Methods: We used chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) to produce neuropathic pain in Sprague-Dawley rats. ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the level of Aβ1-42, the expression of Wnt3a/5b, and glial activation in the spinal cord. Western blotting was used to determine the expression of interleukins, the phosphorylation of NR2B and ERK1/2, and the nuclear accumulation of transcriptional factors YAP/TAZ. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were assessed after CCI and pharmacological manipulations through intrathecal administration.

Results: Nerve injury increases spinal level of Aβ1-42, while intrathecal administration of MK-8931 reduces the level of Aβ1-42 and facilitates mechanical allodynia. Intrathecal administration of Aβ1-42 suppresses pain behaviors in the early and late phases of neuropathy. Spinal administration of Aβ1-42 regulates the expression of interleukins, reducing glial activation and phosphorylation of NR2B and ERK1/2 in the spinal cord of CCI rats. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of Aβ1-42 decreases Wnt5b expression and suppresses the nuclear accumulation of YAP and TAZ. Blocking the interaction between Aβ1-42 and Frizzled receptors by cSP5 reverses the analgesic effects of Aβ1-42.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that spinal Aβ1-42 acts as an endogenous analgesic peptide through regulating cytokines and Wnt pathways. This study may provide a potential target for the development of novel analgesic peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1843DOI Listing
July 2021

Posterior Locking Plate Fixation of Bartoníček Type IV Posterior Malleolar Fracture: A Focus on Die-Punch Fragment Size.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Surgeon, Department of Orthopaedics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Die-punch fragments refer to articular cartilage and subchondral bone embedded in cancellous bone as part of an intra-articular fracture. Bartoníček type IV posterior malleolar fractures with associated die-punch fragments are rare, and the appropriate surgical approach remains unclear. We determined outcomes, and the effect of die-punch fragment size on outcomes, for 32 patients with Bartoníček type IV posterior malleolar fractures with die-punch fragments between January 2015 and December 2017. Mean follow-up for all patients was 23.8 (range 20.0-30.0) months. At the final follow-up visit, mean ankle dorsal extension was 24.6° and plantar flexion was 40.0°; American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was 88.6 ± 4.3; visual analog scale weightbearing pain score was 1.5 ± 0.6; and Bargon traumatic arthritis score was 0.8 ± 0.4. There were no severe complications. We divided patients into a small-fragment (≤3 mm) group (n = 12) and large-fragment (>3 mm) group (n = 20). The Bargon scores at final follow-up were 0.5 and 1, respectively (P=.02). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups for the other outcome scores at various time intervals. The posterolateral approach with distal locking plate internal fixation for Bartoníček type IV posterior malleolar fractures with die-punch fragments can result in excellent anatomical reduction of the collapsed articular surface and the displaced fragment from the tibial plafond, recovery of articular surface congruity, and maintenance of joint stability. Die-punch fragment size may not impact clinical and functional outcomes but may contribute to post-traumatic arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2020.08.036DOI Listing
June 2021

Novel Cell Culture Paradigm Prolongs Mouse Corneal Epithelial Cell Proliferative Activity and .

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 30;9:675998. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Eye Institute & Affiliated Xiamen Eye Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

It has been a long-standing challenge to obtain from cell cultures adequate amounts of mouse corneal epithelial cells (mCEC) to perform transplantation surgery. This limitation is attributable to the passage dependent declines in their proliferative activity. We describe here development of a novel 6C medium that contains six different modulators of different signaling pathways, which control proliferative mCEC activity. Its usage shortens the time and effort required to obtain epithelial sheets for hastening healing of an epithelial wound in an experimental animal model. This serum-free 6C medium contains:Y27632, forskolin, SB431542, DAPT, IWP-2, LDN-193189 and also DermaLife K keratinocyte calcium. Their inclusion inhibits rises in four specific markers of epithelial mesenchymal transdifferentiation:, , β and α. This medium is applied in a feeder-free air-lifted system to obtain sufficient populations of epithelial progenitor cells whose procurement is facilitated due to suppression of progenitor epithelial cell transdifferentiation into epithelial-mesenchymal cells. Diminution of this decline in transdifferentiation was confirmed based on the invariance of , , , and gene expression levels. This cell culture technique is expected to facilitate characterization of mechanisms underlying cell fate determination. Furthermore, its implementation will improve yields of progenitor mouse corneal epithelial cells, which increases the likelihood of using these cells as a source to generate epithelial sheets for performing transplantation surgery to treat limbal stem cell deficiency in a clinical setting. In addition, the novel insight obtainable from such studies is expected to improve the outcomes of corneal regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.675998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278007PMC
June 2021

Effect of starch-hydrocolloid complexes with heat-moisture treatment on digestibility.

Food Funct 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Biological Colloids, Ministry of Education, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China and Department of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China and Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of starch-hydrocolloid (gum arabic, xanthan gum, and guar gum) complexes with heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on in vivo digestibility. In vivo digestibility experiments revealed that the body weight, liver weight, and fat index of mice in the intervention group were significantly reduced compared with those in the high-fat group. Glucose tolerance improved, and blood lipid levels, liver and adipose tissue morphology returned to normal. The results of mRNA expression levels showed that the intervention of corn starch-hydrocolloid complexes after HMT down-regulated the expression level of genes related to fat synthesis compared with the high-fat group, which could decrease lipid deposition and stabilize blood lipid levels. Results revealed that starch-xanthan gum complex (1 : 40 ratio) with HMT could markedly reduce the digestibility of starch. Overall, this study provides new ideas for the application of low-glycemic-index and functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01586aDOI Listing
July 2021

Construction and Validation of a Novel Eight-Gene Risk Signature to Predict the Progression and Prognosis of Bladder Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 29;11:632459. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Urology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The progression from non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) increases the risk of death. It is therefore important to find new relevant molecular models that will allow for effective prediction of the progression and prognosis of bladder cancer (BC). Using RNA-Sequence data of 49 BC patients in Shanghai tenth people's hospital (STPH) and weighted gene co-expression network analysis methods, a co-expression network of genes was developed and three key modules associated with malignant progression were selected. Based on the genes in three key modules, an eight-gene risk signature was established using univariate Cox regression and the Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator Cox model in The Cancer Genome Atlas Program (TCGA) and validated in validation sets. Subsequently, a nomogram based on the risk signature was constructed for prognostic prediction. The mRNA and protein expression levels of eight genes in cell lines and tissues were further investigated. The novel eight-gene risk signature was closely related to the malignant clinical features of BC and could predict the prognosis of patients in the training dataset (TCGA) and four validation sets (GSE32894, GSE13507, IMvigor210 trial, and STPH). The nomogram showed good prognostic prediction and calibration. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the eight genes were differentially expressed in cell lines and tissues. In our study, we established a novel eight-gene risk signature that could predict the progression and prognoses of BC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.632459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276675PMC
June 2021

Isoflurane impairs oogenesis through germ cell apoptosis in C. elegans.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 14;11(1):14481. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Geriatric Anesthesia Research Unit, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 149 13th Street, Room 4310, Charlestown, MA, 02129-2060, USA.

Anesthetic isoflurane has been reported to induce toxicity. However, the effects of isoflurane on fecundity remain largely unknown. We established a system in C. elegans to investigate the effects of isoflurane on oogenesis. Synchronized L4 stage C. elegans were treated with 7% isoflurane for 4 h. Dead cells, ROS, embryos, and unfertilized eggs laid by hermaphrodites were measured by fluorescence imaging and counting. The C. elegans with losses of ced-3, cep-1, abl-1, male C. elegans, and oxidative stress inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine were used in the interaction studies. We found that isoflurane decreased the numbers of embryos and unfertilized eggs and increased the levels of dead cells and ROS in C. elegans. The isoflurane-induced impairment of oogenesis was associated with abl-1, ced-3, but not cep-1. N-acetyl-cysteine attenuated the isoflurane-induced impairment of oogenesis in C. elegans. Mating with male C. elegans did not attenuate the isoflurane-induced changes in oogenesis. These findings suggest that isoflurane may impair oogenesis through abl-1- and ced-3-associated, but not cep-1-associated, germ cell apoptosis and oxidative stress, pending further investigation. These studies will promote more research to determine the potential effects of anesthesia on fecundity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93737-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280124PMC
July 2021

PeV gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula.

Science 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

The Crab Nebula is a bright source of gamma-rays powered by the Crab Pulsar's rotational energy, through the formation and termination of a relativistic electron-positron wind. We report the detection of γ-rays from this source with energies from 5 × 10 to 1.1 petaelectronvolts (PeV), with a spectrum showing gradual steepening over three energy decades. The ultra-high-energy photons imply the presence of a PeV electron accelerator (a pevatron) in the nebula, with an acceleration rate exceeding 15% of the theoretical limit. We constrain the pevatron's size between 0.025 and 0.1 pc, and magnetic field ≈110 μG. The production rate of PeV electrons, 2.5 × 10 erg s, constitutes 0.5% of the pulsar spin-down luminosity, although we cannot exclude a contribution of PeV protons to the production of the highest energy γ-rays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abg5137DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of different plastic film mulching on soil hydrothermal conditions and grain-filling process in an arid irrigation district.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 5;795:148886. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China; College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China; Institute of Water-saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China; Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

Plastic film mulching has been extensively used for spring maize (Zea mays L.) production in the Hetao Irrigation District (HID). Determining whether transparent plastic film mulching results in premature senescence and yield reduction of spring maize still needs to be verified. A two-year field experiment was conducted in the HID that involved planting spring maize under three mulching practices on a flat plot 1) without mulching (control treatment, CK), 2) with black plastic film mulching (BM), 3) with transparent plastic film mulching (TM). The results indicated that TM and BM were superior to CK in terms of effects on soil hydrothermal conditions. Compared with BM, TM produced significantly higher soil temperature at V6, and had no significant temperature effect at V12, R1, R3, and R6. Both TM and BM promoted early seedling emergence and earlier silking, and TM extended the duration of the reproductive stages by 1-2 days compared with BM, and 4-5 days longer than CK. TM and BM produced greater kernel weights and kernel volumes in the superior and middle portions of the ear than CK. TM produced significantly greater total kernel weights per ear than BM at and after 23 days after silking. TM significantly increased grain-filling rate and length of the active grain-filling period compared with BM and CK. Additionally, TM and BM produced significantly higher photosynthetic parameters than CK at the grain-filling stage in the two study years. The net photosynthesis rate for TM was significantly greater than for BM. TM and BM significantly increased grain yields by 28.1% and 15.1%, respectively, in 2019 over CK, and by 24.6% and 21.1% in 2020. Transparent plastic film mulching could serve as a promising adaptive management practice to increase resource use efficiency and to improve maize productivity in the HID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148886DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of organic matter, ammonia, bromide, and hydrogen peroxide on bromate formation during water ozonation.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 3;285:131352. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Beijing Research Center for Agricultural Standards and Testing, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, 100097, China.

Ozone is widely applied for disinfection in drinking water treatment and the disinfection by-product bromate would be produced during the ozonation of bromide-bearing water. Hydrogen peroxide (HO) addition could effectively control the formation of bromate. However, the bromate depression performance would be impacted by water qualities. In this study, typical source water containing bromide in eastern China was selected to investigate bromate depression effect under different organic matter, ammonia and bromide concentrations during the HO-O process. The results display that organic matter, ammonia and bromide concentration could influence the formation of bromate significantly. As tyrosine was applied to increase the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of source water by 2.0 and 3.0 mg/L, the total concentration of bromate produced decreased gradually as the HO/O (g/g) doses increased from 0 to 1.0 and bromate concentration could be controlled below 10 μg/L as HO/O (g/g) was 0.5 and 1.0. As ammonia concentration increased by 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L, lower HO/O (g/g) doses would lead to an increase in bromate generation. As more HO was added in water, the bromate formation would be suppressed. The increase of bromide concentration induced higher bromate formation. When the bromide concentration increased by 50 and 200 μg/L, bromate concentration was 10.7 μg/L and 41.2 μg/L respectively at the HO/O (g/g) of 1.0, higher than the standard level. As 200 μg/L of bromide was added to the water, bromate concentration increased significantly and then decreased as HO/O (g/g) increased and more HO would be needed for bromate control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131352DOI Listing
July 2021

Pathogenic gene variation spectrum and carrier screening for Wilson's disease in Qingdao area.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Jul 9:e1741. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Qingdao Women and Children's Hospital, Qingdao, China.

Background: Despite the increasing number of reports on the analysis of ATP7B variants, reports on carrier screening for Wilson's disease (WD, OMIM:277900) are rare.

Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 42 patients from Qingdao Women and Children's Hospital diagnosed with WD for direct sequencing of ATP7B gene. Twelve hotspot variants of ATP7B were selected for carrier screening in Qingdao area based on an analysis of information related to ATP7B variants and literature reports in China. We screened 5012 dried blood spots (DBSs) from asymptomatic newborns in Qingdao area to estimate carrier frequency. DNA was extracted from dried blood spots. Gene sequencing was performed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with second-generation sequencing. The carrier frequency of each hotspot variant was calculated using the count data (expressed as number of carriers (%) obtained by direct counting.

Results: The carrier frequency of 12 hotspot variants was 1.46% (95% CI: 1.16-1.83%). The ATP7B variant with the highest carrier frequency was c.2333G>T, accounting for 54.79% of all variants screened, followed by c.2975C>T and c.2621C>T, accounting for 17.81% and 15.07% of all variants screened, respectively.

Conclusion: Carrier frequency of ATP7B gene pathogenic variants is high in the population in Qingdao area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1741DOI Listing
July 2021

Eosinophils Correlate with Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.

ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2021 Jul 6:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (Capital Medical University), Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

Introduction: Chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling always occur together in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodeling.

Objective: Changes of epithelial cells in sinus mucosa in different subtypes of CRS, especially in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and the role of EMT and eosinophils (EOS) in airway remodeling are still unknown.

Methods: We included 85 patients in this study. They were divided into 4 groups: a normal control (NC) group, a chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) group, an eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (ECRSwNP) group, and a noneosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (non-ECRSwNP) group. Clinical data were all collected and analyzed. Standard hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining, and 2-color immunofluorescence staining were performed. Biomarkers of EMT, epithelial cadherin, and vimentin were labeled. The immunohistochemistry results of each group were counted and statistically analyzed.

Results And Conclusion: E-cadherin was downregulated, and vimentin was upregulated in epithelial tissue from the ECRSwNP group, compared with that from the control group and the other groups. The number of vimentin-expressing epithelial cells correlated with sinus CT imaging Lund-Mackay scores (r = 0.560, p < 0.001). Moreover, expression levels of vimentin in the epithelium were associated with numbers of infiltrating EOS in tissues (r = 0.710, p < 0.001) and the peripheral blood EOS ratio (r = 0.594, p < 0.001). EMT occurred in patients with CRSwNP, especially in those with ECRSwNP. Epithelial reprogramming correlates with eosinophil infiltration and disease severity. Eosinophils contributed to impairment of epithelial function and promoted EMT in CRSwNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516847DOI Listing
July 2021

Carbon footprint of a winter wheat-summer maize cropping system under straw and plastic film mulching in the Loess Plateau of China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 23;794:148590. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to calculate the carbon footprint (CF) of straw and plastic film mulching practices in order to identify the optimum field management for low-carbon agriculture. A four-year field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different mulching measurements on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, grain yield, and CF of a winter wheat-summer maize cropping system in the Loess Plateau of China. Mulching treatments were no mulching (NM), straw mulching (SM), half plastic film mulching (HPM); full plastic film mulching (FPM), and ridge-furrow planting with film mulching over ridges (RPM). Plastic film mulching decreased NO emissions compared with NM. However, SM significantly increased direct NO emissions by 59.2% and indirect NO emissions by 16.2%. Average annual total GHG emissions calculated by life cycle assessment were 5199-7631 kg CO-eq ha yr. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer was the largest contributor to total GHG emissions, accounting for >41%. For plastic film mulching treatments, the second greatest contributor was plastic film, accounting for 21.1-35.7% of total GHG emissions. In contrast, the second greatest contributor was direct and indirect NO and CH emissions under NM (17.2%) and SM (21.6%). Emissions from diesel consumption was the third largest component of total GHG emissions. All mulching treatments showed significantly greater annual grain yield than the NM treatment. The CF of summer maize yield was higher than that of winter wheat. SM showed the lowest CF (0.38 kg CO-eq kg), and plastic film mulching increased CFs compared with NM. These results suggest that SM should be the priority mulching practice used to increase yield and to reduce the CF of winter wheat-summer maize production in the Loess Plateau, China. Optimizing N fertilizer application rates should be one of the key production strategies employed to mitigate agricultural GHG emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148590DOI Listing
June 2021

Trifluralin residues in soils from main cotton fields of China and associated ecological risk.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 23;284:131300. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Beijing Research Center for Agricultural Standards and Testing, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, 100097, China; Risk Assessment Lab for Agro-products (Beijing), Ministry of Agriculture PR China, Beijing, 100097, China. Electronic address:

Trifluralin is a widely used dinitroaniline herbicide in cotton fields of China but is highly persistent in the environment and can act as a biotoxin and cause genotoxicity to terrestrial organisms, including humans. In this study, the concentrations and distribution of trifluralin residues in 139 soil samples from the major cotton-producing areas of China were investigated. The trifluralin concentrations ranged from ND (not detected) to 66.39 μg/kg dry weight (dw), with a geometric mean of 4.13 μg/kg dw. The detection frequency of trifluralin in Hebei (75%) was higher than that in Xinjiang (66%) and Shandong (40%), but the mean trifluralin concentration was highest in Xinjiang (5.98 μg/kg dw), followed by Hebei (5.06 μg/kg dw) and Shandong (3.19 μg/kg dw). No trifluralin residues were detected in cotton soil in Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan. The residual amount of trifluralin in soil was significantly correlated with the soil organic matter content. The risk quotient method was used to evaluate the ecological risks associated with trifluralin. Results indicated that trifluralin in all the samples had a low risk to earthworms, but trifluralin in same cotton soils showed high risks to wheat, barley and lucerne. Overall, our work is helpful to understand the residual situation of trifluralin in Chinese cotton soil, to assess the environmental risk of trifluralin, and to control the use and safety of trifluralin in cotton field cultivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131300DOI Listing
June 2021

Antibody Cocktail Exhibits Broad Neutralization Activity Against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 Variants.

Virol Sin 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has precipitated multiple variants resistant to therapeutic antibodies. In this study, 12 high-affinity antibodies were generated from convalescent donors in early outbreaks using immune antibody phage display libraries. Of them, two RBD-binding antibodies (F61 and H121) showed high-affinity neutralization against SARS-CoV-2, whereas three S2-target antibodies failed to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Following structure analysis, F61 identified a linear epitope located in residues G446-S494, which overlapped with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding sites, while H121 recognized a conformational epitope located on the side face of RBD, outside from ACE2 binding domain. Hence the cocktail of the two antibodies achieved better performance of neutralization to SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, these two antibodies also showed efficient neutralizing activities to the variants including B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, and reacted with mutations of N501Y, E484K, and L452R, indicated that it may also neutralize the recent India endemic strain B.1.617. The unchanged binding activity of F61 and H121 to RBD with multiple mutations revealed a broad neutralizing activity against variants, which mitigated the risk of viral escape. Our findings revealed the therapeutic basis of cocktail antibodies against constantly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and provided promising candidate antibodies to clinical treatment of COVID-19 patients infected with broad SARS-CoV-2 variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-021-00409-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255729PMC
July 2021

Knockdown of Lingo-1 by short hairpin RNA promotes cognitive function recovery in a status convulsion model.

3 Biotech 2021 Jul 16;11(7):339. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400014 China.

The purpose of this study was to determine the dynamic changes of the Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) pathway during epileptogenesis and the potential beneficial of leucine-rich repeat and Ig-like domain-containing Nogo receptor interacting protein 1 (Lingo-1) inhibition on epilepsy rats. The hippocampal changes of the NgR1 pathway during epileptogenesis were determined by western blot analysis of multiple proteins, including neurite outgrowth inhibitor protein A (NogoA), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), Lingo-1, ras homolog family member A (RhoA) and phosphorylated RhoA (p-RhoA). Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to knockdown the hippocampal expression of Lingo-1. Novel object recognition (NOR) test and Morris Water Maze (MWM) test were employed to determine the cognitive functions of rats. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, protein expressions of RhoA, p-RhoA, and myelin basic protein (MBP), as well as convulsion susceptibility test were additionally performed. Our results showed that the NgR1 pathway was activated during epileptogenesis, characterized by up-regulation of NogoA, MAG, OMgp, and Lingo-1, which was especially significant at the chronic phase of epilepsy. The cognitive function, convulsion susceptibility and hippocampal neuronal survival of rats were impaired at the chronic phase of epileptogenesis but all improved by Lingo-1 inhibition; besides, the hippocampal protein expressions of p-RhoA and MBP were significantly decreased at the chronic phase of SC rats but increased after Lingo-1 inhibition. Our results demonstrated that Lingo-1 shRNA can improve epilepsy-induced cognitive impairment, which may be related with the pro-myelination and neuroprotection effects of Lingo-1 inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02876-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209134PMC
July 2021

Optimization of Nonlinear Lamb Wave Detection System Parameters in CFRP Laminates.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 9;14(12). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Science Road 100, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates, as unique multifunctional materials, are widely applied in various aircraft, such as airliners, fighter planes, and space shuttles. To ensure aircraft safety during the production and application of CFRP laminates, it is necessary to improve the accuracy of nonlinear Lamb wave nondestructive testing to assess the damage in CFRP laminates caused by impact, high temperature, friction, corrosion, etc. In this study, the accuracy of nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive testing was found to highly depend on the cycle number, output level and gain of the nonlinear ultrasonic detection system. Based on a single-factor experiment that considered the cycle number, output level, and gain of the amplifier as independent variables, a regression analysis was carried out on the fundamental wave amplitude value (A) and second harmonic amplitude value (A). Two response surface surrogate models were established to improve the accuracy of nonlinear Lamb wave nondestructive testing and to optimize the detection system parameters. The response surface models were verified via an analysis of variance (ANOVA), significance tests and an error statistical analysis. The results revealed the significant influence of these three factors on A and A. Optimization of the response surface was achieved at eight cycles, an output level of 42 and a gain of 32 dB. Moreover, the nonlinear ultrasonic detection system achieved good operational stability, high accuracy and reliability under the above optimal parameter conditions. This approach provides scientific guidance for the accurate assessment of CFRP laminate damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14123186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227716PMC
June 2021

Multi-Sensor and Decision-Level Fusion-Based Structural Damage Detection Using a One-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 8;21(12). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

This paper presents a novel approach to substantially improve the detection accuracy of structural damage via a one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1-D CNN) and a decision-level fusion strategy. As structural damage usually induces changes in the dynamic responses of a structure, a CNN can effectively extract structural damage information from the vibration signals and classify them into the corresponding damage categories. However, it is difficult to build a large-scale sensor system in practical engineering; the collected vibration signals are usually non-synchronous and contain incomplete structure information, resulting in some evident errors in the decision stage of the CNN. In this study, the acceleration signals of multiple acquisition points were obtained, and the signals of each acquisition point were used to train a 1-D CNN, and their performances were evaluated by using the corresponding testing samples. Subsequently, the prediction results of all CNNs were fused (decision-level fusion) to obtain the integrated detection results. This method was validated using both numerical and experimental models and compared with a control experiment (data-level fusion) in which all the acceleration signals were used to train a CNN. The results confirmed that: by fusing the prediction results of multiple CNN models, the detection accuracy was significantly improved; for the numerical and experimental models, the detection accuracy was 10% and 16-30%, respectively, higher than that of the control experiment. It was demonstrated that: training a CNN using the acceleration signals of each acquisition point and making its own decision (the CNN output) and then fusing these decisions could effectively improve the accuracy of damage detection of the CNN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21123950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226517PMC
June 2021

Transcriptionally inactive hepatitis B virus episome DNA preferentially resides in the vicinity of chromosome 19 in 3D host genome upon infection.

Cell Rep 2021 Jun;35(13):109288

National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing, China; Tsinghua Institute of Multidisciplinary Biomedical Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects 257 million people worldwide. HBV infection requires establishment and persistence of covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA, a viral episome, in nucleus. Here, we study cccDNA spatial localization in the 3D host genome by using chromosome conformation capture-based sequencing analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We show that transcriptionally inactive cccDNA is not randomly distributed in host nucleus. Rather, it is preferentially accumulated at specialized areas, including regions close to chromosome 19 (chr.19). Activation of the cccDNA is apparently associated with its re-localization, from a pre-established heterochromatin hub formed by 5 regions of chr.19 to transcriptionally active regions formed by chr.19 and nearby chromosomes including chr.16, 17, 20, and 22. This active versus inactive positioning at discrete regions of the host genome is primarily controlled by the viral HBx protein and by host factors including the structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 5/6 (SMC5/6) complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109288DOI Listing
June 2021

Low-carbohydrate diets lead to greater weight loss and better glucose homeostasis than exercise: a randomized clinical trial.

Front Med 2021 Jun 29;15(3):460-471. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Lifestyle interventions, including dietary adjustments and exercise, are important for obesity management. This study enrolled adults with overweight or obesity to explore whether either low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) or exercise is more effective in metabolism improvement. Forty-five eligible subjects were randomly divided into an LCD group (n = 22) and an exercise group (EX, n = 23). The subjects either adopted LCD (carbohydrate intake < 50 g/day) or performed moderate-to-vigorous exercise (⩾ 30 min/day) for 3 weeks. After the interventions, LCD led to a larger weight loss than EX ( - 3.56 ± 0.37 kg vs. - 1.24 ± 0.39 kg, P < 0.001), as well as a larger reduction in fat mass ( - 2.10 ± 0.18 kg vs. - 1.25 ± 0.24 kg, P = 0.007) and waist circumference ( - 5.25 ± 0.52 cm vs. - 3.45 ± 0.38 cm, P = 0.008). Both interventions reduced visceral and subcutaneous fat and improved liver steatosis and insulin resistance. Triglycerides decreased in both two groups, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in the LCD group but decreased in the EX group. Various glycemic parameters, including serum glycated albumin, mean sensor glucose, coefficient of variability (CV), and largest amplitude of glycemic excursions, substantially declined in the LCD group. Only CV slightly decreased after exercise. This pilot study suggested that the effects of LCD and exercise are similar in alleviating liver steatosis and insulin resistance. Compared with exercise, LCD might be more efficient for weight loss and glucose homeostasis in people with obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-021-0861-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Konjac anthracnose is caused by in Yunnan Province of China.

Authors:
Li Cheng

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Huaxi District, Guiyang City, Guizhou ProvinceGuiyang, China, 550025;

Konjac (Amorphophallus konjac) is an economically important traditional crop in Fengqing County, Yunnan Province, China. Anthracnose symptoms were observed on this crop in June and July of 2020. The plants developed round, oval, or irregular leaf spots with brown edges and central taupe spots, and exhibited serious defoliation and tree weakness. Disease incidence in affected fields reached up to 35%. Anthracnose caused significant economic losses in konjac production and became a limiting factor of the konjac industry in Fengqing County. To date, no control measures of konjac anthracnose have been reported and tested in China. To determine the causal pathogen, symptomatic leaves were collected and cut into 5 mm2 pieces. The leaf peces were surface sterilized in 70% ethanol for 10 s, followed by treatment with 0.1% mercuric chloride for 3 min and three rinses in sterile distilled water. The tissue pieces were transferred onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 28°C. After 4 days of incubation, hyphal tips from leaf pieces were transferred to new PDA to generate pure cultures. The hyphae were initially white, and then became dark green; red-orange conidial masses were observed on the mycelium plate surface at a growth rate of 13.14 mm/day. The conidia, observed under 400× magnification, were colorless, long-oval to fusiform, one-celled, and 15.4 to 18.2 × 3.3 to 5.9 μm in size. To identify the isolate, the genomic DNA of the pathogen was extracted using the CTAB method. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene, and β-tubulin (TUB) gene were PCR amplified using the ITS1/ITS4, GDF/GDR, and Bt2a/Bt2b primer pairs, respectively (Lee et al. 2020). BLASTn search of the obtained 536 bp ITS fragment (GenBank accession no. MT785772), 229 bp GAPDH sequence (MW187543), and 717 bp TUB sequence (MW187544) revealed a 99.44% to 99.63% sequence homology (100% query cover) with ITS (JQ005152, 99.44%), GADPH (JQ005239, 99.63%), and TUB (JQ005587, 99.60%) sequences of the C. gloeosporioides type strain CBS 112999, respectively. The highest homology with other Colletotrichum species was only 98.16%, including C. siamense, the causal agent of anthracnose in A. paeoniifolius and A. konjac (Prasad et al. 2017; Wu et al. 2020). To complete Koch's postulates, leaves of 3-month-old konjac plants grown in the field were sprayed with a conidial suspension (106 spores/ml) of the isolate YNFQ-1 (sterile water was used as a negative control). Approximately 5 days after inoculation with YNFQ-1, symptoms similar to those in natural conditions appeared, whereas the negative control plants and fruits inoculated with the sterile water had no disease. The pathogen was re-isolated (strain YNFQ-1) from inoculated leaf tissues, and its identity was confirmed with both morphological and molecular (DNA sequences) tools, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates. The culture properties, morphological characteristics, and molecular identification confirmed the identity of the pathogen as C. gloeosporioides. There have been many reports about anthracnose of Amorphophallus; C. siamense causes anthracnose on A. paeoniifolius in India (Prasad et al. 2017) and A. konjac in Hubei, China (Wu et al. 2020), and C. gloeosporioides causes anthracnose of A. muelleri in Yunnan, China (Yang et al. 2020). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. gloeosporioides causing anthracnose on A. konjac in Fengqing County, China. The results are expected to have important implications in the diagnosis, control, and future research of anthracnose on A. konjac.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-21-0945-PDNDOI Listing
June 2021
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