Publications by authors named "Cheng Guo"

473 Publications

Development of a capture sequencing assay for enhanced detection and genotyping of tick-borne pathogens.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12384. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Inadequate sensitivity has been the primary limitation for implementing high-throughput sequencing for studies of tick-borne agents. Here we describe the development of TBDCapSeq, a sequencing assay that uses hybridization capture probes that cover the complete genomes of the eleven most common tick-borne agents found in the United States. The probes are used for solution-based capture and enrichment of pathogen nucleic acid followed by high-throughput sequencing. We evaluated the performance of TBDCapSeq to surveil samples that included human whole blood, mouse tissues, and field-collected ticks. For Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti, the sensitivity of TBDCapSeq was comparable and occasionally exceeded the performance of agent-specific quantitative PCR and resulted in 25 to > 10,000-fold increase in pathogen reads when compared to standard unbiased sequencing. TBDCapSeq also enabled genome analyses directly within vertebrate and tick hosts. The implementation of TBDCapSeq could have major impact in studies of tick-borne pathogens by improving detection and facilitating genomic research that was previously unachievable with standard sequencing approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91956-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196166PMC
June 2021

Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone-7) supplementation does not affect vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors activity in healthy individuals.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26221

Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: Vitamin K has long been regarded as a procoagulant drug by physicians, and concerns have been raised with regard to its effects on hemostasis. Although many studies have shown that vitamin K supplementation is safe for thrombotic events, the effect of vitamin K supplementation on the activities of vitamin K dependent procoagulation factors in healthy individuals is not available.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether vitamin K2 supplementation at recommended doses affects the activity of vitamin K dependent procoagulation factors in healthy individuals without any anticoagulation treatment.

Design: Forty healthy volunteers between 25 and 40 years of age were recruited. Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was administrated at 90 μg for 30 days. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), and blood coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X activities and Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) were measured on days 0 and 30 after MK-7 administration.

Results: PT, APTT, and TT showed no significant differences on day 30 when compared with baseline. The activities of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X on day 30 showed no significant differences with those at baseline. PIVKA-II levels were unchanged after 30 days of MK-7 supplementation.

Conclusions: MK-7 supplementation at recommended dosage does not affect vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors' coagulation activity, and does not enhance the carboxylation of prothrombin in healthy individuals. This indicated that MK-7 administration does not alter hemostatic balance in healthy populations without anticoagulation treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202544PMC
June 2021

First Report of Maize Stalk Rot Caused by Fusarium nelsonii in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Plant Protection, Lanzhou, China;

Maize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the main crops in Ningxia Province, China, and stalk rot has become a serious disease of maize in this area. Infected plants showed softening of the stalks at lower internodes, which lodged easily and died prematurely during grain filling, and the pith tissue internally appeared to be disintegrating and slightly brown to reddish. In September 2018, symptomatic tissue was collected from seventeen locations in Ningxia. The incidence ranged from 5% to 40% in surveyed fields, reaching as high as 86% in certain plots. The discolored stalk pith tissues from the lesion region were cut into small pieces (approximately 0.5 × 0.2 cm), superficially disinfected with 75% ethanol for 1 min and rinsed three times with sterile water before plating on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium with chloromycetin. The purified strains were obtained by single-spore separation and transferred to PDA and carnation leaf agar (CLA) medium. Morphological and molecular characteristics confirmed the presence of nine Fusarium species in these samples, including Fusarium graminearum species complex and Fusarium verticillioides. Four isolates of Fusarium nelsonii were recovered from samples collected in Shizuishan and Wuzhong. On PDA plates, the floccose to powdery, white to rose-colored aerial mycelia were produced and covered plates after 8 days of incubation, producing abundant mesoconidia and chlamydospores. Mesoconidia were fusiform or lanceolate until slightly curved with 0-3 septa, and chlamydospores were initially smooth and transparent, and became verrucous and light brown. Macroconidia produced in CLA were straight or curved and falcate, usually having 3-5 septa, with beak-shaped strongly curved apical cells and foot-shaped basal cells. Two isolates (SS-1-7 and ZY-2-2) were selected for molecular identification, and the total DNA was extracted using a fungal genomic DNA separation kit (Sangon Biotechnology, Shanghai, China). Sequence comparison of EF-1α (GenBank accession numbers MW294197 and MW294198) and RPB2 (Accession MW294176 and MW294177) genes showed 97% homology with the sequences of F. nelsonii reported in GenBank (accession MN120760 for TEF and accession MN120740 for RPB2). Pathogenicity tests with two isolates (SS-1-7 and ZY-2-2) were performed by individually inoculating five 10-leaf stage maize plants at between the 2nd and 3rd stem nodes from the soil level with 20 μl conidial suspension at a concentration of 106 conidia/ml as described by Zhang et al. (2016). Five maize plants inoculated with sterile water were used as controls. The inoculated plants were kept at 25 ± 0.5°C in the greenhouse with a photoperiod of 12 h. After 30 days, all plants inoculated with the conidial suspension formed an internal dark brown necrotic area around the inoculation site, whereas the control plants showed no symptoms. The pathogen was re-isolated from the necrotic tissue of the inoculated plants and identified by morphological characteristics as F. nelsonii. This species was first described by Marasas et al. (1998), and it is expanding its host range and has been isolated from sorghum, Medicago, wheat, and cucumber (Ahmad et al. 2020). The pathogen should be paid more attention owing to a serious risk of trichothecene and aflatoxin contamination (Astoreca et al. 2019; Lincy et al. 2011). To our knowledge, this is the first report of maize stalk rot caused by F. nelsonii in China. References: Ahmad, A., et al. 2020. Plant disease.1542 https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-19-2511-PDN Astoreca, A. L., et al. 2019. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 155:381. Lincy, S. V., et al. 2011. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27:981. Marasas, W. F. O., et al. 1998. Mycologia 90:505. Zhang, Y., et al. 2016. PLoS Pathog. 12:e1005485. Funding: This research was financially supported by National R & D Plan of China (No.2019QZKK0303); Ningxia Agriculture and Forestry Academy Science and Technology Cooperation Project (DW-X-2018019).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-21-0089-PDNDOI Listing
June 2021

Signals classification based on IA-optimal CNN.

Neural Comput Appl 2021 May 27:1-19. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute of Noise & Vibration, Naval University of Engineering Hubei, Wuhan, China.

The versatility of the existing A-optimal-based CNN for solving multiple types of signals classification problems has not been verified by different signals datasets. Moreover, the existing A-optimal-based CNN uses a simplified approximate function as the optimization objective function instead of precise analytical function, which affects the signals classification accuracy to a certain extent. In this paper, a classification method called IA-optimal CNN is proposed. To improve the stability of the classifier, the trace of the covariance matrix of the weights of the fully connected layer is used as the optimization objective function, and the parameter optimization model is established without any simplification of the optimization objective function. In addition, to avoid the difficulty of not being able to obtain the analytical expression formula of the partial derivative of the inverse matrix with regard to the networks parameters, a novel dual function is introduced to transform the optimization problem into an equivalent binary function optimization problem. Furthermore, based on the above analytical solution results, the parameters are updated using the alternate iterative optimization method and the accurate weight update formula is deduced in detail. Five signals datasets are used to test the universality of the IA-optimal CNN in signals classification fields. The performance of IA-optimal CNN is showed, and the experimental results are compared with the existing A-optimal-based classification algorithm. Lastly, the following conclusion is proved theoretically: For the A-optimal-based CNN, the trace of the covariance matrix will continue to decrease and approach a convergence value in the iterative process, but it is impossible for the networks to strictly reach the A-optimal state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00521-021-05736-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154550PMC
May 2021

Genomic variation, origin tracing, and vaccine development of SARS-CoV-2: A systematic review.

Innovation (N Y) 2021 May 11;2(2):100116. Epub 2021 May 11.

Genetic Testing Center, Academician Workstation, Changsha Medical University, Changsha 410219, China.

COVID-19 has spread globally to over 200 countries with more than 40 million confirmed cases and one million deaths as of November 1, 2020. The SARS-CoV-2 virus, leading to COVID-19, shows extremely high rates of infectivity and replication, and can result in pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, or even mortality. SARS-CoV-2 has been found to continue to rapidly evolve, with several genomic variants emerging in different regions throughout the world. In addition, despite intensive study of the spike protein, its origin, and molecular mechanisms in mediating host invasion are still only partially resolved. Finally, the repertoire of drugs for COVID-19 treatment is still limited, with several candidates still under clinical trial and no effective therapeutic yet reported. Although vaccines based on either DNA/mRNA or protein have been deployed, their efficacy against emerging variants requires ongoing study, with multivalent vaccines supplanting the first-generation vaccines due to their low efficacy against new strains. Here, we provide a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology, immunological pathogenesis, molecular mechanisms, and structural biology, as well as approaches for drug or vaccine development for SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xinn.2021.100116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110321PMC
May 2021

Corrigendum to hypoxia-induced lncRNA EIF3J-AS1 accelerates hepatocellular carcinoma progression via targeting miR-122-5p/CTNND2 axis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Aug 5;565:101-102. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Geriatric Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 277 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, 710061, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.04.109DOI Listing
August 2021

Quantum walks on a programmable two-dimensional 62-qubit superconducting processor.

Science 2021 05 6;372(6545):948-952. Epub 2021 May 6.

National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430, Japan.

Quantum walks are the quantum mechanical analog of classical random walks and an extremely powerful tool in quantum simulations, quantum search algorithms, and even for universal quantum computing. In our work, we have designed and fabricated an 8-by-8 two-dimensional square superconducting qubit array composed of 62 functional qubits. We used this device to demonstrate high-fidelity single- and two-particle quantum walks. Furthermore, with the high programmability of the quantum processor, we implemented a Mach-Zehnder interferometer where the quantum walker coherently traverses in two paths before interfering and exiting. By tuning the disorders on the evolution paths, we observed interference fringes with single and double walkers. Our work is a milestone in the field, bringing future larger-scale quantum applications closer to realization for noisy intermediate-scale quantum processors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abg7812DOI Listing
May 2021

Weight gain from early to middle adulthood increases the risk of incident asthma later in life in the United States: a retrospective cohort study.

Respir Res 2021 May 5;22(1):139. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Public Health, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao, 266071, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Data describing the effects of weight change across adulthood on asthma are important for the prevention of asthma. This study aimed to investigate the association between weight change from early to middle adulthood and risk of incident asthma.

Methods: Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we performed a nationally retrospective cohort study of the U.S. general population. A total of 20,771 people aged 40-74 years with recalled weight at young and middle adulthood were included in the cohort. Four weight change groups were categorized: stable non-obesity, non-obesity to obesity, obesity to non-obesity, and stable obesity. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating weight change to incident asthma over 10 years of follow-up were calculated using Cox models adjusting for covariates.

Results: Compared with the stable non-obesity group, the HRs of incident asthma were 1.63 (95% CI = 1.29 to 2.07, P < 0.001) for the non-obesity to obesity group, 1.41 (95% CI = 0.97 to 2.05, P = 0.075) for stable obesity group, and 1.21 (95% CI = 0.41 to 3.62, P = 0.730) for the obesity to non-obesity group. In addition, participants who gained more than 20 kg from young to middle adulthood had a HR of 1.53 (95% CI = 1.15 to 2.03, P = 0.004), compared with those whose weight remained stable (weight change within 2.5 kg).

Conclusions: Weight gain from early to middle adulthood was associated with higher risk of incident asthma as compared to those who maintained normal weight. Thus, maintaining normal weight throughout adulthood might be important for the primary prevention of adult-onset asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-021-01735-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097961PMC
May 2021

Relevance of dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and fiber intake before and during pregnancy for the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal glucose homeostasis.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 5;40(5):2791-2799. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Laboratory of Molecular Translational Medicine, Center for Translational Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: To date, the prevalence of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in China was 17.5%. Given the substantial relevance of GDM for medium- and long-term health of both mother and offspring and the paucity of existing data on the link between maternal diet and glucose homeostasis during pregnancy in Asian population, additional studies are needed. To examine the relevance of dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and fiber intake before and during pregnancy for the development of GDM and glucose homeostasis over the course of pregnancy.

Methods: Cox proportional hazards analysis and linear mixed effects regressions were performed on data from 9317 women for whom three food frequency questionnaires (pre-pregnancy, 1 and 2 trimesters) and biochemical measures during pregnancy were available. Investigated outcome variables included GDM risk, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA), and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters.

Results: Women in the highest tertile of dietary GI (or GL) before pregnancy, in the 1, or the 2 trimester respectively had a 12% (15%), 25% (23%) or 29% (25%) higher risk of developing GDM than those in the lowest tertile (all p for trend ≤ 0.02). Women with the highest dietary fiber intake before pregnancy, in the 1st or 2nd trimester had a 11%, 17% or 18% lower GDM risk (all p for trend ≤ 0.03). Moreover, increases in GI or GL and decreases in fiber intake over the course of pregnancy (1 to 3 trimesters) were independently associated with adverse concurrent developments in FPG, HbA and HOMA-IR (p ≤ 0.03).

Conclusions: Our study indicates that dietary GI, GL and fiber intake before and during pregnancy affects glucose homeostasis of pregnant Chinese women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.03.041DOI Listing
May 2021

The worldwide seroprevalence of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 28;15(4):e0009337. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: As the three major arthropod-borne viruses, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and zika virus (ZIKV) are posing a growing threat to global public health and socioeconomic development. Our study aimed to systematically review the global seroprevalences of these arboviruses from existing publications.

Methods: Articles published between Jan 01, 2000 and Dec 31, 2019 in the databases of Embase, Pubmed and Web of Science were searched and collected. Countries or areas with known local presence of Aedes vector mosquitoes were included. Random effects model was utilized to estimate the pooled seroprevalences and the proportion of inapparent infection.

Results: Out of 1375, a total of 133 articles involving 176,001 subjects were included for our analysis. The pooled seroprevalences of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV were 38%, 25% and 18%, respectively; and their corresponding proportions of inapparent infections were 80%, 40% and 50%. The South-East Asia Region had the highest seroprevalences of DENV and CHIKV, while the Region of the Americas had the highest seroprevalence of ZIKV. The seroprevalences of DENV and CHIKV were similar when comparing developed and developing countries, urban and rural areas, or among different populations. In addition, we observed a decreased global seroprevalences in the new decade (2010-2019) comparing to the decade before (2000-2009) for CHIKV. For ZIKV, the positive rates tested with the nucleic acid detection method were lower than those tested with the antibody detection method. Lastly, numerous cases of dual seropositivity for CHIKV and DENV were reported.

Conclusions: Our results revealed a varied prevalence of arbovirus infections in different geographical regions and countries, and the inapparent infection accounted an unneglected portion of infections that requires more attention. This study will shed lights on our understanding of the true burden of arbovirus infections and promote appropriate vaccination in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109817PMC
April 2021

Plant-derived melatonin from food: a gift of nature.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 1;12(7):2829-2849. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

In recent years, people have become increasingly interested in bioactive ingredients from plants, especially antioxidant molecules such as melatonin, which are beneficial to human health. The purpose of this article is to provide new information on plant-derived foods with a high content of melatonin. We comprehensively summarize the content of melatonin in plant-derived foods and discuss the factors that influence melatonin levels to provide new ideas on enhancement. Additionally, we describe the biosynthetic pathway of melatonin and identify its major functions. Medicinal herbs are often rich in melatonin while many vegetables and fruits exhibit somewhat lower levels with wide variations among species. The genetic traits of plants, the phenological stage of the cultivar, the photoperiod, the level of stress to which the plants are exposed at the time of harvest, exposure to agrochemicals and determination methods are the main factors affecting the melatonin content. To date, standardization of uniform sampling times and the use of suitable pretreatments as well as determination methods have not been achieved. The results of the studies reviewed highlight the potentially important role of plant melatonin in influencing the progression of human diseases. Based on the health promotional aspects of melatonin, consuming foods containing higher concentrations of tryptophan and melatonin is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo03213aDOI Listing
April 2021

Daidzein alleviates cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy by regulating Glut4/AMPK/FoxO pathway.

Phytother Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Cisplatin (DDP) is widely used in cancer treatment, but DDP can cause skeletal muscle atrophy and cachexia. This study explored the effect and mechanism of daidzein (DAI) in reducing DDP-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and cachexia in vivo and in vitro. DAI alleviated the weight, food intake, muscle, adipose tissue, kidney weight and forelimb grip of LLC tumour-bearing mice after DDP treatment, and did not affect the antitumour effect of DDP. DAI can reduce the decrease of the cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle fibre-induced by DDP and prevent the change of fibre type proportion. In skeletal muscle, it can inhibit Glut4/AMPK/FoxO pathway, down-regulate the expression of atrogin1 and MuRF1, and inhibit skeletal muscle protein degradation. In DDP treated C2C12 myotubes, DAI could inhibit Glut4/AMPK/FoxO pathway to reduce myotubes atrophy, while AMPK agonist MK-3903 could reverse the protective effect of DAI. These results suggest that DAI can alleviate DDP-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by downregulating the expression of Atrogin1 and MuRF1 through the regulation of Glut4/AMPK/FoxO pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7132DOI Listing
April 2021

Autophagy-Related Long Non-coding RNA Is a Prognostic Indicator for Bladder Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:647236. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignant urinary system tumors, and its prognosis is poor. In recent years, autophagy has been closely linked to the development of BC. Therefore, we investigated the potential prognostic role of autophagy-related long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in patients with BC. We obtained the lncRNA information and autophagy genes, respectively, from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set and the human autophagy database (HADb) and performed a co-expression analysis to identify autophagy gene-associated lncRNAs. Then, we divided the data into training group and testing group. In the training group, 15 autophagy-related lncRNAs were found to have a prognostic value (AC026369.3, USP30-as1, AC007991.2, AC104785.1, AC010503.4, AC037198.1, AC010331.1, AF131215.6, AC084357.2, THUMPD3-AS1, U62317.4, MAN1B1-DTt, AC024060.1, AL662844.4, and AC005229.4). The patients were divided into low-risk group and high-risk group based on the prognostic lncRNAs. The overall survival (OS) time for the high-risk group was shorter than that for the low-risk group [risk ratio (hazard ratio, HR) = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.06-1.10; < 0.0001]. Using our model, the defined risk value can predict the prognosis of a patient. Next, the model was assessed in the TCGA testing group to further validate these results. A total of 203 patients with BC were recruited to verify the lncRNA characteristics. We divided these patients into high-risk group and low-risk group. The results of testing data set show that the survival time of high-risk patients is shorter than that of low-risk patients. In the training group, the area under the curve (AUC) was more than 0.7, indicating a high level of accuracy. The AUC for a risk model was greater than that for each clinical feature alone, indicating that the risk value of a model was the best indicator for predicting the prognosis. Further training data analysis showed that the gene set was significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways, including actin cytoskeleton regulation and gap junctions. In conclusion, our 15 autophagy-related lncRNAs have a prognostic potential for BC, and may play key roles in the biology of BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.647236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049181PMC
April 2021

F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated diffused F-FDG uptake in the liver, spleen and bone marrow in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma patient with a false interpretation of the liver on abdominal MRI.

Hell J Nucl Med 2021 Jan-Apr;24(1):98-99. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, No. 57 Ren-min South Road, Xiashan District, ZhanJiang, Guangdong Province, P.R. China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1967/s002449912312DOI Listing
April 2021

A rare case of malignant melanoma in stomach presented on F-FDG PET/CT.

Hell J Nucl Med 2021 Jan-Apr;24(1):96-97. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, No. 57 Ren-min South Road, Xiashan District, ZhanJiang, Guangdong Province, P.R. China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1967/s002449912311DOI Listing
April 2021

Theory for Twisted Bilayer Photonic Crystal Slabs.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(13):136101

Department of Electrical Engineering, and Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

We analyze scattering properties of twisted bilayer photonic crystal slabs through a high-dimensional plane wave expansion method. The method is applicable for arbitrary twist angles and does not suffer from the limitations of the commonly used supercell approximation. We show strongly tunable resonance properties of this system which can be accounted for semianalytically from a correspondence relation to a simpler structure. We also observe strongly tunable resonant chiral behavior in this system. Our work provides the theoretical foundation for predicting and understanding the rich optical physics of twisted multilayer photonic crystal systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.136101DOI Listing
April 2021

Impacts of Pharmacists-Managed Oncology Outpatient Clinic on Resolving Drug-Related Problems in Ambulatory Neoplasm Patients: A Prospective Study in China.

Inquiry 2021 Jan-Dec;58:469580211009662

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Pharmacists are health care professionals who are actively involved in identifying and solving drug-related problems (DRPs) in neoplasm patients. However, the effectiveness of pharmaceutical services at outpatient clinic for neoplasm patients have not been reported in China. This study aims to describe and investigate the impacts of pharmacists-managed oncology outpatient clinic on ambulatory neoplasm patients. We performed a descriptive, prospective study from June 6, 2018 to June 6, 2020. Firstly, we established a pharmacists-managed oncology outpatient clinic and a Pharmacists Work System of Medication Therapy Management (MTM) software with the cooperation of oncologists, pharmacists and software engineers in 2018. Subjects were neoplasm patients who visited the pharmacists-managed outpatient clinic. The pharmacists performed a comprehensive assessment of the patient's medication and made planned interventions based on the DRPs identified. A total of 215 eligible patients with 707 visits were enrolled and recorded in the MTM software. A total of 316 DRPs (1.47 per patient) were identified. Adverse reactions, non-adherence, untreated indication, and drug interactions were the leading DRPs. 261 (82.6%) of the identified DRPs had been confirmed as resolved and 104 (78.2%) of adverse reactions were improved following pharmacist interventions and 2 to 3 course follow-up. Of the 382 planned interventions, 345 (90.3%) were accepted by patients or physicians. This is the first pharmacists-managed oncology outpatient clinic to describe the type of DRPs in neoplasm patients and evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions in China. Pharmacist interventions were efficacious in resolving DRPs and improving adverse reactions. We confirmed that pharmacists have an important role in ambulatory neoplasm patients care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00469580211009662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047945PMC
April 2021

The crucial roles of N-methyladenosine (mA) modification in the carcinogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer.

Cell Biosci 2021 Apr 9;11(1):72. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, China National Ministry of Education), The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang, China.

As the predominant modification in RNA, N-methyladenosine (mA) has attracted increasing attention in the past few years since it plays vital roles in many biological processes. This chemical modification is dynamic, reversible and regulated by several methyltransferases, demethylases and proteins that recognize mA modification. MA modification exists in messenger RNA and affects their splicing, nuclear export, stability, decay, and translation, thereby modulating gene expression. Besides, the existence of mA in noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) could also directly or indirectly regulated gene expression. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer around the world and of high mortality. Increasing evidence have shown that the changes of mA level and the dysregulation of mA regulatory proteins have been implicated in CRC carcinogenesis and progression. However, the underlying regulation laws of mA modification to CRC remain elusive and better understanding of these mechanisms will benefit the diagnosis and therapy. In the present review, the latest studies about the dysregulation of mA and its regulators in CRC have been summarized. We will focus on the crucial roles of mA modification in the carcinogenesis and development of CRC. Moreover, we will also discuss the potential applications of mA modification in CRC diagnosis and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-021-00583-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034132PMC
April 2021

Assessing the relationship between pregravid body mass index and risk of adverse maternal pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: prospective data in Southwest China.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7591. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medical Data-Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan.

The relevance of pregestational body mass index (BMI) on adverse pregnancy outcomes remained unclear in Southwest China. This study aimed to investigate the overall and age-category specific association between pre-gestational BMI and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, preterm delivery, stillbirth, macrosomia, and small-for-gestational age (SGA) or large-for-gestational age (LGA) neonates in Southwest China. Furthermore, it explores the relative importance of influence of pregravid BMI and maternal age on pregnancy outcomes. 51,125 Chinese singleton pregnant women were recruited as study subjects. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the influence of pre-pregnancy BMI on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Gradient boosting machine was used to evaluate the relative importance of influence of pregravid BMI and maternal age on pregnancy outcomes. It is found that women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy are at higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes except for SGA neonates, while pre-pregnancy underweight is a protective factor for GDM, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, macrosomia and LGA, but not SGA. Younger mothers are more susceptible to GDM and macrosomia neonates, while older mothers are more prone to preeclampsia. Pre-pregnancy BMI has more influence on various pregnancy outcomes than maternal age. To improve pregnancy outcomes, normal BMI weight as well as relatively young maternal ages are recommended for women in child-bearing age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87135-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027183PMC
April 2021

Publisher Correction: Topological optical differentiator.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 7;12(1):2209. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22493-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027652PMC
April 2021

The exposure of gadolinium at environmental relevant levels induced genotoxic effects in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 16;215:112138. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China.

Rare Earth Elements (REEs) are increasingly being used in agriculture and are also used to produce high end technological devices, thereby increasing their anthropogenic presence in the environment. However, the ecotoxicological mechanism of REEs on organisms is not fully understood. In this study, the effects of gadolinium (Gd) addition on Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) were investigated at both physiological and molecular levels. Four treatments (0, 10, 50 and 200 μmol·L Gd) were used in the exposure tests. Biomass, root length and chlorophyll content in shoots/roots were measured to investigate the plant's physiological response to Gd stress. Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD)-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and methylation sensitive arbitrarily primed (MSAP)-PCR were used to investigate changes in genetic variation and DNA methylation of A. thaliana when exposed to Gd. At the physiological level, it was found that low concentration of Gd (10 μmol·L) could significantly increase the plant biomass and root length, while the growth of A. thaliana was significantly inhibited when exposed to 200 μmol·L of Gd, yet the total soluble protein content in aerial plant parts increased significantly by 24.2% when compared to the control group. Among the 12 primers considered in the RAPD assessment, at the molecular level, only four primers revealed different patterns in their genomic DNA. Compared to the control group, the treatment with 50 μmol·L of Gd was associated with lower polymorphism, while the treatment with 200 μmol·L of Gd was associated with higher polymorphism. The polymorphism frequencies for the 50 μmol·L of Gd and the 200 μmol·L of Gd were 4.67% and 20.33%, respectively. The MSAP analysis revealed that the demethylation (D) type of Arabidopsis genomic DNA increased significantly under 10 and 50 μmol·L of Gd, while the methylation (M) type was also significantly increased under 200 μmol·L of Gd. Generally, the total methylation polymorphism (D+M) increased with an increase of Gd concentration. It was found that high concentrations of Gd appeared to cause DNA damage, but low concentrations of Gd (as low as 10 μmol·L) were associated with DNA methylation change. Further, it was verified by Real time Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR) on the bands detected by the MSAP analysis, that the genes relative to processes including cell cycle, oxidative stress and apoptosis, appeared to be regulated by methylation under Gd stress. These findings reveal new insight regarding ecotoxicity mechanisms of REEs on plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112138DOI Listing
June 2021

Depression and anxiety symptoms associated with internet gaming disorder before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal study.

J Behav Addict 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

1Research Center of Mental Health Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly impacted aspects of human life globally. Playing videogames has been encouraged by several organizations to help individuals cope with the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures. This longitudinal study was the first to examine gaming in the context of the pandemic and its association with depressive and anxiety symptoms.

Methods: The sample comprised 1,778 children and adolescents (50.7% male) who were part of the Project of School Mental Health in Southwest China. Data were collected at two-time intervals: before the COVID-19 pandemic (October to November 2019 - [T1]) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (April to May 2020 - [T2]). Data were collected on perceived COVID-19 impacts, videogame use, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Cross-lagged panel models were computed to examine longitudinal relationships.

Results: The results indicated that both videogame use and IGD increased significantly for adolescents at T2. The cross-lagged panel model results suggested that depressive and anxiety symptoms at T1 positively predicted IGD and videogame use at T2 (especially for boys), but not inversely. Perceived COVID-19 impacts mediated the relationship between depressive and anxiety symptoms at T1 and IGD at T2.

Conclusion: Children and adolescents both increased videogame use at T2, but only adolescents significantly increased IGD severity at T2. The findings supported the compensatory hypothesis, and are consistent with the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution model as individual responses to COVID-19 may function as a mediator between personal predisposing variables and IGD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00016DOI Listing
March 2021

The therapeutic effects of earthworm extract on deep second-degree burn wound healing.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar 23;10(3):2869-2879. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Orthopaedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: To investigated the effect of earthworm extract (EE) on deep second-degree burn wound healing process.

Methods: A burn wound model was created on the mice's skin and was subject to different treatments: the control group received no treatment; the Jingwanhong (JWH: a well-established, widely used external ointment for treating burn wounds) group was treated with 0.1 g of JWH cream and spray it on the wound surface; the EE group was treated with 0.1 mL of EE solution. All the mice were sacrificed at 3, 7, 11, and 15 days after injury (n=6/group/time point). Macroscopic observation, wound healing rate (WHR), wound healing time (WHT), water content (WC), hydroxyproline (Hyp) content, histological, and hematological analyses were performed at the burn wound sites.

Results: Better, faster burn wound healing in the JWH and EE groups than the control group at 15 days after injury were detected at the wound sites. Compared to the control group, the EE group had higher WHR, shorter WHT, lower WC, higher Hyp content, more fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and capillary endothelial cells; in addition, they showed greater capillary endothelial cell grouping at the wound sites during the healing process. This group also showed more platelets, white blood cells (WBCs), and neutrophilic granulocytes in serum at the early stages after burn injury.

Conclusions: EE could effectively promote skin wound healing by decreasing edema, suppressing fibrosis, activating angiogenesis and epithelial regeneration, inhibiting scar formation, and reducing the risk of infection. Thus, it could be made into a promising healing agent for burn wound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2393DOI Listing
March 2021

Longitudinal Link Between Bullying Victimization and Bullying Perpetration: A Multilevel Moderation Analysis of Perceived School Climate.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Mar 8:886260521997940. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, China.

Existing theories and empirical studies have evidenced the association between bullying victimization and bullying perpetration. However, it is still unclear what factors mitigate or alter this risk linkage between bullying victimization and bullying perpetration to reduce bullying incidents. Guided by the social-ecological theory, this study used a longitudinal design to examine the moderating role of school climate in the association between bullying victimization and bullying perpetration at both the within-person and between-person levels among Chinese adolescents across a 1-year period. Participants included 2,997 Chinese adolescents ( = 14.9, 49.7% male) from 5 secondary schools. Results suggested that students who experienced high levels of bullying victimization were also involved in high levels of bullying perpetration over time (i.e., the positive within-person effect of bullying victimization on bullying perpetration). Results also showed that the between-person level of perceived school climate interacted with the within-person level of bullying victimization to predict the within-person level of bullying perpetration (i.e., cross-level effects). More specifically, the magnitude of the positive association between bullying victimization and bullying perpetration at the within-person level was mitigated among students with higher perceptions of school climate at the between-person level. Findings of the study highlighted the causal effect of bullying victimization on bullying perpetration and the buffering role of perceived school climate in the longitudinal association between bullying victimization and perpetration, which was consistent with the but not the . Furthermore, the findings provided implications for bullying prevention and intervention services by using multitiered systems of support in bullying prevention efforts and highlights the need for promoting positive school climate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260521997940DOI Listing
March 2021

Parenting Style and Cyber-Aggression in Chinese Youth: The Role of Moral Disengagement and Moral Identity.

Front Psychol 2021 19;12:621878. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

The Lab of Mental Health and Social Adaptation, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Previous research has shown that parenting style is intricately linked to cyber-aggression. However, the underlying mechanisms of this relationship remain unclear, especially among young adults. Guided by the social cognitive theory and the ecological system theory, this study aimed to examine the effect of parenting style on cyber-aggression, the potential mediating role of moral disengagement, and the moderating role of moral identity in this relationship. Participants comprised 1,796 Chinese college students who anonymously completed questionnaires on parenting style, moral disengagement, moral identity, cyber-aggression, and demographic variables. After controlling for sex and age, parental rejection and over-protection were positively related to cyber-aggression; however, parental emotional warmth was non-significantly related to cyber-aggression. Mediation analysis revealed that parenting style was related to cyber-aggressive behavior through moral disengagement. Moderated mediation analysis further indicated that the indirect effect of parenting style on cyber-aggression was much stronger in college students with higher moral identity. The study carries important practical implications for parents and educators concerned about the destructive consequences of cyber-aggression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.621878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933004PMC
February 2021

Beyond protein intake: does dietary fat intake in the year preceding pregnancy and during pregnancy have an impact on gestational diabetes mellitus?

Eur J Nutr 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Laboratory of Molecular Translational Medicine, Center for Translational Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Studies regarding the association between dietary fat intake and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are limited and provide conflicting findings. Thus, the study aims to examine the association of dietary fat intake in the year preceding pregnancy and during pregnancy with the risk of GDM, taking the relevance of dietary protein intake on GDM into consideration.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 6299 singleton pregnancies, using the data from the Nutrition in Pregnancy and Growth in Southwest China (NPGSC). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary fat intake in the year preceding pregnancy and during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the prospective associations of dietary fat intake and the type and source of dietary fats in different time windows with GDM risk.

Results: Higher intake of total fat [OR (95% CI): 2.21 (1.19-4.20), P = 0.02] during 12-22 weeks of gestation was associated with higher GDM risk. However, adjustment for animal protein intake greatly attenuated this association [OR (95% CI): 1.81 (0.93, 3.64), P = 0.11]. Total fat intake neither in the year preceding pregnancy nor during the early pregnancy was associated with GDM risk. Moreover, insignificant associations were observed between intakes of vegetable fat, animal fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid one year before pregnancy and during the first and second trimesters and GDM risk.

Conclusion: Our study indicated that dietary fat intake one year before pregnancy and across the two pregnancy trimesters preceding the diagnosis of GDM has no relevance on GDM risk among Chinese women, particularly those with normal BMI, low, or normal calorie intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02525-zDOI Listing
March 2021

TiC2D: trajectory inference from single-cell RNA-seq data based on consensus clustering.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2021 Feb 25;PP. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cellular programs often exhibit strong heterogeneity and asynchrony in the timing of program execution. Single-cell RNA-seq technology has provided an unprecedented opportunity for characterizing these cellular processes by simultaneously quantifying many parameters at single-cell resolution. Robust trajectory inference is a critical step in the analysis of dynamic temporal gene expression, which can shed light on the mechanisms of normal development and diseases. Here, we present TiC2D, a novel algorithm for cell trajectory inference from single-cell RNA-seq data, which adopts a consensus clustering strategy to precisely cluster cells. To evaluate the power of TiC2D, we compare it with three state-of-the-art methods on four independent single-cell RNA-seq datasets. The results show that TiC2D can accurately infer developmental trajectories from single-cell transcriptome. Furthermore, the reconstructed trajectories enable us to identify key genes involved in cell fate determination and to obtain new insights about their roles at different developmental stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2021.3061720DOI Listing
February 2021

Immunoreactive peptide maps of SARS-CoV-2.

Commun Biol 2021 02 12;4(1):225. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Serodiagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is impeded by immunological cross-reactivity among the human coronaviruses (HCoVs): SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, OC43, 229E, HKU1, and NL63. Here we report the identification of humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 peptides that may enable discrimination between exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and other HCoVs. We used a high-density peptide microarray and plasma samples collected at two time points from 50 subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by qPCR, samples collected in 2004-2005 from 11 subjects with IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-1, 11 subjects with IgG antibodies to other seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoV), and 10 healthy human subjects. Through statistical modeling with linear regression and multidimensional scaling we identified specific peptides that were reassembled to identify 29 linear SARS-CoV-2 epitopes that were immunoreactive with plasma from individuals who had asymptomatic, mild or severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. Larger studies will be required to determine whether these peptides may be useful in serodiagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01743-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881038PMC
February 2021