Publications by authors named "Chen-Xi Zhang"

28 Publications

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Dual-functional coordination polymers with high proton conduction behaviour and good luminescence properties.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, P. R. China. and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, P. R. China.

Two coordination polymers, [M(5-hip)(H2O)3]n (M = Cd2+ (1), Zn2+ (2), 5-hip = 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure reveals that complexes 1 and 2 have 1D chain structures by the coordination of metal ions and 5-hip. 1D chains are connected by hydrogen bonds to form a 3D structure. AC impedance analysis shows that the proton conductivity of complexes 1 and 2 comes up to 1.58 × 10-3 S cm-1 (98%RH, 343 K) and 5.27 × 10-4 S cm-1 (98%RH, 353 K), respectively. To further improve the proton conductivity, a hybrid membrane was prepared by the solution casting method with complexes as fillers and sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) as the organic matrix. The proton conductivity of hybrid membranes [email protected] and [email protected] is 1.97 and 1.58 times higher than that of pure SPEEK membranes, respectively. Furthermore, the two complexes are excellent fluorescent sensors, which could detect Cr2O72- in aqueous solution with high sensitivity and selectivity. Both of them have low detection limits for Cr2O72- in aqueous solution, where the detection limit of complex 1 is 0.8 μM and that of complex 2 is 1 μM. The above work demonstrates that the two complexes are dual-functional materials with high proton conduction and good fluorescence properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00932jDOI Listing
June 2021

Biomechanical strength dependence on mammalian airway length.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Feb;13(2):918-926

The Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Medical University (The Fourth Military Medical University), Xi'an, China.

Background: The trachea is the uppermost respiratory airway element connecting the larynx to the bronchi Airway reconstructions in humans are often developed from animal models but there is limited knowledge comparing tracheal biomechanics between species. We aimed to assess the structure and biomechanics of porcine, canine, caprine and human airways.

Methods: Tracheas from pigs (n=15), goats (n=9) and canines (n=9) were divided into three groups (4, 6 and 8-ringswhile human left principal brochi (n=12) were divided into two groups (3and-rings). Airway structures were compared using histology and scanning electron microscopy. Biomechanical properties were measured subjecting samples to uniaxial tension and compression, recording the elastic modulus and (tensile and compressive) strengths.

Results: The structures of animal tracheal and human bronchia appeared similar. Biomechanical testing revealed that the elastic modulus of 8-ring tracheas was 1,190.48±363.68, 2,572.00±608.19 and 1,771.27±145.54 kPa, for porcine, canine and caprine samples, respectively, while corresponding tensile strengths were 437.63±191.41, 808.38±223.48 and 445.76±44.00 kPa. Comparable measures of anterior-posterior (A-P) compression strengths were 7.94±0.82, 7.54±0.07 and 8.10±1.87 N, respectively, whereas lateral compression strengths were 8.75±0.82, 14.55±2.29 and 11.12±0.40 N. Compression testing of human samples showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the 3-ring (A-P, 1.06±0.02 N; lateral, 0.55±0.06 N) and 5-ring groups (A-P, 1.08±0.64 N; lateral, 2.32±1.95 N).

Conclusions: The tensile and compressive strengths of mammalian airways show positive correlations with the cartilage ring number (length). On the basis of structural and biomechanical comparisons, porcine, canine and caprine species appear suitable models for the study of airway reconstruction in human.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-2970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947550PMC
February 2021

Apelin/APJ-Manipulated CaMKK/AMPK/GSK3 Signaling Works as an Endogenous Counterinjury Mechanism in Promoting the Vitality of Random-Pattern Skin Flaps.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 25;2021:8836058. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China.

A random-pattern skin flap plays an important role in the field of wound repair; the mechanisms that influence the survival of random-pattern skin flaps have been extensively studied but little attention has been paid to endogenous counterinjury substances and mechanism. Previous reports reveal that the apelin-APJ axis is an endogenous counterinjury mechanism that has considerable function in protecting against infection, inflammation, oxidative stress, necrosis, and apoptosis in various organs. As an in vivo study, our study proved that the apelin/APJ axis protected the skin flap by alleviating vascular oxidative stress and the apelin/APJ axis works as an antioxidant stress factor dependent on CaMKK/AMPK/GSK3 signaling. In addition, the apelin/APJ-manipulated CaMKK/AMPK/GSK3-dependent mechanism improves HUVECs' resistance to oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R), reduces ROS production and accumulation, maintained the normal mitochondrial membrane potential, and suppresses oxidative stress in vitro. Besides, activation of the apelin/APJ axis promotes vascular migration and angiogenesis under relative hypoxia condition through CaMKK/AMPK/GSK3 signaling. In a word, we provide new evidence that the apelin/APJ axis is an effective antioxidant and can significantly improve the vitality of random flaps, so it has potential be a promising clinical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8836058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857910PMC
May 2021

A dual-functional MOF for high proton conduction and sensitive detection of ascorbic acid.

Dalton Trans 2020 Oct;49(41):14490-14496

Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nan kai University, Tianjin 300071, P. R. China. and College of Chemistry, Nan kai University, Tianjin 300071, P. R. China.

A new metal-organic framework (MOF), [Eu2(HBDPP)2(H2O)2(DMF)2](H2O)2 (H4BDPP = 3,5-bis(3,5-dicarboxylphenyl) pyridine; DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) (Eu-MOF), has been successfully synthesized under solvothermal conditions. A 1D chain was formed by the adjacent Eu2(COO)24+ dinuclear cluster and HBDPP3-, and further connected by HBDPP3- to form an infinitely extended 3D structure. In order to further improve the proton conductivity of the Eu-MOF, imidazole was encapsulated in its pores to form a composite material named [email protected] AC impedance analysis shows that the highest proton conductivity of the [email protected] reaches up to 4.53 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 348 K and 98% RH, which is about 10 times higher than that of the Eu-MOF. In addition, the Eu-MOF can be considered an excellent luminescence-based sensor with a high sensitivity and low detection limit (0.1 μM) for the detection of trace amounts of ascorbic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt02834gDOI Listing
October 2020

Drug repurposing of anti-infective clinical drugs: Discovery of two potential anti-cytokine storm agents.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Nov 23;131:110643. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, 200433, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been widely spread in the world with a high mortality. Cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) and acute lung injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection severely threaten the patients. With the purpose to find effective and low-toxic drugs to mitigate CSS, entecavir and imipenem were identified to reduce TNF-α using a LPS-induced macrophage model from the anti-infective drug library. Entecavir and imipenem efficiently suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines by partly intervention of NF-κB activity. The acute lung injury was also alleviated and the survival time was prolonged in mice. In addition, entecavir and imipenem inhibited the release of TNF-α and IL-10 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). Collectively, we proposed that entecavir and imipenem might be candidates for the treatment of CSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7443334PMC
November 2020

Efficacy of acupuncture in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with advanced cancer: a multi-center, single-blind, randomized, sham-controlled clinical research.

Chin Med 2020 3;15:57. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated with Capital Medical University, No 23, Back Road of Art Gallery, Dong Cheng District, Beijing, 100010 China.

Background: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common and distressing side effect. We conducted this clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of true acupuncture vs. sham acupuncture in controlling chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) among patients with advanced cancer.

Methods: A total of 134 participants were randomly allocated into true acupuncture (TA) (n = 68) and sham acupuncture (SA) (n = 66) groups. Participants in both groups received acupuncture session twice on the first day of chemotherapy, and once consecutively on the following 4 days. The primary outcome was using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) to assess CINV. The secondary outcome measures were the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score (ECOG), Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS).

Results: Compared to the SA group, the TA group didn't show significant improvement in complete response rates of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (all P > 0.05). However, the TA group could modestly reduce the severity of nausea (from day-3 to day-21, P < 0.05) or vomiting (from day-4 to day-21, P < 0.05), which is notably superior to the control group. Besides, TA promoted the nutritional status of patients with a significantly higher score comparing to the SA group on day 14 (21.82 vs.20.12, P = 0.003) and day 21 (22.39 vs. 20.43, P = 0.001). No apparent differences were found in anxiety and depression assessment between these groups. Participants in both groups were well tolerant of acupuncture therapy. There was no adverse event occurs in our study.

Conclusion: Acupuncture as an adjunctive approach could alleviate the severity of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting compared to the sham control, even though the effect of acupuncture in preventing CINV occurring is relatively modest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00333-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268447PMC
June 2020

Evaluation of ergosterol composition and esterification rate in fungi isolated from mangrove soil, long-term storage of broken spores, and two soils.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Jun 24;104(12):5461-5475. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, 519082, People's Republic of China.

Ergosterol is an important fungal-specific biomarker, but its use for fungal biomass estimation is still varied. It is important to distinguish between free and esterified ergosterols, which are mainly located on the plasma membrane and the cytosolic lipid particles, respectively. The present study analyzes free and esterified ergosterol contents in: (1) the fifty-nine strains of culturable fungi isolated from mangrove soil, (2) the broken spores of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum stored in capsule for more than 12 years, and (3) the mangrove soil and nearby campus wood soil samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that the contents of free and esterified ergosterols varied greatly in fifty-nine strains of fungi after 5 days of growth, indicating the diversity of ergosterol composition in fungi. The average contents of free and total ergosterols from the fifty-nine strains of fungi are 4.4 ± 1.5 mg/g and 6.1 ± 1.9 mg/g dry mycelia, respectively, with an average ergosterol esterification rate of 27.4%. The present study suggests that the fungi might be divided into two classes, one is fungi with high esterification rates (e.g., more than 27%) such as Nectria spp. and Fusarium spp., and the other is fungi with low esterification rates (e.g., less than 27%) such as Penicillium spp. and Trichoderma spp. Moreover, the ergosterol esterification rate in the spores of G. lucidum is 91.4% with a very small amount of free ergosterol (0.015 mg/g), compared with 41.9% with a higher level of free ergosterol (0.499 mg/g) reported in our previous study in 2007, indicating that free ergosterol degrades more rapidly than esterified ergosterol. In addition, the ergosterol esterification rates in mangrove soil and nearby campus wood soil samples range from 0 to 39.0%, compared with 80% in an old soil organic matter reported in a previous study, indicating the potential relationship between aging degree of fungi or soil and esterification rate. The present study proposes that both free and esterified ergosterols should be analyzed for fungal biomass estimation. When the ergosterol esterification rates in soils are higher, free ergosterol might be a better marker for fungal biomass. It is speculated that the ergosterol esterification rate in soils might contain some important information, such as the age of old-growth forests over time scales of centuries to millennia, besides the senescence degree of fungal mycelia in soils. KEY POINTS: • Fungi might be divided into two classes depending on ergosterol esterification rates. • Ergosterol esterification rate of broken spores stored for long time raised evidently. • Both free and esterified ergosterols should be analyzed for fungal biomass estimate. • Free ergosterol is a better marker for fungal biomass with a high esterification rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10601-3DOI Listing
June 2020

Predictors of outcomes of endoscopic balloon dilatation in strictures after esophageal atresia repair: A retrospective study.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Mar;26(10):1080-1087

Department of Gastroenterology, Shenzhen Children's Hospital, 7019 Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518036, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) has become the first line of therapy for benign esophageal strictures (ESs); however, there are few publications about the predictive factors for the outcomes of this treatment.

Aim: To assess the predictive factors for the outcomes of EBD treatment for strictures after esophageal atresia (EA) repair.

Methods: Children with anastomotic ES after thoracoscopic esophageal atresia repair treated by EBD from January 2012 to December 2016 were included. All procedures were performed under tracheal intubation and intravenous anesthesia using a three-grade controlled radial expansion balloon with gastroscopy. Outcomes were recorded and predictors of the outcomes were analyzed.

Results: A total of 64 patients were included in this analysis. The rates of response, complications, and recurrence were 96.77%, 8.06%, and 2.33%, respectively. The number of dilatation sessions and complications were significantly higher in patients with a smaller stricture diameter ( = 0.013 and 0.023, respectively) and with more than one stricture ( = 0.014 and 0.004, respectively). The length of the stricture was significantly associated with complications of EBD ( = 0.001). A longer interval between surgery and the first dilatation was related to more sessions and a poorer response ( = 0.017 and 0.024, respectively).

Conclusion: The diameter, length, and number of strictures are the most important predictive factors for the clinical outcomes of endoscopic balloon dilatation in pediatric ES. The interval between surgery and the first EBD is another factor affecting response and the number of sessions of dilatation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i10.1080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080997PMC
March 2020

Glycyrrhizin inhibits osteoarthritis development through suppressing the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

Food Funct 2020 Mar 19;11(3):2126-2136. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Orthopaedic surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a serious and frequently occurring disease in the elderly, characterized by cartilage degeneration and proliferation of bone structure. Glycyrrhizin, a compound extracted from licorice, has been reported to have various important biological activities, such as antioxidant properties and anti-inflammatory action. However, it has not been reported whether glycyrrhizin has a positive effect on OA development. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of glycyrrhizin on human OA chondrocytes. In the present study, we discovered that glycyrrhizin remarkably suppressed the interleukin (IL)-1β-induced level of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOs), metalloproteinase3 (MMP3), metalloproteinase13 (MMP13) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs5 (ADAMTS5). In addition, glycyrrhizin inverted the degradation of aggrecan and collagen II. Moreover, it significantly inhibited IL-1β-stimulated PI3K/AKT phosphorylation and NF-κB mobilization in human OA chondrocytes. In vivo, glycyrrhizin treatment prevented the destruction of cartilage in mice OA models. In summary, all the results demonstrate that glycyrrhizin may be a potential therapeutic approach for OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo02241dDOI Listing
March 2020

Aberrantly High Expression Of NOK/STYK1 Is Tightly Associated With The Activation Of The AKT/GSK3β/N-Cadherin Pathway In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Onco Targets Ther 2019 27;12:10299-10309. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710038, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: High metastasis is a leading risk factor for the survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a vital step of metastasis. The expression of novel oncogene with kinase domain (NOK) has been observed in some human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the biological function of NOK in NSCLC remains unclear. In the study, we explored the function of NOK in NSCLC, with an aim to elucidate the relevant underlying mechanisms.

Patients And Methods: We investigate the expression of NOK, p-Akt, p-GSK-3β, E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression by immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarrays of 72 paired NSCLC samples of cancerous and adjacent normal tissues. The associations between NOK expression and clinicopathological factors, overall survival, other proteins were assessed. Immunofluorescence analysis of NSCLC tissues was performed to study the location of NOK, Akt and GSK-3β. Up or down-regulated of NOK were conducted in two NSCLC cell lines to analyze its impact on AKT/GSK3β pathway.

Results: Statistical analysis revealed NOK expression increased in NSCLC tissues compared with normal tissues (<0.05). It also showed that low NOK expression were associated with a higher possibility of non-lymphatic metastasis, an early pN stage and clinical stage (<0.05). Moreover, NOK expression was positively correlated with the expression of oncogene p-Akt (Thr308), p-GSK-3β (Ser9) and N-cadherin (<0.05). Immunofluorescence analysis of NSCLC tissues revealed that NOK is co-located with Akt and GSK-3β. Further study in NSCLC cell lines revealed that NOK overexpression can activate the AKT/GSK3β pathway. Conversely, knockdown of NOK can suppress the AKT/GSK3β pathway.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that NOK overexpression correlated significantly with lymphatic metastasis, advanced pN and clinical stage in NSCLC. And NOK may promote EMT by activating the AKT/GSK3β/N-cadherin pathway in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S210014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885570PMC
November 2019

Downregulating Akt/NF-κB signaling and its antioxidant activity with Loureirin A for alleviating the progression of osteoarthritis: In vitro and vivo studies.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Jan 26;78:105953. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Orthopedics Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis(OA) is one of the most common diseases in orthopedics. It is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage and chronic inflammation. In this study, we aim to elucidate the mechanism of Loureirin A's therapeutic effect in OA progression. In vitro, Loureirin A pretreatment can significantly inhibit production of NO, PGE2, COX-2, TNF-α, iNOS andIL-6 induced by IL-1β in mouse articular chondrocytes. Moreover, Loureirin A suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9), which leads to degradation of the extracellular matrix. The degradation of aggrecan and type II collagen protein in the extracellular matrix (ECM) stimulated by IL-1β was reversed. For signal pathway research, Loureirin A dramatically inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and subsequent NF-κB entering into the nucleus caused by IL-1β in chondrocytes. Besides, a number of related indicators suggested that Loureirin A has a strong antioxidant activity in the treatment of osteoarthritis via increasing content of SOD2 and suppressing MDA and ROS. In addition, in vivo study demonstrated that Loureirin A could ameliorated the progression of OA in mice DMM model In conclusion, all results showed that Loureirin A may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105953DOI Listing
January 2020

High proton conductivity in a nickel(ii) complex and its hybrid membrane.

Dalton Trans 2019 Feb;48(6):2190-2196

College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, P. R. China.

A novel nickel(ii) complex, [Ni(2,2'-bpy)3](H2SBTC)(H2O)5 (1) (2,2'-bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl), was synthesized based on [Ni(2,2'-bpy)3]2+ discrete units and a partially deprotonated sulfonate-carboxylate ligand of H4SBTC (5-sulfonyl-1,2,4-benzentricarboxylic acid). The adjacent [Ni(2,2'-bpy)3]2+ cationic units were connected to H2SBTC2- anions by hydrogen bonds to form a one-dimensional (1-D) chain. The 1-D chains were further linked using hydrogen bonds from free water molecules and H2SBTC2- anions to generate a two-dimensional (2-D) plane structure. The proton conductivity of 1 reaches 1.3 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 318 K, 98% RH. Furthermore, hybrid membranes composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and 1 as fillers were prepared with different mass percentages. The proton conductivity of [email protected] was found to be 1.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 313 K and 98% RH. The large number of alcoholic hydroxyl groups in PVA promote the resulting conductivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8dt04171gDOI Listing
February 2019

2D europium coordination polymer as a regenerable fluorescence probe for efficiently detecting fipronil.

Analyst 2018 Oct;143(20):4901-4906

College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, P. R. China.

Recently, considerable attention has been paid to European eggs that were found to contain the poisonous insecticide fipronil. Excessive consumption of fipronil can harm the human body, in particular, the liver, thyroid, nervous system and kidneys. As a consequence, there is an urgent need to develop a method to detect fipronil. In this work, a lanthanide coordination polymer [Eu(SIP)(H2O)4]n (1) (NaH2SIP = 5-sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt) was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, infrared spectrum and powder X-ray diffractions. The X-ray studies show that 1 is a two-dimensional layered structure, which is constructed of fused {[Eu(H2O)4]3(SIP)3} pseudo-hexagonal grids. The luminescence properties of 1 exhibit effective recognition for fipronil in methanol solution. Furthermore, a wide linear range (10-6-10-4 M), a low detection limit of 0.8 μM, high selectivity and excellent recyclability, reveal that 1 can potentially act as a luminescence-based sensor for quantitative and highly sensitive detection of fipronil. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that a metal-organic coordination polymer, as a fluorescent-based probe, has been used for the detection of fipronil. Moreover, fluorescent-based test papers of 1 have also been prepared, which can be regarded as a simple and practical method for detecting fipronil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8an00701bDOI Listing
October 2018

Overexpressed D2 Dopamine Receptor Inhibits Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Progression through Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 16;48(6):2258-2272. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Central Laboratory, Nanjing Chest Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Background/aims: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) has multiple roles in clinical progression of NSCLC and functional maintenance of cancer cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism. Here, we clarified whether DRD2 inhibits lung cancer progression and identified the underlying downstream signaling.

Methods: DRD2 mRNA and protein levels were detected in clinical specimens by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. MTT and colony formation assays were applied to analyze cell proliferation. The underlying molecular mechanism was identified by dual luciferase, western blot, qRT-PCR, cAMP detection, immunoprecipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. A murine NSCLC model was used to clarify the role of DRD2 in tumor cell proliferation.

Results: We found that DRD2 ablated tumor cell growth. DRD2 expression in NSCLC tissues was lower than in adjacent normal lung tissues. Moreover, DRD2 mRNA and protein levels in NSCLC were negatively correlated with the tumor size, TNM status, and patient overall survival. In vitro experiments showed that disruption of DRD2 promoted the proliferation of NSCLC cell lines A549 and SK-MES-1 by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, DRD2 overexpression not only blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced A549 and SK-MES-1 cell proliferation and growth, but also inhibited the tumorigenesis in murine xenograft models.

Conclusion: These results indicate that DRD2 may be a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer patients with high DRD2 expression by ablating the NF-κB signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000492644DOI Listing
September 2018

Diagnostic and therapeutic value of progastrin-releasing peptide on small-cell lung cancer: A Single-Center Experience in China.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 09 10;22(9):4328-4334. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, China.

We aimed to compare the diagnostic efficiency of proGRP and NSE on SCLC and to investigate whether the change of proGRP level would predict therapeutic response. Patients who were firstly diagnosed pathologically in Nanjing Chest Hospital and measured proGRP level consecutively were enrolled in the study. ProGRP level was detected using Elecsys ProGRP Assay. Totally 75 SCLC, 234 NSCLC and 264 benign lung diseases (BLD) were enrolled. Both proGRP and NSE levels in SCLC were significantly higher than those in NSCLC and BLD, and proGRP in extensive stage SCLC was higher than which in limited stage (P ≤ .001). The diagnostic efficiency of proGRP on SCLC was higher than that of NSE, but when the two biomarkers were bind together, the diagnostic efficiency was the best. When SCLC was differentiated from NSCLC and BLD, the cut-off values were 114.35 pg/mL and 162.55 pg/mL respectively. For treatment responsive patients, proGRP level decreased markedly after the first cycle of therapy and kept a continued momentum of decline during treatment. But for unresponsive patients, no obvious decline was observed. ProGRP had higher diagnostic efficiency on SCLC when compared to NSE, and it could better predict therapeutic response of pulmonary target lesions on chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.13722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6111817PMC
September 2018

Association of Genes in the High-Density Lipoprotein Metabolic Pathway with Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in Asian Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Ophthalmol 2018 6;2018:9538671. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To assess the association of genes in the high-density lipoprotein metabolic pathway (HDLMP) with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and the genetic difference in the HDLMP between PCV and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Methods: We performed a literature search in EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science for genetic studies on 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 5 genes in the HDLMP including cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), hepatic lipase (LIPC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in PCV. All studies were published before September 30, 2017, without language restriction. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each polymorphism were estimated. We also compared the association profiles between PCV and AMD and performed a sensitivity analysis.

Results: Our result is based on 43 articles. After excluding duplicates and articles without complete information, 7 studies were applicable to meta-analysis. 7 polymorphisms were meta-analyzed: CETP rs2303790/rs3764261, LIPC rs10468017/rs493258, LPL rs12678919, ABCA1 rs1883025, and ABCG1 rs57137919. We found that in Asian population, CETP rs3764261 (T allele; OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.28-1.665, < 0.01), CETP rs2303790 (G allele; OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.258-1.96, < 0.01), and ABCG1 rs57137919 (A allele; OR = 1.168; 95% CI: 1.016-1.343, < 0.01) were significantly associated with PCV, and ABCG1 rs57137919 (A allele; OR = 1.208, 95% CI: 1.035-1.411, < 0.01) has different effects in PCV and AMD. The other 4 polymorphisms in LIPC/LPL/ABCA1 had no significant association with PCV ( > 0.05). The sensitivity analysis validated the significance of our analysis.

Conclusions: Our study revealed 7 polymorphisms in 5 genes. Among them, CETP (rs3764261/rs2303790) and ABCG1 (rs57137919) were the major susceptibility genes for PCV in Asian population and ABCG1 (rs57137919) showed allelic diversity between PCV and AMD. Since the size for PCV and AMD was small, we need to study these genes genotyping in larger samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9538671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6011074PMC
June 2018

Biotransformation of ursolic acid by Alternaria longipes AS3.2875.

Nat Prod Res 2018 Mar 29;32(5):536-543. Epub 2017 May 29.

a Tianjin Key Laboratory for Prevention and Control of Occupational and Environmental Hazard , Logistics University of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces , Tianjin , P.R. China.

Microbial transformation of ursolic acid (1) was carried out by Alternaria longipes AS 3.2875. Six transformed products (2-7) from 1 were isolated and their structures were identified as 3-carbonyl ursolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), ursolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), ursolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4), 2α, 3β-dihydroxy ursolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), 3β, 21β dihydroxy ursolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6), and 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)- ursolic acid 28-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (7) based on the analysis of 1D NMR, 2DNMR and MS data. The product 2 was a new compound among them and showed stronger antibacterial activity against S. aureu, MRSA and MRCA than substrate. In this study, we modified structure of ursolic acid through biotransformation to enhance its activities and preliminarily discussed the transformation way of the products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1327860DOI Listing
March 2018

Effect of acupuncture in prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with advanced cancer: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2017 04 20;18(1):185. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated with Capital Medical University, No. 23, Back Road of Art Gallery, Dong Cheng District, Beijing, 100010, China.

Background: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most common and distressing side effects in patients with cancer. The introduction and development of antiemetic drugs have significantly improved the ability of clinicians to control CINV, but it is not easy to translate to practical application, owing to financial issues, provider-related barriers, and patient factors. Nondrug therapies are needed to alleviate the symptoms of CINV. Acupuncture is an appropriate adjunctive treatment for CINV, but additional evidence is needed.

Methods/design: This study is a multicenter, randomized, sham-controlled prospective clinical trial. A total of 136 participants will be randomly allocated into the intervention group (verum acupuncture) or the control group (sham acupuncture) in a 1:1 ratio. All treatment will be given for 5 days. Participants in both groups will receive acupuncture sessions twice on the first day of chemotherapy and once consecutively on the following 4 days. Each session takes approximately 30 minutes. The primary outcome measure will be the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events to assess CINV. The secondary outcome measures will be the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Safety will be assessed at each visit.

Discussion: The results of this trial will provide clinical evidence for the effect and safety of acupuncture for CINV.

Trial Registrations: ISRCTN Registry identifier: ISRCTN13287728 ). Registered on 28 February 2015. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02369107 . Registered on 17 February 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-017-1927-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5399325PMC
April 2017

Awareness of Age-related Macular Degeneration and Its Risk Factors among Beijing Residents in China.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 01;130(2):155-159

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness, and awareness of this disease is important in the prevention of blindness. However, lack of public awareness of AMD was shown in previous studies, and there was no report of AMD awareness in the Mainland of China. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the awareness of AMD and its risk factors among Beijing residents in China.

Methods: A cross-sectional, computer-assisted, telephone investigation was conducted to measure the awareness of AMD among Beijing residents. All the contacts of potential respondents were randomly generated by computer. Only those above 18 years of age and willing to participate in the study were included. The questionnaire for the study was modified from the AMD Alliance International Global Report. Pearson's Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to identify the factors that affected the knowledge of AMD.

Results: Among 385 Beijing residents who agreed to participate, the awareness of AMD was 6.8%, far below than that of cataract and glaucoma. Participants who were above 30 years of age (odds ratio [OR] 6.17, confidence interval [CI] 1.44-26.57), with experience of health-related work (OR 8.11, CI 3.25-20.27), and whose relatives/friends or themselves suffering from AMD (OR 32.18, CI 11.29-91.68) had better AMD awareness. Among those familiar with AMD, only 35% of them identified smoking as a risk factor, and only 23.1% of the residents believed that smoking could lead to blindness.

Conclusions: The sample of Chinese population had limited knowledge of AMD. Educational programs need to be carried out to raise public awareness of AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.197994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5282671PMC
January 2017

Mouse Double Minute 2 Actively Suppresses p53 Activity in Oocytes during Mouse Folliculogenesis.

Am J Pathol 2017 Feb 29;187(2):339-351. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animals for Disease Study, Model Animal Research Center of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

The p53 signaling network is indispensible in cellular stress responses and tumor suppression. Negative regulations of p53 by mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) and its homolog MDM4 are an integrated component of the network and have been implicated in regulating the stress responses and the maintenance of normal development and homeostasis of multiple somatic cell lineages. However, the regulatory role of MDM2 on p53 and stress responses in female germ cells remains undetermined. Here, we used the Cre-loxP system to delete Mdm2 in oocytes at different stages of folliculogenesis in mice. Mdm2 deletion resulted in a clear p53 nuclear accumulation in the oocytes and impeded fertilities with early follicular loss in mice, resembling human premature ovarian failure phenotypes. These phenotypes were fully rescued by concurrent deletion of p53 in mice. In addition, Nutlin-3, a small molecule compound that inhibited the binding of MDM2 to p53, also promoted p53-dependent oocyte death. Although cancer therapeutic agents 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin could not induce a robust p53 activation in the wild-type oocytes, they induced p53 nuclear accumulation in the Mdm2 and Mdm4 double heterozygous oocytes. These results demonstrated a critical prosurvival role for MDM2 in the oocytes. Moreover, they suggested a more tightened and rigorous regulatory mode for the MDM2/MDM4-p53 network in female germ cells under stress situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2016.09.023DOI Listing
February 2017

Relationship Exploration of Chemical Content, Complex Dielectric Constant and Spectral Features of Rocks.

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2016 Oct;36(10):3103-9

In this research, 97 pieces of rock in Xingcheng, Liaoning Province, China were collected to measure the spectral reflectance in 350~2 500 nm, chemical content, and complex dielectric constant of some samples. The absorption depths were calculated by using continuum- removal method. With correlation analysis method, two kinds of correlation curves were obtained based on the theory of spectral characteristics of chemical contents and the principle of dielectric constant. One described the relationship between chemical content and spectral absorption depth, and the other one represented the correlation of complex dielectric constant and reflectance. By summarizing curves morphological characteristics, several conclusions were drawn as follows: (1)There was a strong correlation between the chemical content (SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, K2O, MgO, burnt-loss) and spectral absorption depth in 1 900~2 500 nm, furthermore, at around 1 900, 2 200, 2 300 nm and other identifying characteristic bands, local extreme maximum / minimum values appeared. At Fe3+ characteristic band (400~550 nm), correlation coefficient reached -0.406 between Fe2O3 content and absorption in igneous rock samples collection. Exploring the relationship between rock spectral absorption features and its chemical contents had a positive effect on metallogenic prediction and lithology identification with remote sensing image. (2) Reflectance and complex dielectric constant were negatively correlated totally, compared with the imaginary part; the real part had a better relation reached -0.753 at around 1 900 nm. Curves showed that there were great correlations around 1 900 and 2 200 nm, so, our study adopted different models to simulate response relationships. Dielectric constant of media is one of the basic physical properties, and now most analyses of existing research between electromagnetic characteristics and dielectric constant are studied in microwave band, however, our research is conducted in visible and near infrared range. The conclusions will be useful for further exploration on dielectric characteristics and spectral features of rocks.
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October 2016

[Study on the Character Relationship Between the Density and Susceptibility of the Rock and the Reflection Spectrum].

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2015 Aug;35(8):2225-30

It chooses 15 kinds of rock from the three major rock categories as the rock samples (the number of rock samples is 208) and obtains the density, susceptibility and reflection spectrum at the wave band of 350~2500 nm. It calculates the correlative coefficients with the aim of studying the characteristic relationship between the property (including the density and the susceptibility) of the rock and the reflectivity. It concludes the wave band of the reflection spectrum which owes the prospect to discuss the density and susceptibility of the rock qualitatively or quantitatively, meanwhile, it sums up the characteristic of the curves of the correlative coefficients. In this paper, the discussion and analysis based on the results show that the study on the character relationship between the property of rock (density and susceptibility) and the reflection spectrum is meaningful and workable.
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August 2015

Study on the Relationship between the Depth of Spectral Absorption and the Content of the Mineral Composition of Biotite.

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2015 Sep;35(9):2583-7

The mineral composition of rock is one of the main factors affecting the spectral reflectance characteristics, and it's an important reason for generating various rock characteristic spectra. This study choose the rock samples provided by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) (including all kinds of mineral percentage of rocks, and spectral reflectances range from 0.35 to 2.50 μm wavelength measured by ASD spectrometer), and the various types of mineral spectral reflectances contained within the rocks are the essential data. Using the spectral linear mixture model of rocks and their minerals, firstly, a simulation study on the mixture of rock and mineral composition is achieved, the experimental results indicate that rock spectral curves using the model which based on the theory of the linear mixture are able to simulate better and preserve the absorption characteristics of various mineral components well. Then, 8 samples which contain biotite mineral are picked from the rock spectra of igneous, biotite contents and the absorption depth characteristics of spectral reflection at 2.332 μm, furthermore, a variety of linear and nonlinear normal statistical models are used to fit the relationship between the depth of absorption spectra and the content of the mineral composition of biotite, finally, a new simulation model is build up with the Growth and the Exponential curve model, and a statistical response relationship between the spectral absorption depth and the rock mineral contents is simulated by using the new model, the fitting results show that the correlation coefficient reaches 0.9984 and the standard deviation is 0.572, although the standard deviation using Growth and Exponential model is less than the two model combined with the new model fitting the standard deviation, the correlation coefficient of the new model had significantly increased, which suggesting that the, new model fitting effect is closer to the measured values of samples, it proves that the simulation results of new model is closer to the measured value.
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September 2015

p53 in the Myeloid Lineage Modulates an Inflammatory Microenvironment Limiting Initiation and Invasion of Intestinal Tumors.

Cell Rep 2015 Nov 22;13(5):888-97. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animals for Disease Study, Model Animal Research Center of Nanjing University, 12 Xuefu Road, Pukou High-Tec District, Nanjing, JiangSu Province 210061, China. Electronic address:

Chronic inflammation promotes the development and progression of various epithelial tumors. Wild-type p53 suppresses inflammation, but it is unclear whether the role of p53 in suppression of inflammation is linked to its tumor suppression function. Here, we established mouse models of myeloid lineage-specific p53 deletion or activation to examine its role in inflammation-related intestinal tumorigenesis. Impaired p53 in the myeloid linage resulted in elevated levels of inflammatory mediators and stimulated adenoma initiation in Apc(Min/+) mice. In contrast, mice with mild p53 activation in the myeloid lineage attenuated the inflammatory response and were more resistant to intestinal tumor development and invasion, which were initiated through Apc(Min/+) mutation or carcinogen and promoted by colitis. Furthermore, p53 activation also suppressed alternative (M2) macrophage polarization together with c-MYC downregulation. Therefore, as a regulator of macrophage function, p53 is critical to protection against tumorigenesis in a non-cell-autonomous manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.09.045DOI Listing
November 2015

Coordination polymers of macrocyclic oxamide with 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate: syntheses, crystal structures and magnetic properties.

Dalton Trans 2011 May 19;40(20):5528-37. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecule, College of Chemistry, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, 300387, P. R. China.

Solvothermal reactions of mixed ligands H(3)BTC and macrocyclic oxamide complexes (ML, M = Cu, Ni) with M(ClO(4))(2)·6H(2)O (M = Co, Zn, Ni and Cd) afford six new complexes, including [M'(4)(BTC)(2)(ML)(2)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·2H(2)O (M' = Co, M = Ni, for (1); M' = Zn, M = Ni, for (2); M' = Zn, M = Cu, for (3)), [Ni(3)(BTC)(2)(NiL)(2)(H(2)O)(6)]·2CH(3)OH·2H(2)O (4), [Cd(4)(BTC)(2)(HBTC)(NiL)(4)(H(2)O)]·3H(2)O (5) and [Cd(HBTC)(CuL)]·H(2)O (6) (ML, H(2)L = 2, 3-dioxo-5, 6, 14, 15-dibenzo-1,4,8,12-tetraazacyclo-pentadeca-7,13-dien; H(3)BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid). Complexes 1-3 consist of a 2D layer framework formed by the linkage of M(II)(M = Ni, Cu) and M'(4) (M' = Co, Zn) cluster via the oxamide and BTC(3-) bridges and display a (3,6)-connected network with a (4(3))(2)(4(6).6(6).8(3)) topology. The structure of 4 consists of pentanuclear [Ni(II)(5)] units and arranges in a 1D cluster chain. Complex 5 exhibits a 2D layered structure characterized by 3,4,3-connected (4.6(2))(3)(4.6(3).8(2))(4(2).6(3).8)(4(2).6) topology. Complex 6 possesses a 3D network with sra topology. The magnetic properties of complexes 1 and 4 were investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0dt01584aDOI Listing
May 2011

Polynuclear complexes of macrocyclic oxamide with 5-sulfosalicylate: syntheses, crystal structures and magnetic properties.

Dalton Trans 2010 Oct 7;39(40):9654-61. Epub 2010 Sep 7.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecule, College of Chemistry, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, 300387, PR China.

Hydrothermal reactions of mixed ligands 5-sulfosalicylic acid (H(3)SSAL) and macrocyclic oxamide complex (CuL) with M(ClO(4))(2)·6H(2)O (M = Mn, Gd and Cu) afford three new complexes, including [Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(SSAL)(2)(CuL)(2)(OH)(H(2)O)(3)]n (1), {[Gd(2)(HSSAL)(2)(CuL)(4)(C(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(2)]·2H(2)O}(n) (2) and [Cu(2)(HSSAL)(2)(CuL)(4)]·2H(2)O (3) (CuL, H(2)L = 2,3-dioxo-5,6,14,15-dibenzo-1,4,8,12-tetraazacyclo-pentadeca-7,13-diene). Complex 1 has very interesting mixed-valence manganese-copper Cu(II)Mn(II)Mn(III)Mn(II)Cu(II) units and consists of a 1D ladderlike chain formed by the linkage of copper(ii) and Mn(3) clusters via the oxamide and SSAL(3-) bridges. The structure of 2 consists of hexanuclear Cu(II)(4)Gd(III)(2) molecules and is arranged in a 1D ladderlike chain formed by the linkage of copper(ii) and gadolinium(iii) via the oxamide, oxalate and HSSAL(2-) bridges. Complex 3 is a hexanuclear Cu(II)(6) molecule including both oxamide and HSSAL(2-) bridges. The results of magnetic determination show pronounced antiferromagnetic interactions in 1 and 3, and ferromagnetic interactions in 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0dt00082eDOI Listing
October 2010

SVM for density estimation and application to medical image segmentation.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2006 May;7(5):365-72

Biomedical Instrument Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China.

A method of medical image segmentation based on support vector machine (SVM) for density estimation is presented. We used this estimator to construct a prior model of the image intensity and curvature profile of the structure from training images. When segmenting a novel image similar to the training images, the technique of narrow level set method is used. The higher dimensional surface evolution metric is defined by the prior model instead of by energy minimization function. This method offers several advantages. First, SVM for density estimation is consistent and its solution is sparse. Second, compared to the traditional level set methods, this method incorporates shape information on the object to be segmented into the segmentation process. Segmentation results are demonstrated on synthetic images, MR images and ultrasonic images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.2006.B0365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1462927PMC
May 2006

The first azide(mu1,1)-bridged binuclear cobalt(II)-imino nitroxide complex with ferromagnetic behavior.

Inorg Chem 2003 Sep;42(19):5804-6

Department of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, P. R. China.

The first azide(mu1,1)-bridged binuclear cobalt(II) complex with a chelated imino nitroxide radical, [Co2(immepy)2(N3)(4)].2EtOH, was structurally and magnetically characterized, where immepy = 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-(6'-methyl-2'-pyridyl) imidazoline-1-oxyl. Five nitrogen atoms complete the coordination sphere of the Co(II) ion, showing a distorted trigonal bipyramid geometry. Two N(3)(-) anions act as bridges between cobalt ions in the mu1,1 coordination mode, resulting in a binuclear structure with an inversion center. Magnetic studies show that ferromagnetic couplings occurred between the adjacent cobalt(II) ions through N3(-)(mu1,1)) bridges, and antiferromagnetic couplings between the cobalt(II) ions and organic radicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic034710sDOI Listing
September 2003