Publications by authors named "Chen-Chi Lee"

131 Publications

High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):700-702

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of high-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Case Report: A 32-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of the abnormal first-trimester maternal serum screening result indicating a 1/34 risk for Down syndrome. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[27]/46,XX[15]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed 12% mosaicism for monosomy X. Prenatal ultrasound was normal. The pregnancy was carried to term, and a 2780-g phenotypically normal female baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 45,X[12]/46,XX[28]. At age one month, the peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[13]/46,XX[27]. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on the buccal mucosal cells revealed 2% (2/102 cells) mosaicism for monosomy X, compared with 1% (1/100 cells) in the normal control. When follow-up at age one year, she was doing well with normal physical and psychomotor development. Her body weight was 9.9 Kg (50th - 85th centile), and her body height was 75 cm (50th - 85th centile). The peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[4]/46,XY[36].

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,XX at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.008DOI Listing
July 2022

High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable fetal outcome and cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):695-699

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of high-level mosaicism for 45,X by amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable fetal outcome.

Case Report: A 35-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[13]/46,XY[11]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of Yp11.3q11.21 × 0-1 [0.1], Yq11.21q11.23 × 0-1 [0.6]. At 19 weeks of gestation, she underwent the second amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 45,X[13]/46,XY[12], and aCGH and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) on uncultured amniocytes showed 37% mosaicism for Y-deleted cells. At 28 weeks of gestation, she underwent the third amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 45,X[25]/46,XY[25], and aCGH on uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of Yq11.21q11.23 × 0.5, Yq11.23q12 × 0.7. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed that 16.67% (20/120 cells) were Y-deleted cells. The parental karyortypes and prenatal ultrasound were normal. At 37 weeks of gestation, a 2707-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered with normal male external genitalia. The karyotypes of cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta were 45,X[25]/46,XY[15], 45,X[18]/46,XY[22] and 45,X[25]/46,XY[15], respectively. When follow-up at age five months, the neonate was normal in external genitalia and physical development. The peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[29]/46,XY[11], and FISH analysis on 100 buccal mucosal cells showed no abnormal signals. When follow-up at age 11 months, the neonate was physically normal, and the peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[17]/46,XY[23].

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable fetal outcome despite the presence of cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.007DOI Listing
July 2022

Mosaic trisomy 18 at amniocentesis associated with a favorable fetal outcome in a pregnancy.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):690-694

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 18 by amniocentesis associated with a favorable fetal outcome in a pregnancy.

Case Report: A 42-year-old, gravida 4, para 2, woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[6]/46,XX[17]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes showed the result of 45% mosaicism for trisomy 18. At 25 weeks of gestation, the woman underwent repeat amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[10]/46,XX[24]. Simultaneous aCGH on uncultured amniocytes showed the result of arr 18p11.32q23 (148,963-78,012,829) × 2.3 [GRCh (hg19)] with a log ratio of 0.2-0.25 compatible with 30-38% mosaicism for trisomy 18. The parental karyotypes were normal. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on uncultured amniocytes showed 27% (27/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) on uncultured amniocytes excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 18. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) analysis at 34 weeks of gestation revealed a significant gene dosage increase of chromosome 18 (29.95; normal control: -3.0-3.0). At 39 weeks of gestation, a 2840-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[8]/46,XX[32]. The placenta was trisomy 18 of maternal origin. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[2]/46,XX[38]. At age 1½ months, the peripheral blood had a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[5]/46,XX[35], and FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells revealed 2% (2/102 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18. When follow-up at age seven months, the neonate was phenotypically normal, and the peripheral blood had a karyotype of 47,XX,+18[1]/46,XX[39].

Conclusions: Mosaic trisomy 18 at amniocentesis without abnormal fetal ultrasound can be associated with a favorable outcome, and the abnormal trisomy 18 cell line may decrease progressively after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.006DOI Listing
July 2022

High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 May;61(3):528-531

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of high-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Case Report: A 36-year-old, gravida 4, para 3, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[22]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[4]. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable, and the fetus had normal male external genitalia. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 20 weeks of gestation, and the second amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[24]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[3]. Simultaneous interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed that 60% (62/103 cells) were Y-deleted cells. After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a 3020-g male baby was delivered with a body length of 52 cm, normal male genital organs and no phenotypic abnormalities. The karyotypes of cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta were 45,X[20]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[20], 45,X[31]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[9] and 45,X[40], respectively. At age one month, FISH analysis on urinary cells and buccal mucosal cells revealed 11.5% (7/61 cells) and 13.6% (16/118 cells), respectively for mosaicism for the Y-deleted cells. At age five month, the karyotype of peripheral blood was 45,X[9]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[31]. FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells showed no abnormal Y-deleted cell (0/101 cells). At age 11 month, the karyotype of peripheral blood was 45,X[5]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[35]. FISH analysis on 102 buccal mucosal cells showed no abnormal signals. The infant was doing well with normal physical and psychomotor development.

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2) at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable outcome and progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.03.024DOI Listing
May 2022

Perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy in a pregnancy with mosaic 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 May;61(3):525-527

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy in a pregnancy with mosaic 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 38-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[2]/46,XY[6]. Level II ultrasound at 20 weeks of gestation was unremarkable, and the fetus had normal male external genitalia. Following genetic counseling, the woman decided to continue the pregnancy. At 39 weeks of gestation, a healthy male baby was delivered with a body weight of 3410 g and a body length of 54.5 cm. The male external genital organs were normal. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46, XY (40/40 cells). The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 45,X[1]/46,XY[39]. During follow-up at age one month, his body weight was 4.4 Kg (15th-50th centile), and his body length was 56 cm (50th-85th centile). The infant was doing well. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on 100 buccal mucosal cells revealed no abnormal Y-deletion cell, and all cells contained one Y signal.

Conclusion: Perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy may occur in the pregnancy with mosaic 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.03.023DOI Listing
May 2022

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaic ring chromosome 21 associated with low PAPP-A and low PlGF in the first-trimester maternal serum screening.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Mar;61(2):359-363

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaic ring chromosome 21 [r(21)].

Case Report: A 17-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal result of the first-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome with a free β-hCG level of 1.736 multiples of the median (MoM), a pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) level of 0.275 MoM, a placental growth factor (PlGF) level of 0.281 MoM, a Down syndrome risk of 1:222 and a preeclampsia risk of 1:175. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniocytes revealed the result of 46,XX,r(21) (p12q22.3)[19]/45,XX,-21[13]. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis of cultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr [GRCh37] 21q11.2q22.2 (15,485,008-40,625,594) × 1∼2, 21q22.2q22.3 (40,703,792-46,682,184) × 2∼3, 21q22.3 (46,761,631-48,084,156) × 1, consistent with mosaic monosomy 21 and r(21) (p12q22.3). The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with low-set ears and hypotelorism. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,r(21) (p12q22.3)[30]/45,XX,-21[8]/46,XX,idic r(21) (p12q22.3)[2] in the cord blood, 46,XX,r(21) (p12q22.3)[34]/45,XX,-21[6] in the skin, 46,XX,r(21) (p12q22.3)[37]/45,XX,-21[3] in the umbilical cord and 46,XX,dup(21) (q22.2q22.3)[32]/46,XX,r(21) (p12q22.3)[8] in the placenta. aCGH analysis of cord blood revealed the result of arr 21q11.2q22.2 (15,499,847-40,662,581) × 2.3, arr 21q22.2q22.3 (40,703,792-46,682,184) × 3.6, arr 21q22.3 (46,761,632-48,090,317) × 1, consistent with mosaic duplication of 21q11.2-q22.2 and 21q22.2-q22.3, and a 1.33-Mb 21q22.3 deletion encompassing the genes of COL18A1, SLC19A1, PCBP3, COL6A1, COL6A2, FTCD, LSS, MCM3AP, YBEY, PCNT, DIP2A, S100B and PRMT2.

Conclusion: Mosaic r(21) at amniocentesis may be associated with monosomy 21, idic r(21) and dup(21), and low PAPP-A and low PlGF in the first-trimester maternal serum screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.02.029DOI Listing
March 2022

Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;61(1):138-140

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present our observation of cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 35-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+20[10]/46,XX[15]. Among 25 colonies of cultured amniocytes, 10 colonies had a karyotype of 47,XX,+20, while the rest were normal. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance, or arr (1-22,X) × 2. The parental karyotypes were normal. Following genetic counseling, the woman underwent repeat amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation. Repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+20[3]/46,XX[35]. Among 38 colonies of cultured amniocytes, three colonies had a karyotype of 47,XX,+20, while the rest were normal. Simultaneous aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance, or arr (1-22,X) × 2. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on 101 uncultured amniocytes detected only one cell with three chromosome 20 signals with a mosaic trisomy 20 level of 1% (1/101 cells), compared with 0% in normal control. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy 20. At 38 weeks of gestation, a phenotypically normal 3120-g female baby was delivered. Cytogenetic analysis of cord blood, placental tissue and umbilical cord revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. The neonate was normal at postnatal follow-ups. Postnatal interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on 100 buccal mucosal cells revealed no trisomy 20 signals.

Conclusion: Mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis can be a cultured artifact. Complete cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis, and molecular cytogenetic analysis on uncultured amniocytes is useful for rapid distinguishing true mosaicism from pseudomosaicism under such as circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.11.023DOI Listing
January 2022

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 by amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with abnormal first-trimester screening result (low PAPP-A and low PlGF), intrauterine growth restriction and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Nov;60(6):1107-1111

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 by amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with an abnormal first-trimester screening result, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 27-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal first-trimester screening result with maternal serum free β-hCG of 1.474 multiples of the median (MoM), pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) of 0.122 MoM and placental growth factor (PlGF) of 0.101 MoM, and a Down syndrome risk of 1/45. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+16 [9]/46,XY [16] and an abnormal array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) result of arr (16) × 3 [0.54] compatible with 54% mosaicism for trisomy 16 in uncultured amniocytes. At 24 weeks of gestation, repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+16 [4]/46,XY [16] and an aCGH result of arr 16p13.3q24.3 (96,766-90,567,357) × 2.25 with a log ratio = 0.2 compatible with 20-30% mosaicism for trisomy 16 in uncultured amniocytes. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 16. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed 19.4% (12/62 cells) mosaic trisomy 16. Prenatal ultrasound revealed IUGR. At 36 weeks of gestation, a phenotypically normal baby was delivered with a body weight of 1900 g. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XY. QF-PCR analysis confirmed biparentally inherited disomy 16 in the cord blood and maternal-origin of trisomy 16 in the placenta. When follow-up at age two months, FISH analysis on 101 buccal mucosal cells and 32 urinary cells revealed no signal of trisomy 16.

Conclusion: Mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis can be associated with IUGR and an abnormal first-trimester screening result with low PAPP-A and low PlGF. Mosaic trisomy 16 without UPD 16 at amniocentesis can have a favorable outcome, and the abnormal triosmy 16 cell line may disappear after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.09.026DOI Listing
November 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of a familial 9p12 amplification inherited from a father carrier.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Sep;60(5):905-906

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a familial 9p12 amplification inherited from a father carrier.

Case Report: A 38-year-old, gravida 3, para 2, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a heteromorphic variant of chromosome 9 with a 9p12 amplification on G-band preparations, but it was negative on C-band preparations. Cytogenetic analysis of the parents revealed that the phenotypically normal father carried the same euchromatic 9p + polymorphism. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on the DNA extracted from the father's blood revealed no genomic imbalance. At 37 weeks of gestation, a healthy 2760-g female baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. She was doing well at age one year during follow-up.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of a 9p + variant can be a euchromatic chromosome variant of a familial 9p12 amplification without phenotypic consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.07.021DOI Listing
September 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of a familial Y long-arm and chromosome 15 short-arm translocation inherited from a mother carrier.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jul;60(4):781-783

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a familial Y long-arm and chromosome 15 short-arm translocation inherited from a mother carrier.

Case Report: A 34-year-old primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a derived chromosome 15 or 15p+ with an additional material on the short arm of chromosome 15. Cytogenetic analysis of the parents revealed that the phenotypically normal mother carried the same 15p+ variant, and the father had a karyotype of 46,XY. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from cultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis using the DNAs extracted from cultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 15. C-banded preparations and metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using a Yq12-specific probe showed a positive stain on the 15p+, indicating the origin of Yq on the short arm of the derivative chromosome 15. The karyotype of amniocentesis was 46,XX,der(15)t(Y;15)(q12;p13)mat. The mother had a karyotype of 46,XX,der(15) t(Y;15)(q12;p13). At 39 weeks of gestation, a 3006-g healthy female baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. During follow-up at age six months, she manifested normal physical and psychomotor development.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of a 15p+ variant should include a differential diagnosis of genomic imbalance and UPD 15, and aCGH and polymorphic DNA marker analyses are useful under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.05.036DOI Listing
July 2021

Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):345-349

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 31-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 24 weeks of gestation because of IUGR. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [3]/46,XX [22]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed gene dosage increase in chromosome 16 consistent with 28% mosaicism for trisomy 16. Uniparental disomy (UPD) 7 and UPD 11 were excluded. She underwent repeat amniocentesis at 27 weeks of gestation. Repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [1]/46,XX [24]. Simultaneous aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed 25%-35% (log ratio = 0.17-0.25) mosaicism for trisomy 16. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis detected trisomy 16 signals in 28/100 (28%) uncultured amniocytes. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded UPD 16. Level II ultrasound revealed no fetal abnormalities except symmetric IUGR. The pregnancy was continued to 37 weeks of gestation, and a 2306-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46, XX in 50/50 lymphocytes. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [14]/46,XX [36]. Interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells and urinary cells at age three days revealed trisomy 16 signals in 3.8% (4/106) buccal mucosal cells and 6.5% (7/107) urinary cells, compared with 1% in the normal control. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on placenta confirmed trisomy 16 in the placenta and a maternal origin of the extra chromosome 16.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may present in mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis. Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis without maternal UPD 16 can be associated with a favorable outcome despite the presence of IUGR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Cytogenetic discrepancy between uncultured amniocytes and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):728-735

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis.

Materials And Methods: A 41-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) result suspicious of trisomy 15. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed 26% mosaicism for trisomy 15. She was referred for repeat amniocentesis. aCGH, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) assays and/or conventional cytogenetic analysis were applied on various cells and tissues including uncultured amniocytes, cultured amniocytes, cord blood, placenta, parental bloods and/or buccal mucosal cells.

Results: Repeat amniocentesis at 21 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46, XY in cultured amniocytes, and 30% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by aCGH and 32% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in uncultured amniocytes. Repeat amniocentesis at 29 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46, XY in cultured amniocytes, and 15% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by aCGH and 7.2% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in uncultured amniocytes. QF-PCR on cultured amniocytes excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 15. A phenotypically normal baby was delivered subsequently with a karyotype of 46, XY in cord blood and 2% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in buccal mucosal cells. The aCGH analysis revealed trisomy 15 in placenta and no genomic imbalance in cord blood. QF-PCR assays determined a maternal origin of trisomy 15 in placenta.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between uncultured and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis. The cells of trisomy 15 cell line in prenatally detected mosaic trisomy 15 may decrease in number as the fetus grows. Whenever NIPT suspects trisomy 15, a confirmatory amniocentesis should include genetic analysis on both uncultured and cultured amniocytes to exclude mosaic trisomy 15 and maternal UPD 15, especially when the cultured amniocytes have a normal karyotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.018DOI Listing
September 2020

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for r(13), monosomy 13 and idic r(13) by amniocentesis.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Jan;59(1):130-134

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for ring chromosome 13 [r(13)], monosomy 13 and isodicentric ring chromosome 13 [idic r(13)] by amniocentesis.

Case Report: A 24-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation because of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the fetus. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,r(13)[23]/45,XY,-13[10]/46,XY,idic r(13)[2]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on cultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 13q11q31.3 (19,436,286-92,284,309) × 1.85, arr 13q31.3q34 (92,288,514-115,107,733) × 1 [GRCh37 (hg19)], indicating a 22.82-Mb 13q31.3-q34 deletion and a 15-20% mosaicism for 13q11-q31.3 deletion. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism. The placental tissues had a karyotype of 46,XY,r(13)[18]/46,XY,-13,+mar[14]/45,XY,-13[8]. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis confirmed a maternal origin of the 13q deletion.

Conclusion: Fetus with mosaic r(13), monosomy 13 and idic r(13) may present IUGR on prenatal ultrasound, and fetoplacental cytogenetic discrepancy may exist under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2019.11.021DOI Listing
January 2020

Detection of a familial 1q21.1 microdeletion and concomitant CHD1L mutation in a fetus with oligohydramnios and bilateral renal dysplasia on prenatal ultrasound.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2019 Nov;58(6):859-863

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present detection of a familial 1q21.1 microdeletion and concomitant CHD1L mutation in a fetus with oligohydramnios and bilateral renal dysplasia on prenatal ultrasound.

Case Report: A 37-year-old, primigravid woman was referred for level II ultrasound examination at 16 weeks of gestation because of oligohydramnios. The parents were phenotypically normal, and there were no congenital malformations in the family. Prenatal ultrasound at 17 weeks of gestation revealed a fetus with fetal growth biometry equivalent to 16 weeks, oligohydramnios with an amniotic fluid index (AFI) of 1.4 cm and bilateral renal dysplasia without sonographic demonstration of bilateral renal arteries. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a 137-g fetus was delivered without characteristic facial dysmorphism. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of the umbilical cord and parental bloods revealed normal karyotypes. However, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from the umbilical cord revealed a 2.038-Mb microdeletion of 1q21.1-q21.2 encompassing 11 [Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)] genes of PRKAB2, FMO5, CHD1L, BCL9, ACP6, GJA5, GJA8, GPR89B, NBPF14, TRN-GTT2-1 and NBPF20. The mother was found to carry the same microdeletion. A missense mutation of c.2353T > G, p.Ser785Ala in CHD1L was detected in the umbilical cord. The father was found to carry a heterozygous mutation of c.2353T > G, p.Ser785Ala in CHD1L.

Conclusion: Fetuses with a 1q21.1 microdeletion and concomitant CHD1L mutation may present oligohydramnios and bilateral renal dysplasia on prenatal ultrasound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2019.07.031DOI Listing
November 2019

Digynic triploidy in a fetus presenting with semilobar holoprosencephaly.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec;57(6):881-884

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present digynic triploidy in a fetus with semilobar holoprosencephaly (HPE).

Case Report: A 32-year-old, gravid 1, para 0, woman underwent prenatal ultrasound examination at 12 weeks of gestation, and the ultrasound showed relative macrocephaly, a small non-cystic placenta, and a fetus with absent nasal bone and semilobar HPE. The pregnancy was terminated subsequently, and a 50-g fetus was delivered with a relatively enlarged head and premaxillary agenesis. The placenta was small and non-cystic. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of the umbilical cord revealed a karyotype of 69, XXX. Postnatal DNA marker analysis using quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assays and the polymorphic short tandem repeat markers for chromosome 18 and 20 on the placental tissues showed a diallelic pattern with a dosage of 1:2 (paternal allele to maternal allele ratio), indicating a maternal origin of the triploidy.

Conclusion: Fetuses with digynic triploidy may present relative macrocephaly, semilobar HPE and a small placenta on prenatal ultrasound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2018.11.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Higher male prevalence of chromosomal mosaicism detected by amniocentesis.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Jun;57(3):370-373

Department of Pediatrics, Kanru Clinic, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: To present the calculated frequencies, male to female sex-ratio, and modes of ascertainments in different levels of chromosomal mosaicism (CM) detected at amniocentesis.

Materials And Methods: This's a 10-years retrospective study between January 2008 and December 2017 and there were 13,752 cases of amniocentesis performed in MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Eight hundred and thirty four cases of CM were collected in this study. We reviewed their types of chromosomal abnormalities of mosaicism, the modes of ascertainment (including: advanced maternal age, abnormal ultrasound findings, abnormal maternal serum screening result, and other reasons), maternal age, gestational age at amniocentesis, fetal gender, and perinatal findings. After amniocentesis, in situ culture was performed and the results of karyotype with CM were divided in to three levels.

Results: In our sample of 13,752 amniocentesis, 834 cases with all levels of CM were collected in this study. Of them, there were 562 cases (4.09%) with level I mosaicism, 207 cases (1.51%) of level II mosaicism, and 65 cases (0.47%) of level III mosaicism (Table 1). In the group of advanced of maternal age (AMA), their calculated frequencies, 4.18% in level I, 1.46% in level II and 0.41% in level III, were very similar to those in total cases (p value = 0.206) without statistical significance. In the group of abnormal ultrasound findings, the calculated frequency was much higher in level III (0.87%), however, there was no statistical significance because of the small numbers of level III. In our cases of amniocentesis, the case numbers of male case (50.20%) is very similar to female (49.80%), and the male to female ratio was 1.01. But, we found more cases of male with CM (444 cases) than female (390 cases). The sex-ratio in different levels' calculated frequencies of CM showed similar in level I, and male prevalence was found in level II and III with statistical significance (p value = 0.022). The male prevalence also revealed in both numerical and structural abnormalities in level II and level III, but no difference in the cases of level I.

Conclusion: In conclusion, our observation showed a novel finding of higher male prevalence of CM in level II and III, and both in numerical and structural abnormalities. It's consistent with the theory of better survival in male embryo after partial self-correction of initial chromosomal aberrations, male-specific selection against chromosomal abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2018.04.007DOI Listing
June 2018

Late-onset fetal bilateral pleural effusions associated with Down syndrome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Feb;57(1):133-136

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present two cases of late-onset bilateral fetal pleural effusions associated with fetal Down syndrome.

Case Reports: Case 1. A 33-year-old Vietnamese woman had undergone regular sonographic examinations since 23 weeks of gestation and no abnormality had been noted. However, bilateral moderate pleural effusions were found at 33 weeks of gestation, and massive pleural effusion, ascites and polyhydramnios developed at 34 weeks of gestation. Aspiration of the pleural effusion was subsequently performed. Clinical laboratory surveys of the aspiration fluid excluded toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus infection. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured lymphocytes derived from pleural effusion revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+21. The parents elected to continue the pregnancy. Intrauterine fetal demise occurred at 37 weeks of gestation, and a macerated female baby was delivered. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of the umbilical cord confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. Case 2. A 41-year-old Pakistani woman had undergone regular sonographic examinations and no abnormality had been noted. However, isolated bilateral mild pleural effusions were noted at 27 weeks of gestation. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21 and simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of uncultured amniocytes confirmed the diagnosis of Down syndrome. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated.

Conclusion: Fetuses with Down syndrome may present late-onset bilateral pleural effusions. Prenatal diagnosis of late-onset bilateral pleural effusions should raise the possibility of fetal Down syndrome and cytogenetic investigation is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2018.01.001DOI Listing
February 2018

Prenatal diagnosis of a 0.7-Mb 17p13.3 microdeletion encompassing YWHAE and CRK but not PAFAH1B1 in a fetus without ultrasound abnormalities.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Feb;57(1):128-132

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of 17p13.3 microdeletion encompassing YWHAE and CRK but not PAFAH1B1 in a fetus without ultrasound abnormalities.

Case Report: A 33-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of a family history of spinocerebellar atrophy in the husband. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. Simultaneously array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis (using 60,000 probes) revealed a 0.7-Mb 17p13.3 microdeletion or arr 17p13.3 (1,264,243-1,965,733) × 1 dn [GRCh37 (hg19)] encompassing YWHAE and CRK but not PAFAH1B1. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. There were no structural abnormalities of the brain, heart, kidneys, skull, limbs and other internal organs. The parents elected to terminate the pregnancy, and a 268-g fetus was delivered at 19 weeks of gestation with mild facial dysmorphism. Postnatal high-resolution aCGH analysis of the placenta (using 630,000 probes) showed a 0.79-Mb 17p13.3 microdeletion or arr 17p13.3 (1,173,549-1,970,690) × 1 (hg19) encompassing TUSC5, YWHAE, CRK and HIC1 but not PAFAH1B1. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using the 17p13.3-specific probe of RP11-818O24 revealed a 17p13.3 deletion.

Conclusion: Fetus with 17p13.3 microdeletion without involving PAFAH1B1 may present no brain abnormalities on fetal ultra sound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.12.022DOI Listing
February 2018

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of an interstitial deletion of 18q12.1-q12.3 encompassing DTNA, CELF4 and SETBP1.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Dec;56(6):847-851

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of an interstitial deletion of 18q12.1-q12.3.

Case Report: A 35-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,del(18)(q12.1q12.3). The fetal ultrasound was unremarkable. The woman underwent repeat amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using uncultured amniocytes revealed a 10.76-Mb interstitial deletion 18q12.1-q12.3 or arr 18q12.1q12.3 (31,944,347-42,704,784) × 1.0 encompassing 19 Online Mendelian Inheritance of in Man (OMIM) genes including DTNA, CELF4 and SETBP1. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on cultured amniocytes confirmed an 18q proximal interstitial deletion. The parental karyotypes were normal. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis determined a paternal origin of the deletion. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated at 24 weeks of gestation, and a 650-g fetus was delivered with characteristic facial dysmorphism.

Conclusion: aCGH analysis and polymorphic DNA marker analysis at amniocentesis are useful for determination of the deleted genes and the parental origin of the de novo deletion, and the acquired information is helpful for genetic counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.10.027DOI Listing
December 2017

Prenatal diagnosis of an 8q22.2-q23.3 deletion associated with bilateral cleft lip and palate and intrauterine growth restriction on fetal ultrasound.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Dec;56(6):843-846

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of an interstitial 8q22.2-q23.3 deletion associated with bilateral cleft lip and palate and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on fetal ultrasound.

Case Report: A 29-year-old, primigravid woman underwent elective amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of anxiety. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46, XX. However, level II ultrasound at 21 weeks of gestation revealed a fetus with IUGR and bilateral cleft lip and palate. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 21 weeks of gestation, and array comparative genomic hybridization using uncultured amniocytes revealed a 13.5-Mb interstitial deletion of 8q22.2-q23.3 encompassing 37 Online Mendelian Inheritance of in Man (OMIM) genes including SPAG1, GRHL2, NCALD, RRM2B and ZFPM2. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis determined a paternal origin of the deletion. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with a depressed nose and bilateral cleft lip and palate.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of facial cleft with IUGR should raise a suspicion of subtle chromosome deletions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.10.026DOI Listing
December 2017

Prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for trisomy 13 at amniocentesis associated with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Dec;56(6):840-842

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for trisomy 13 at amniocentesis associated with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 35-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+13[5]/46,XY[20]. Oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed arr [GRCh37] (13)×3 [0.10], (X,Y)×1 compatible with trisomy 13 mosaicism. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 21 weeks of gestation. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed a mosaic trisomy 13 level of 10% (10/100 cells). aCGH analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed a result of arr 13q12.11q34 (20,407,323-115,092,619)×2.1 with a log ratio of 0.06 compatible with a 10% level of mosaicism. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded uniparental disomy 13. The parental karyotypes were normal. Conventional cytogenetic analysis using cultured amniocytes at repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY in 23/23 colonies. The pregnancy was carried to 37 weeks of gestation, and a 3600-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered. When examined at 8 months of age, the infant was doing well and was normal in psychomotor and growth development. The peripheral blood had a karyotype of 46,XY, and interphase FISH analysis on uncultured urinary cells revealed a mosaic trisomy 13 level of 4.4% (2/45 cells).

Conclusion: Low-level true mosaicism for trisomy 13 at amniocentesis without ultrasound abnormalities can be associated with a favorable fetal outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.10.025DOI Listing
December 2017

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for trisomy 2 in a single colony at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Aug;56(4):569-570

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.05.007DOI Listing
August 2017

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a duplication of 15q24.2-q26.2 associated with anencephaly and neural tube defect.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Aug;56(4):550-553

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of a duplication of 15q24.2-q26.2 associated with anencephaly and neural tube defect (NTD).

Case Report: A 35-year-old pregnant woman was found to have a fetus with anencephaly by prenatal ultrasound at 12 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with anencephaly. Cytogenetic analysis of the cultured placental tissues revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(15) (q24.2q26.2). Parental karyotypes were normal. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of the placental tissues revealed a 20.36-Mb duplication of 15q24.2-q26.2 encompassing 100 Online Mendelian Inheritance of in Man (OMIM) genes including LINGO1, MTHFS, KIF7 and CHD2. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using 15q25.1-specidic probe confirmed a duplication of 15q25.1. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis showed a maternal origin of the duplication.

Conclusion: A duplication of chromosome 15q24.2-q26.2 can be associated with NTD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.06.003DOI Listing
August 2017

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 2.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Apr;56(2):234-237

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 2.

Case Report: A 42-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar[10]/46,XY[12]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of the DNA extracted from cultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance. Spectral karyotyping analysis failed to identify the sSMC. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using the satellite probes CEP1/5/19, CEP2, CEP3, CEP4, CEP6, CEP7, CEP8, CEP9, CEP10, CEP12, CEP13/21, CEP14/22, CEP15, CEP16, and CEP20 revealed a result of 47,XY,+mar .ish der(2)(D2Z+)[10]. The sSMC was derived from the α satellite of chromosome 2. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis using the markers specific for chromosome 2 on the DNAs extracted from cultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy 2. At 39 weeks of gestation, a healthy 3394-g male baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. The cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar[21]/46,XY[19].

Conclusion: Array comparative genomic hybridization and spectral karyotyping may fail to detect an sSMC derived from α satellite, which needs satellite probes for confirmation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.01.004DOI Listing
April 2017

Detection of mosaic 15q11.1-q11.2 deletion encompassing NBEAP1 and POTEB in a fetus with diffuse lymphangiomatosis.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Apr;56(2):230-233

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic diagnoses of mosaic deletion of chromosome 15q11.1-q11.2 in a fetus with diffuse lymphangiomatosis.

Case Report: A 33-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 22 weeks of gestation because of fetal diffuse lymphangiomatosis involving left-side chest, abdominal cavity, thigh and vulva, and intrauterine growth restriction. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,del(15) (q11.1q11.2)[9]/46,XX[26]. The mother had a karyotype of 46,XX. The father had a karyotype of 46,XY. The parents elected to terminate the pregnancy. A 610-g female fetus was delivered at 23 weeks of gestation with large cystic lymphangioma over the left abdomen, thigh, and vulva. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 46,XX,del(15)(q11.1q11.2)[24]/ 46,XX[16]. The placental tissue had a karyotype of 46,XX,del(15)(q11.1q11.2)[23]/ 46,XX[17]. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of the umbilical cord and placenta revealed a 2.42-Mb deletion of 15q11.1-q11.2 encompassing the genes of NBEAP1 and POTEB.

Conclusion: Deletion of 15q11.1-q11.2 encompassing NBEAP1 and POTEB may be associated with diffuse lymphangiomatosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.01.003DOI Listing
April 2017

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of concomitant familial small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 4q (4q11.1-q13.2) and 5q13.2 microdeletion with no apparent phenotypic abnormality.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Apr;56(2):217-223

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of concomitant familial small supernumerary marker chromosome 4 [sSMC(4)] derived from 4q11.1-q12 and q13.2, and 5q13.2 microdeletion with no apparent phenotypic abnormality.

Materials And Methods: A 32-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 21 weeks of gestation because of absent nasal bone on fetal ultrasound. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+mar[13]/46,XX[3]. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on the cultured amniocytes revealed a 2.752-Mb duplication at 4q11-q12, a 1.949-Mb duplication at 4q13.2, and a 1.65-Mb deletion at 5q13.2. The woman underwent repeat amniocentesis at 24 weeks of gestation for molecular cytogenetic characterization. The phenotypically normal parents and their elder son underwent genetic analysis.

Results: At repeat amniocentesis, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed 79.25% (84/106) mosaicism for the sSMC(4), and metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on cultured amniocytes revealed that all 20 cells examined (100%) had the sSMC(4). Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on uncultured amniocytes excluded uniparental disomy 4. The father had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar[2]/46,XY[38], and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed 2.91% (3/103) mosaicism for the sSMC(4) in his peripheral blood. The mother carried the 5q13.2 microdeletion. The elder son had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar[27]/ 46,XY[13] with duplications of 4q11-q12 and 4q13.2. A 3105 g female baby was delivered at term with no apparent phenotypic abnormality.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of concomitant sSMC and microdeletion should raise a suspicion of familial inheritance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.01.002DOI Listing
April 2017

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Jacobsen syndrome (11q23.3-q25 deletion) in a fetus associated with double outlet right ventricle, hypoplastic left heart syndrome and ductus venosus agenesis on prenatal ultrasound.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Feb;56(1):102-105

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of Jacobsen syndrome (11q23.3-q25 deletion) in a fetus associated with double outlet right ventricle (DORV), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), and ductus venosus (DV) agenesis on prenatal ultrasound.

Case Report: A 26-year-old woman underwent prenatal ultrasound examination at 22 weeks of gestation, which revealed intrauterine growth restriction, short femurs, DORV, HLHS, DV agenesis, single umbilical artery, and curly fourth toe of the left foot. The parents elected to terminate the pregnancy, and a 500-g female fetus was delivered at 23 weeks of gestation with facial dysmorphism, bilateral camptodactyly, and hammertoes. The parental karyotypes were normal. Cytogenetic analysis of the cord blood and umbilical cord revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,del(11)(q23). Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of the DNA extracted from the umbilical cord revealed a 14.38-Mb deletion of 11q23.3-q25 encompassing BSX, ETS1, FLI1, and ARHGAP32. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using the probes RP11-209L12 (11q25) and RP11-25M7 (11q11) showed a distal 11q deletion in the aberrant chromosome 11 in 17/17 cells examined.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of DORV, HLHS, DV agenesis associated with intrauterine growth restriction and short limbs should include a differential diagnosis of Jacobsen syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2016.12.004DOI Listing
February 2017

Prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for trisomy 12 associated with a favorable pregnancy outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2016 Dec;55(6):900-901

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2016.08.006DOI Listing
December 2016

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of rec(10)dup(10p)inv(10)(p11.2q26.3) in a fetus associated with paternal pericentric inversion.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2016 Oct;55(5):733-737

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a recombinant chromosome 10 in a fetus associated with a paternal pericentric inversion.

Case Report: A 35-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of an advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,der(10)del(10) (q26.3)dup(10)(p11.2p15). She underwent repeat amniocentesis at 21 weeks of gestation and array comparative genomic hybridization revealed a 31.65-Mb duplication of chromosome 10p15.3-p11.22 and a 3.07-Mb deletion of chromosome 10q26.3. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. She was referred for genetic counseling and cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,inv(10)(p11.2q26.3) in the father and a karyotype of 46,XX in the mother. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a fetus was delivered with prominent facial dysmorphism. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of the placenta revealed a karyotype of 46,XY, rec(10)dup(10p)inv(10)(p11.2q26.3). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a duplication of terminal 10p and a deletion of terminal 10q in the recombinant chromosome 10. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of the cord blood and umbilical cord confirmed the prenatal diagnosis.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of a recombinant chromosome because of an advanced maternal age should alert the possibility of a paternal pericentric inversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2016.07.007DOI Listing
October 2016
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