Publications by authors named "Chen XiaoHong"

565 Publications

Glutathione Peroxidase Is Essential for Oxidative Stress Resistance and Efficient Nodulation.

Front Microbiol 2021 9;12:627562. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Hubei Provincial Engineering and Technology Research Center for Resources and Utilization of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, China.

Glutathione (GSH) plays a key role in regulating the cellular Redox Homeostasis, and appears to be essential for initiation and development of root nodules. Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) catalyzes the reduction of HO and organic hydroperoxides by oxidation of GSH to oxidized GSH (GSSG), which in turn is reduced by glutathione reductase (GR). However, it has not been determined whether the Gpx or GR is required during symbiotic interactions with pea. To characterize the role of glutathione-dependent enzymes in the symbiotic process, single and double mutants were made in (encoding glutathione peroxidase) and (encoding glutathione reductase) genes. All the mutations did not affect the rhizobial growth, but they increased the sensitivity of strains to HO. Mutant in GpxA had no effect on intracellular GSH levels, but can increase the expression of the catalase genes. The mutant can induce the formation of normal nodules, while the single and double mutants exhibited a nodulation phenotype coupled to more than 50% reduction in the nitrogen fixation capacity, these defects in nodulation were characterized by the formation of ineffective nodules. In addition, the and double mutant was severely impaired in rhizosphere colonization and competition. Quantitative proteomics using the TMT labeling method was applied to study the differential expression of proteins in bacteroids isolated from pea root nodules. A total of 27 differentially expressed proteins were identified in these root bacteroids including twenty down-regulated and seven up-regulated proteins. By sorting the down-regulated proteins, eight are transporter proteins, seven are dehydrogenase, deoxygenase, oxidase, and hydrolase. Moreover, three down-regulating proteins are directly involved in nodule process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.627562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900000PMC
February 2021

Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with gestational diabetes mellitus-a case control study in Wuhan, China.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Feb 17;21(1):142. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

School of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, No.947 Heping Road, Wuhan, China.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increased risk of perinatal complications for both the women and the fetuses. The association between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism and GDM has not been thoroughly investigated in Chinese pregnant women. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether VDR gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs154410, rs7975232, rs731236, rs2228570 and rs739837 contribute to GDM risk in Wuhan, China. Moreover, we aimed to explore their combined effects on the risk of GDM.

Methods: Pregnant women who had prenatal examinations at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation in our hospital from January 15, 2018 to March 31, 2019 were included in this case-control study. After exclusion, a total of 1684 pregnant women (826 GDM patients and 858 non-diabetic controls) were recruited. The clinical information and blood samples were collected by trained interviewers and nurses. Genotyping of candidate SNPs was conducted on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Statistical analyses including t-test, ANOVA, chi-square test and logistic regression were performed to the data with SPSS Software to evaluate differences in genotype distribution and associations with GDM risk. Multifactor dimensionality reduction method was used to explore the gene-gene interactions on the risk of GDM.

Results: Differences in age, pre-pregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes and previous history of GDM between the case and control groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were found in height, gravidity, parity, and age of menarche (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences at genotype distributions of the examined VDR gene SNPs (P > 0.05). After adjusting by age, pre-pregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes, the results of logistic regression analysis showed no associations of the five SNPs with GDM in all the four genotype models(P > 0.05). Furthermore, there were no gene-gene interactions on the GDM risk among the five examined VDR gene SNPs.

Conclusions: The VDR gene SNPs rs154410, rs7975232, rs731236, rs2228570 and rs739837 showed neither significant associations nor gene-gene interactions with GDM in Wuhan, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03621-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887796PMC
February 2021

Efficacy and safety of diazoxide for treating hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(2):e0246463. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Wuhan Children's Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Diazoxide is the first-line drug for treating hyperinsulinism and the only pharmacological agent approved for hyperinsulinism by the Federal Drug Administration. This systemic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of diazoxide for treating hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH). The meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of diazoxide in treating HH was performed by searching relevant studies in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The findings were summarized, and the pooled effect size and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. A total of 6 cohort studies, involving 1142 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Among the cohort studies, the pooled estimate of the response rate of diazoxide therapy was 71% (95% CI 50%-93%, Pheterogeneity< 0.001, I2 = 98.3%, Peffect< 0.001). The common side effects were hypertrichosis (45%), fluid retention (20%), gastrointestinal reaction (13%), edema (11%), and neutropenia (9%). Other adverse events included pulmonary hypertension (2%) and thrombocytopenia (2%). This meta-analysis suggested that diazoxide was potentially useful in HH management; however, it had some side effects, which needed careful monitoring. Furthermore, well-designed large-scale studies, such as randomized controlled trials, might be necessary in the future to obtain more evidence.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246463PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877589PMC
February 2021

Vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis, and lipid metabolism and the occurrence of non-high albuminuria diabetic kidney disease: A cross-sectional study.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2021 Jan-Feb;18(1):1479164121992524

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Mianyang Central Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Mianyang, China.

Aim: Atherosclerosis involves vascular endothelial damage and lipid metabolism disorder, which is closely related to the occurrence and development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, studies on non-high albuminuria DKD (NHADKD) with an albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) <30 mg/g are rare. This study is to investigate the relationship between atherogenic factors and the occurrence of NHADKD.

Methods: Serum lipid indicators, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lip-PLA2) and homocysteine levels were measured in 1116 subjects to analyze their relationship with NHADKD.

Results: Among all subjects, Lip-PLA2 had the closest but relatively weak correlation with ACR ( = 0.297,  < 0.001) and only homocysteine was moderately correlated with eGFR ( = -0.465,  < 0.001). However, in patients with NHADKD, these atherosclerotic factors were weakly correlated or uncorrelated with eGFR (max. || = 0.247). Stratified risk analysis showed that when ACR was <10 mg/g, homocysteine [OR = 6.97(4.07-11.95)], total cholesterol (total-Chol) [OR = 6.04(3.03-12.04)], and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Chol) [OR = 5.09(2.99-8.64)] were risk factors for NHADKD. There was no significant difference of OR between these three factors ( = 0.430-1.044, all  > 0.05). When ACR was ⩾10mg/g, homocysteine [OR = 17.26(9.67-30.82)] and total-Chol [OR = 5.63(2.95-10.76)] were risk factors for NHADKD, and OR was significantly higher than OR ( = 3.023,  < 0.05).

Conclusions: The occurrence of NHADKD may be related to the levels of homocysteine, total-Chol, HDL-Chol, and Lip-PLA2 in blood. Among them, homocysteine may be most closely related to NHADKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479164121992524DOI Listing
February 2021

Nuclear translocation of β-catenin induced by E-cadherin endocytosis causes recurrent erosion of diabetic cornea.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Feb 7:1535370220983243. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, China.

Recurrent epithelial erosion and refractory corneal ulcer are the clinical features of diabetic keratopathy (DK), which eventually lead to corneal scar and visual disturbance. In this study, we sought to determine the abnormalities of cell junction in diabetic corneal epithelial cells and the effect of high glucose on the β-catenin/E-cadherin complex. Corneal histology showed that corneal epithelial cells of high glucose mice were loosely arranged, and the immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of E-cadherin decreased, the levels of β-catenin increased in nuclear. High glucose-induced degradation and endocytosis of E-cadherin of corneal epithelial cells reduce the formation of β-catenin/E-cadherin complex and promote the nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Moreover, high glucose also activated the transcription and expression of matrix metallopeptidase and snail, which interfered with the adhesion of corneal epithelial cells to the basement membrane. These findings reveal that DK is associated with the dissociation of cell junctions. The maintenance of the stability of the β-catenin/E-cadherin complex may be a potential therapeutic target of refractory corneal ulcers in patients with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1535370220983243DOI Listing
February 2021

Design and Characterization of the Surface Porous UHMWPE Composite Reinforced by Graphene Oxide.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 3;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

College of Textile and Clothing, Institute of Functional Textiles and Advanced Materials, State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Biomass Fibers Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China.

The surface porous ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) composites were successfully fabricated with NaCl and graphene oxide (GO) in the hot-pressing procedure. The GO sheets were evenly dispersed in UHMWPE with the sedimentation method of GO in saturated NaCl. The morphologies, chemical compositions, mechanical, and tribological properties of GO and surface porous GO/NaCl/UHMWPE were investigated. The results show that GO sheet and NaCl could be evenly dispersed in UHMWPE. The regular pores are present on the surface of UHMWPE after NaCl dissolution in distilled water. The wear resistance properties are improved significantly, and the friction properties increased slightly with the addition of GO and NaCl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13040482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913735PMC
February 2021

Tuning structure of spent coffee ground lignin by temperature fractionation to improve lignin-based carbon nanofibers mechanical performance.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 30;174:254-262. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Liaoning Key Laboratory of Lignocellulose Chemistry and Biomaterials, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, Liaoning 116034, China. Electronic address:

Fabricating lignin-based carbon nanofibers (LCNFs) with the lignin in spent coffee grounds (SCG) as raw material which are disposed as waste amounting to millions tons annual is benefit to promote economy and environmental protection. However, due to the heterogeneity and complex three-dimensional structure, the mechanic property is very poor. In this study, we propose a fractionating pretreatment method to overcome the above problems by regulating the structure of SCG lignin in which high-performance LCNFs were fabricated. On one hand, the linear structure of SCG lignin was optimized to fit the raw material of LCNFs by tuning the content of β-O-4 and C-substituted condensed phenolic compounds. On the other hand, the carboxyl as the hydrophilic groups was removed so as to promote the mixing of lignin and polyacrylonitrile (PAN, blending agent) in organic solvents. Additionally, the heterogeneity was reduced by screening large molecular weight SCG lignin with low polydispersity index (PDI). Fortunately, with 1:1 mass ratio of the above fractionated lignin and PAN as substrate, the LCNFs could reach to comparable mechanic properties with those of pure PAN CNFs. This work can provide a new way to not only promote the utilization of SCG lignin but also accelerate the development of LCNFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.185DOI Listing
January 2021

Paradoxical Association Between Intradialytic Blood Pressure Change and Long-Term Mortality with Different Levels of Interdialytic Weight Gain.

Int J Gen Med 2021 19;14:211-220. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Division of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background: A greater interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) implies a greater ultrafiltration rate, which might lead to hemodynamic instability and intradialytic blood pressure (BP) change in hemodialysis patients. However, current studies have not explicated the impact of IDWG on the association between intradialytic BP changes and prognosis, especially in patients without cardiac dysfunction and diabetes. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between absolute intradialytic BP changes and mortality with different IDWG levels.

Methods: A total of 204 hemodialysis patients (without cardiac dysfunction and diabetes) were included in this prospective observation study, with a mean follow-up of 55.32±20.99 months. Initially, we collected IDWG, IDWG% (percentages according to dry weight), and pre-/post-BPs of 36 consecutive dialysis sessions during three months enrollment. And the average value of them was defined as baseline value. Patients were divided into 3 cohorts according to IDWG% tertiles (<3.3%, 3.3%-4.6%, ≥4.6%). Comparisons between different tertiles were analyzed.

Results: Compared to the low IDWG% group (tertile 1, T1), patients of high IDWG% group (tertile 3, T3) were younger, had higher ultrafiltration rate, less residual kidney function, lower BMI and dry weight, longer dialysis vintage and higher N terminal pro B type natriuretic peptide levels (<0.05). Correlations were found between IDWG% and intradialytic BP changes. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression model adjusted for demographic data, dialysis information and predialysis BPs indicated that greater absolute intradialytic BP changes were associated with worse prognosis in T1 group (<0.05). While in T3 group, less absolute intradialytic BP changes were associated with higher mortality (<0.05).

Conclusion: There is a paradoxical association between absolute intradialytic BP changes and long-term mortality with different IDWG levels. Both BP stability and volume balance are crucial to patients' prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S288038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7829598PMC
January 2021

Resection of Carotid Body Tumors in Patients of Advanced Age: Experience From a Single Center.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Jan 25:145561320981442. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 1500Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: Resection of carotid body tumor (CBT) in patients of advanced ages has not been appreciated.

Objectives: This study aims to assess the clinical characteristics and perioperative comorbidities for CBT resection in patients of advanced age and to validate the application of an "isolated island" technique for extirpation of CBT.

Methods: Eight patients of advanced age (≥60 years) who underwent CBT resection were enrolled as the study group (SG). Another 29 patients of younger age (<45 years old) underwent CBT extirpation were assigned as the control group (CG). The perioperative issues were compared between these 2 groups.

Results: The "isolated island" technique was successfully applied for resection of CBT in all 37 patients. The prevalence of Shamblin classification I, II, and III tumors in the SG was 12.5%, 62.5%, and 25%; whereas in the CG was 10.3%, 55.2%, and 34.5%, respectively. Bilateral CBT was observed in 7 patients of the CG and none in the SG. Vascular reconstruction was required for 1 (12.5%) patient in the SG, while it was required for 8 (27.6%) patients in the CG. Postoperative vocal cord palsy occurred in 37.5% of patients in SG, whereas the vocal cord palsy (34.5%) and dysphagia (6.9%) were commonly encountered in CG. In addition to postoperative length of stay ( = .004), no significant difference for operative time, intraoperative blood loss, or mortality were observed between these 2 groups ( > .05).

Conclusion: Extirpation of CBT in patients of advanced age is rationale in appropriately selected patients. The "isolated island" technique is safe for CBT resection with seemingly low complication rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145561320981442DOI Listing
January 2021

Isoquinoline thiosemicarbazone displays potent anticancer activity with efficacy against aggressive leukemias.

RSC Med Chem 2020 Mar 24;11(3):392-410. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology , University of California, Los Angeles , California 90095 , USA . Email:

A potent class of isoquinoline-based α-N-heterocyclic carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (HCT) compounds has been rediscovered; based upon this scaffold, three series of antiproliferative agents were synthesized through iterative rounds of methylation and fluorination modifications, with anticancer activities being potentiated by physiologically relevant levels of copper. The lead compound, , was highly potent against a panel of pancreatic, small cell lung carcinoma, prostate cancer, and leukemia models, with IC values in the low-to-mid nanomolar range. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed that fluorination at the 6-position of was beneficial for ligand-copper complex formation, stability, and ease of metal-center reduction. Through a chemical genomics screen, we identify DNA damage response/replication stress response (DDR/RSR) pathways, specifically those mediated by ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein kinase (ATR), as potential compensatory mechanism(s) of action following treatment. We further show that the cytotoxicity of is copper-dependent, that it promotes mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC) dysfunction, induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and selectively depletes guanosine nucleotide pools. Lastly, we identify metabolic hallmarks for therapeutic target stratification and demonstrate the efficacy of against aggressive models of acute leukemias in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9md00594cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593890PMC
March 2020

Pro-inflammatory cytokines as potential predictors for intradialytic hypotension.

Ren Fail 2021 Dec;43(1):198-205

Division of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China.

Background: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a common complication in maintaining hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Immune activation might be part of the mechanisms. However, the association between pro-inflammatory cytokines and blood pressure (BP) has not been deeply explored. So we aim to evaluate the potential role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in IDH.

Methods: MHD patients starting hemodialysis before January 2016 were enrolled in our retrospective study. Patients' characteristics, laboratory results, and intradialytic BP were collected. IDH was defined as nadir systolic BP ≤ 90 mmHg during hemodialysis. The definition of IDH group was that those who suffered from more than one hypotensive event during one month after the enrollment (10% of dialysis treatments). Spearman correlation analysis and logistic regression were employed to explore the relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and IDH.

Results: Among 390 patients, 72 were identified with IDH (18.5%). High levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were observed in the IDH group ( < 0.001). Both TNF-α and IL-1β positively correlated with predialysis BP ( < 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of serum IL-1β and TNF-α for IDH. The area under the curve of IL-1β was 0.772 (95% CI: 0.708-0.836,  < 0.01), and that of TNF-α was 0.701 (95% CI: 0.620-0.781,  < 0.01). After adjusting for patients' characteristics, biochemical parameters, comorbid conditions, predialysis BP, and medications, elevated TNF-α and IL-1β were still risk factors for IDH.

Conclusion: Pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) could be potential predictors for IDH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2021.1871921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833080PMC
December 2021

Effects of fat content on the textural and in vivo buccal breakdown properties of soy yogurt.

J Texture Stud 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Jiangsu Province, P.R. China.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fat content on the textural and in vivo buccal breakdown properties of soy yogurt (SY) at different pH (5.4, 5.0, and 4.6). The microbial analysis, textural and rheological properties, and interfacial protein composition of all the samples were monitored. Microbial results suggested that the increased fat content in SY-5.0 and SY-4.6 resulted in significantly high viable cell counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Textural studies demonstrated that the presence of a low fat content (1-3%) significantly reduced the hardness, springiness, and gumminess of the sample, but this effect was negligible with the addition of fat content (4-5%). The apparent viscosity and thixotropy of the SY-4.6 sample increased as the fat content increased. in vivo buccal digestion showed that a high fat content (2-4%) reduced the number of chews and chewing durations, which might be correlated with high oil droplet release (%) after mastication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12584DOI Listing
January 2021

A large genome with chromosome-scale assembly sheds light on the evolutionary success of a true toad (Bufo gargarizans).

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China.

We present a high-quality genome assembly for the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans) and explore the evolution of several large gene families in amphibians. With a large genome assembly size of 4.55 Gb, the chromosome-scale assembly includes 747 scaffolds with an N50 of 539.8 Mb and 1.79% gaps. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) constitute a high proportion of the genome and their expansion is a key contributor to the inflated genome size in this species. This is very different from other small amphibian genomes, but similar to that of the enormous axolotl genome. The genome retains a large number of duplicated genes, with tandem (TD) and proximal duplications (PD) the predominant mode of duplication. A total of 122 gene families have undergone significant expansion and were mainly enriched in sensory perception of smell and bitter taste. The CYP2C subfamily, which plays an important role in metabolic detoxification, specifically expanded via TD and PD in the Asiatic toad and the cane toad (true toads). Most of Na /K -ATPase genes experienced accelerated evolution along Bufonid lineages and two amino acid sites involving toad-toxin resistance were found to experience positive selection. We also revealed a dynamic evolution of olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene families which was likely driven by the water-to-land transition. The high-quality genome of the Asiatic toad will provide a solid foundation to understand the genetic basis of its many biological processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13319DOI Listing
January 2021

[Ultrasonic assisted-dispersive solid-phase extraction for rapid enrichment of N-nitrosodimethylamine in water].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2020 Nov;49(6):955-968

Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo 315010, China.

Objective: a novel and rapid analytical method was established for the extraction of N-nitrosodimethylamine in large-volume water samples.

Methods: Pretreatment was on the basis of ultrasonic-assisted-dispersed solid phase extraction. Coco housing activated carbon was incorporated into the water samples, and the rapid enrichment of N-nitrosodimethylamine was realized by implementing ultrasonic-assisted dispersion. After that, the suspension was filtered by suction, and the residue was eluted by dichloromethane. The eluate was collected and then concentrated to dry using rotary evaporation. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer, which equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source was employed for determination under the multiple reaction monitoring mode.

Results: Limit of detection and quantification for N-nitrosodimethylamine in 500 mL water was 2. 0 ng/mL and 6. 0 ng/mL, respectively. Throughout the validation, good linearity with R~2>0. 999 were achieved with the range from 0. 5 ng/mL to 150. 0 ng/mL. Satisfactory recovery(95. 7%-100. 8%) and inter-day reproducibility(<4. 2%) were obtained by three-level spiking experiments in different water matrices. Finally, the established method was applied for analysis of 48 real samples, the detectable concentrations of positive samples were in the range of <2. 0 ng/L to 14. 4 ng/L.

Conclusion: Compared with the traditional solid-phase extraction method, this method ology showed the characteristics of rapid and more efficient, and could save at least 50% of the pretreatment time. Meanwhile, the result of method ology validation were satisfactory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2020.06.014DOI Listing
November 2020

Multi-timescale assessment of propagation thresholds from meteorological to hydrological drought.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 24;765:144232. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

College of Computer and Information Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen, China.

Hydrological drought usually lags behind meteorological drought. Obtaining the propagation threshold (PT) from meteorological drought to hydrological drought is important for providing early warnings of hydrological drought. Previous studies have only used single timescales to characterize PT; however, a single timescale cannot accurately describe the propagation attributes from meteorological to hydrological drought because drought has multi-timescale features. In addition, several methods can be used to obtain PT, such as run theory, correlation analysis, and non-linear response methods. However, these methods might produce different estimates of PT. Here, multi-timescale drought indices, namely the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI), were used to represent meteorological drought and hydrological drought. PT estimates at multiple timescales (e.g., 1-month, 3-month, and 12-month) obtained from run theory, correlation analysis, and non-linear response methods were compared, and the possible reasons for differences in the PT estimates are discussed. We conducted a case study of three sub-basins (Xinfengjiang River, Qiuxiangjiang River, and Andunshui River) with low levels of human activity in the Dongjiang River Basin, which is located in a humid region in southern China. We found that estimates of PT differed at different timescales of drought indices and with different methods at the same timescales. Longer timescales of hydrological drought corresponded to larger PT and vice versa. The major cause of this pattern was the fact that different timescales of drought indices showed different response sensitivities to drought events. The PT obtained from run theory was the shortest; thus, run theory can provide conservative warnings to aid drought prevention and mitigation. Our findings can help drought managers select effective tools to manage the early stages of hydrological drought based on meteorological forecasts and thus minimize the negative impacts of hazards posed by drought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144232DOI Listing
April 2021

Intradialytic systolic blood pressure variation can predict long-term mortality in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Division of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, 200032, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: It is unclear which time-points of intradialytic blood pressure (BP) best predict prognosis. Thus, it is important to assess the association between different time-points of intradialytic BP and prognosis in clinical practice.

Methods: We recruited patients who underwent hemodialysis from January 2014 to June 2014. Data about dialysis were collected, including intradialytic BP. Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the association between different time-points of intradialytic BP and clinical events, with a follow-up through December 31, 2019. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality.

Results: A total of 216 patients were recruited and 62 (30.7%) patients died (6.1 per 100-person year) during the follow-up. Intradialytic SBP varied greatly in fatalities. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models indicated that the adjusted hazard ratio for death was 1.80 and 5.06 when intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP) variation was analyzed in increments of 20 mmHg. Furthermore, we divided intradialytic SBP variation into three categories: < 15 mmHg, 15 ~ 30 mmHg,  ≥ 30 mmHg. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality increased significantly for patients with intradialytic SBP variation over 30 mmHg (P = 0.006 and 0.021). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models indicated that the adjusted hazard ratio for death was 3.78 and 12.62 as intradialytic SBP variation ≥ 30 mmHg vs. intradialytic SBP variation < 15 mmHg.

Conclusion: Intradialytic SBP variation, rather than BP of specific intradialytic time-points, has the potential to predict long-term mortality in hemodialysis patients. BP stability is crucial for patients' prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-020-02701-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of action of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in a photoreceptor degenerative model of retinal detachment.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 12 29;12(24):24504-24521. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Angiogenesis Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Currently, no pharmacotherapy has been proven effective in treating photoreceptor degeneration in patients. Discovering readily available and safe neuroprotectants is therefore highly sought after. Here, we investigated nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), in a retinal detachment (RD) induced photoreceptor degeneration. NMN administration after RD resulted in a significant reduction of TUNEL photoreceptors, CD11b macrophages, and GFAP labeled glial activation; a normalization of protein carbonyl content (PCC), and a preservation of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness. NMN administration significantly increased NAD levels, SIRT1 protein expression, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Delayed NMN administration still exerted protective effects after RD. Mechanistic studies using 661W cells revealed a SIRT1/HO-1 signaling as a downstream effector of NMN-mediated protection under oxidative stress and LPS stimulation. In conclusion, NMN administration exerts neuroprotective effects on photoreceptors after RD and oxidative injury, suggesting a therapeutic avenue to treating photoreceptor degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803565PMC
December 2020

Robust identification of investor beliefs.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 14;117(52):33130-33140. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA 02142.

This paper develops a method informed by data and models to recover information about investor beliefs. Our approach uses information embedded in forward-looking asset prices in conjunction with asset pricing models. We step back from presuming rational expectations and entertain potential belief distortions bounded by a statistical measure of discrepancy. Additionally, our method allows for the direct use of sparse survey evidence to make these bounds more informative. Within our framework, market-implied beliefs may differ from those implied by rational expectations due to behavioral/psychological biases of investors, ambiguity aversion, or omitted permanent components to valuation. Formally, we represent evidence about investor beliefs using a nonlinear expectation function deduced using model-implied moment conditions and bounds on statistical divergence. We illustrate our method with a prototypical example from macrofinance using asset market data to infer belief restrictions for macroeconomic growth rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2019910117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7776604PMC
December 2020

High ultrafiltration rate induced intradialytic hypotension is a predictor for cardiac remodeling: a 5-year cohort study.

Ren Fail 2021 Dec;43(1):40-48

Division of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, P. R. China.

Background: Intradialytic-hypotension (IDH) is a common complication of hemodialysis. High ultrafiltration rate (UFR) might lead to IDH. However, the relationships between UFR, IDH, and cardiac remodeling among hemodialysis patients in the long-term have not been deeply explored.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study collected clinical and echocardiographic data. Patients were enrolled from 1 January 2014 to 31 March 2014 and were followed-up for 5-year. Those who suffered from more than four hypotensive events during three months (10% of dialysis treatments) were defined as the IDH group. Subgroup analysis was done according to the UFR of 10 ml/h/kg. Associations between UFR, IDH, and alterations of cardiac structure/function were analyzed.

Results: Among 209 patients, 96 were identified with IDH (45.9%). The survival rate of IDH patients was lower than that of no-IDH patients (65.5% vs. 81.4%,  = .005). In IDH group, decreased ejection fraction (EF), larger left atrium diameter index (LADI), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) ( < .05) were observed at the end of the follow-up. In multivariate logistic model, the interaction between UFR and IDH was notably associated with LVMI variation ( = 1.37). After adjusting covariates, UFR was still an independent risk factor of LVMI variation ( = 1.52) in IDH group. In subsequent analysis, we divided patients according to UFR 10 ml/h/kg. For IDH-prone patients, decreased EF, larger LADI, and LVMI ( < .05) were observed at the end of the study only in high-UFR group.

Conclusions: UFR and IDH have interactions on cardiac remodeling. High ultrafiltration rate induced IDH is a predictor for cardiac remodeling in long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2020.1853570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745843PMC
December 2021

Involvement of the Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway in the heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K-driven inhibition of proliferation and migration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2020 Dec 29;20(6):394. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

NHC Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Institute of Laboratory Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, P.R. China.

The abnormal upregulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) expression levels were reported to be involved in the progression of various types of cancer. Therefore, it is hypothesized that hnRNP K may serve as a useful diagnostic marker and antitumor target; however, only a few studies to date have investigated the exact role of hnRNP K in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and the potential downstream signaling pathway involved. The present study aimed to identify the roles of hnRNP K in the proliferation and migration of HNSCC, and the possible signaling pathways hnRNP K may be associated with in HNSCC. hnRNP K expression levels in clinical HNSCC samples were analyzed using the Oncomine and UALCAN databases, and its association with the survival of patients with HNSCC was analyzed using the tumor-immune system interactions database. Short hairpin RNA targeting hnRNP K was transfected into the CAL-27 cell line to establish HNSCC cells with stable hnRNP K-knockdown. Cell viability was analyzed using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and an absolute count assay, and cell proliferation was measured using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and colony formation assays. Migratory ability of cells was analyzed using wound healing assay and transwell assay. The growth of xenografts derived from hnRNP K-knockdown cells was also evaluated, and bioinformatics analyses were performed using the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia for Genes and Genomes databases to determine the possible downstream signaling pathways of hnRNP K. Furthermore, the status of the Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway in hnRNP K-knockdown cells mediated by small interfering RNA was determined using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting. The results revealed that the expression levels of hnRNP K were upregulated in HNSCC cell lines and tissues. Moreover, the upregulation of hnRNP K expression levels was associated with poor survival of patients with HNSCC. The knockdown of hnRNP K also decreased HNSCC cell proliferation and migration, and inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. Bioinformatics analyses identified the Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway as a possible downstream signaling pathway of hnRNP K. Knockdown of hnRNP K significantly downregulated the expression levels of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway-related proteins; while with knockdown of hnRNP K and overexpression of β-Catenin, the expression levels of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway-related proteins were partially rescued. In conclusion, the present findings indicated that hnRNP K may serve as a candidate diagnostic biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.12257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656118PMC
December 2020

Clinical Features and Gut Microbial Alterations in Anti-leucine-rich Glioma-Inactivated 1 Encephalitis-A Pilot Study.

Front Neurol 2020 27;11:585977. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Neurology and Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (anti-LGI1) encephalitis is a rare autoimmune encephalitis (AE). We investigated the clinical features and gut microbial alterations of anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Fifteen patients newly diagnosed with anti-LGI1 encephalitis were recruited in the study prior to the administration of immunotherapy. The control group contains 25 well-matched healthy controls (HCs). All participants were Han Chinese from South China. Their clinical data and fecal samples were collected. The diversity and composition of gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing. The results showed that anti-LGI1 encephalitis was characterized by cognitive impairment, faciobrachial dystonic seizures, hyponatremia, and psychiatric symptoms. Abnormal EEG and brain MRI were presented in 9 and 10 patients, respectively. Compared to HCs, the anti-LGI1 encephalitis patients exhibited a decreased microbial diversity and an altered overall composition of gut microbiome. At the phylum level, anti-LGI1 encephalitis patients exhibited a higher abundance of and a lower abundance of . The alterations in the phylum level were associated with autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. At the genus level, there was an increase in , and (genera related to movement disorders, psychiatric diseases, and with proinflammatory effects). However, the , and [genera with ability to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)] were obviously reduced in the patient group. Our results suggest that anti-LGI1 encephalitis is characterized by special clinical features and is accompanied by alterations in specific gut microbiota. For the limited sample size and non-applicability to other populations, further studies are warranted to explore the relationships between gut microbiota and anti-LGI1 encephalitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.585977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655127PMC
October 2020

Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgYs) block the binding of multiple SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variants to human ACE2.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jan 3;90:107172. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is still spreading worldwide, and there is an urgent need to effectively prevent and control this pandemic. This study evaluated the potential efficacy of Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) as a neutralizing agent against the SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the neutralizing effect of anti-spike-S1 IgYs on the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, as well as its inhibitory effect on the binding of the coronavirus spike protein mutants to human ACE2. Our results show that the anti-Spike-S1 IgYs showed significant neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, various spike protein mutants, and even SARS-CoV in vitro. It might be a feasible tool for the prevention and control of ongoing COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608017PMC
January 2021

Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Cu-Cr-Zr Alloy Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Nov 7;13(21). Epub 2020 Nov 7.

The Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan.

The approximate process range for preparing the Cu-Cr-Zr alloy by selective laser melting (SLM) was determined by ANSYS simulation, and the influence of the SLM process parameters on the comprehensive properties of the SLM-formed alloy was studied by the design of experiments. The Cu-Cr-Zr alloy with optimum strength and hardness was prepared with high efficiency by optimizing the process parameters for SLM (i.e., laser power, scanning speed, and hatching distance). It is experimentally shown that tensile strength and hardness of the SLM alloy are increased by increasing laser power and decreasing scanning speed, whereas they are initially increased and then decreased by increasing the hatching distance. Moreover, strength, roughness and hardness of the SLM alloy are optimized when laser power is 460 W, scanning speed is 700 mm/s and hatching distance is 0.06 mm. The optimized properties of the SLM alloy are a tensile strength of 153.5 MPa, hardness of 119 HV, roughness of 31.384 μm and relative density of 91.62%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13215028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664677PMC
November 2020

FDA Approval Summary: Alpelisib plus fulvestrant for patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative, PIK3CA-mutated, advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 Nov 9. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Office of Hematology and Oncology, United States Food and Drug Administration.

On May 24, 2019, the FDA granted regular approval to alpelisib in combination with fulvestrant for postmenopausal women, and men, with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA)-mutated, advanced or metastatic breast cancer as detected by an FDA-approved test following progression on or after an endocrine-based regimen. Approval was based on the SOLAR-1 study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of alpelisib plus fulvestrant versus placebo plus fulvestrant. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) per RECIST v1.1 in the cohort of trial participants whose tumors had a PIK3CA mutation. The estimated median PFS by investigator assessment in the alpelisib plus fulvestrant arm was 11.0 months (95% CI: 7.5, 14.5) compared with 5.7 months (95% CI: 3.7, 7.4) in the placebo plus fulvestrant arm (HR 0.65; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.85; two-sided p=0.001). The median overall survival (OS) was not yet reached for the alpelisib plus fulvestrant arm (95% CI: 28.1, NE) and was 26.9 months (95% CI: 21.9, NE) for the fulvestrant control arm. No PFS benefit was observed in trial participants whose tumors did not have a PIK3CA mutation (HR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.25).The most common adverse reactions, including laboratory abnormalities, on the alpelisib plus fulvestrant arm were increased glucose, increased creatinine, diarrhea, rash, decreased lymphocyte count, increased gamma glutamyl transferase, nausea, increased alanine aminotransferase, fatigue, decreased hemoglobin, increased lipase, decreased appetite, stomatitis, vomiting, decreased weight, decreased calcium, decreased glucose, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, and alopecia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3652DOI Listing
November 2020

Anticancer potential of an exopolysaccharide from MB2-1 on human colon cancer HT-29 cells apoptosis induction.

Food Funct 2020 Nov;11(11):10170-10181

College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, P.R. China.

This study aimed at investigating the anticancer activity of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) isolated from Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1. The crude EPS from L. helveticus MB2-1 (LHEPS) was fractionated into three fractions, namely LHEPS-1, LHEPS-2 and LHEPS-3. LHEPS-1 exhibited the most effective anti-proliferative activity, which was associated with a stronger inhibition rate and increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage of human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Flow cytometry analysis and colorimetric assay revealed that LHEPS-1 induced cell cycle arrest by preventing G1 to S transition and increased the apoptosis rate. Furthermore, LHEPS-1 enhanced the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of caspases-8/9/3, increased the levels of pro-apoptotic Bax and mitochondrial cytochrome c, while decreased the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 level, indicating that LHEPS-1 might induce the apoptosis of HT-29 cells through a ROS-dependent pathway and a mitochondria-dependent pathway. These findings suggest that LHEPS-1 may be developed as an effective food and/or drug for the prevention and therapeutics of cancer, especially human colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01345eDOI Listing
November 2020

Impact of energy structure on carbon emission and economy of China in the scenario of carbon taxation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 16;762:143093. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

School of Business Administration, Guangdong University of Finance, Guangzhou 510521, China. Electronic address:

As the largest CO emitter in the world, China intends to achieve the peak of carbon emissions in around 2030. Unlike many other countries' targets of reducing the amount the carbon emissions, China has engaged in achieving the goal of carbon emission intensity regulation including economic development and carbon emission reduction. In recent years, carbon tax policy has been implemented by about 30 national and sub-national jurisdictions in controlling carbon emissions and has shown promising results. In this context, this research evaluates whether the carbon tax is an effective way for China to accomplish the win-win target of carbon reduction and GDP growth. Specifically, a model is established based on the energy substitution theory and input-output theory to evaluate the effectiveness of carbon tax on the eight economic sectors of China. The carbon emission reduction and economic performance before and after carbon taxation are compared. Moreover, the effects of different carbon tax rates on economic development are analyzed. The results are as follows: (1) The total amount of carbon emission decreases while the carbon tax is levied, and a positive correlation is found between the tax rate and the emission reduction amount. (2) The carbon tax has a significant impact on economic development, and a negative correlation is found between the tax rate and economic development. However, the loss of the economic output caused by the carbon tax gradually reduces over time. (3) Carbon tax policy would be effective for China to accomplish the win-win goal of carbon reduction and GDP growth. Moreover, the carbon tax rate should be set at a low level to achieve the target by the lowest economic cost. On this basis, several policy recommendations are proposed by this research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143093DOI Listing
March 2021

Preparation of sulfur-doped carbon quantum dots from lignin as a sensor to detect Sudan I in an acidic environment.

J Mater Chem B 2020 12 6;8(47):10788-10796. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Liaoning Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, 116034, China.

To achieve a rapid and facile quantitative evaluation of Sudan I illegally added in ketchup, fluorescent carbon quantum dots with excellent stability in acidic environments are required as the actual pH value of ketchup is close to 4.0. In this paper, we developed a green approach to prepare sulfur-doped carbon quantum dots (SCQDs) via hydrothermal treatment of lignin, isolated from pre-hydrolysis liquor, in sulfuric acid solution. The resultant SCQDs from lignin possessed sulfur-containing groups, which exhibited excellent fluorescence with a quantum yield up to 13.5% and good stability in acidic environments with a wide pH range of 0-5.0. Therefore, the SCQDs were successfully employed as a sensor to detect Sudan I in acidic solutions with excellent selectivity and sensitivity. The linear range for Sudan I was 0-40 μM, while the limit of detection was 0.12 μM. In addition, the fluorescent indicator paper functionalized with SCQDs also showed outstanding selectivity to Sudan I. The proposed SCQD sensing system not only displayed application potential for quantitative evaluation of Sudan I dye in practical samples, but also provided a way to convert lignin-based waste into highly valued nanoscale materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb00125bDOI Listing
December 2020

Application of a thyroid cartilage window technique for transoral resection of early glottic cancer involving the anterior commissure.

Acta Otolaryngol 2021 Feb 29;141(2):197-202. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Management of early stage glottic carcinoma involving the anterior commissure is challenging.

Aims/objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a thyroid cartilage window (TCW) technique for transoral laser resection of early glottic cancer with involvement of the anterior commissure.

Material And Methods: Twenty-one patient who underwent a TCW technique for transoral resection early glottic carcinoma involving the anterior commissure, were retrospectively analyzed. The technical nuances, organ preservation rate and voice outcomes, local and regional recurrence, and perioperative comorbidities, were assessed.

Results: All 21 patients underwent a TCW technique for resection, both the organ preservation rate and negative margin achieved 100%. The local control rate achieved 100%, and the 5 years recurrence free survival was 90.5%. For two patients with subglottic involvement (9.5%), regional recurrence with confirmation of a positive pre-laryngeal lymph node was observed. Postoperative granuloma was detected in all 21 patients, 13 of whom spontaneously disappeared (61.9%); whereas the remaining 8 patients (38.1%) demonstrated a consistent presence of granuloma more than 12 weeks, and they accepted surgical extirpation of granuloma under surface anesthesia. The laryngeal web developed in all 21 patients, while no dyspnea and local recurrence were present. By comparison with preoperative baseline, postoperative self-assessment voice demonstrated a significant improvement ( = .01), while objective voice indices were not significantly altered ( > .05).

Conclusions And Significance: TCW technique is a valuable means for transoral resection of early glottic laryngeal cancer involving the anterior commissure, with acceptable voice quality and seemingly low comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016489.2020.1832254DOI Listing
February 2021

Different carbon and nitrogen sources regulated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production of Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#SW8 through a fully functional polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase gene (pfaB).

Bioresour Technol 2020 Dec 16;318:124273. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Center of Marine Environmental Ecology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China; Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China; Qingdao Institute for Ocean Technology of Tianjin University, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) production in thraustochytrids is known to be mediated independently through polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase and fatty acid synthase systems. This study elucidates the unresolved effects of different carbon and nitrogen sources on the functionality of PUFA synthase subunit B (pfaB) and corresponding DHA production in Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#SW8. Carbon and nitrogen sources showed significant effect on the pfaB gene expression and DHA production patterns, but these patterns did not correspond with each other, suggesting the strong role of substrates in differential induction of the two synthase systems. Nitrogen starvation increased DHA yield in parallel with upregulated gene expression, showing strong indication of PUFA synthase activity in N-deficient culture. The fully functional catalytic activity of PfaB subunit from strain PKU#SW8 in a heterologous host was also demonstrated. This study provides the direct evidence of pfaB gene actively for DHA biosynthesis in Thraustochytriidae sp. PKU#SW8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124273DOI Listing
December 2020

The prevalence and risks of major comorbidities among inpatients with pulmonary tuberculosis in China from a gender and age perspective: a large-scale multicenter observational study.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Oct 22. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute, Beijing, 101149, China.

In clinical practice, PTB patients have concurrent many types of comorbidities such as pneumonia, liver disorder, diabetes mellitus, hematological disorder, and malnutrition. Detecting and treating specific comorbidities and preventing their development are important for PTB patients. However, the prevalence of most comorbid conditions in patients with PTB is not well described. We conducted a large-scale, multicenter, observational study to elucidate and illustrate the prevalence rates of major comorbidities in inpatients at 21 hospitals in China. The 19 specific comorbidities were selected for analysis in this patient cohort, and stratified the inpatient cohort according to age and gender. A total of 355,929 PTB inpatients were included, with a male:female ratio of 1.98 and the proportion of ≥ 65 years PTB inpatients was the most. Approximately 70% of PTB inpatients had at least one defined type of comorbidity. The prevalence of 19 specific comorbidities in inpatients with PTB was analyzed, with pneumonia being the most common comorbidity. The prevalence of most comorbidities was higher in males with PTB except thyroid disorders, mental health disorders, etc. The prevalence of defined most comorbidities in patients with PTB tended to increase with increasing age, although some specific comorbidities tended to increase initially then decrease with increasing age. Our study describes multiple clinically important comorbidities among PTB inpatients, and their prevalence between different gender and age groups. The results will enhance the clinical aptitude of physicians who treat patients with PTB to recognize, diagnose, and treat PTB comorbidities early.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-04077-2DOI Listing
October 2020