Publications by authors named "Chen Shen"

507 Publications

Noise pollution and human cognition: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of recent evidence.

Environ Int 2021 Oct 12;158:106905. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, UK; MRC Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, UK; Mohn Centre for Children's Health and Wellbeing, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Environmental Exposures and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Chemical and Radiation Threats and Hazards, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: This systematic review provides a comprehensive synthesis of recent epidemiological evidence that environmental noise negatively impacts human cognition.

Methods: We update a prior review with recent publications (PROSPERO CRD42019151923). The strength of evidence for associations was assessed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations) framework. We also conducted random-effects meta-analyses where suitable.

Results: 16 studies were identified and reviewed in tandem with 32 studies previously reviewed by Clark & Paunovic (2018). A meta-analysis from 3 studies found that reading comprehension scores in quiet classrooms were 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.40; 1.20) points higher than children in noisier classrooms. Meta-analysis of the impact of 1 dB (dB) increase in environmental noise on reading and language abilities gave a pooled beta coefficient of -0.11(95% confidence interval: -0.32; 0.10). A meta-analysis of Odds Ratios (OR) from 3 studies found higher odds of cognitive impairment in people aged 45 + with higher residential noise exposure (OR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.18;1.61). After qualitative synthesis of remaining studies, there was high quality evidence for an association between environmental noise and cognitive impairment in middle-to-older adults, moderate quality evidence for an association between aircraft noise and reading and language in children, and moderate quality evidence against an association between aircraft noise and executive functioning in children. Generally the literature was supportive for other cognitive outcomes, but with low or very low-quality evidence.

Discussion: The evidence so far suggests that noise exposure is associated with cognition, but more good quality research using standardised methodology is required to corroborate these results and to allow for precise risk estimation by larger meta-analyses. There is also a need for more research with older teenagers and young-to-middle aged adults, on the synergistic effects of noise and air pollution, and in Africa, Central and South America, South Asia and Australasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106905DOI Listing
October 2021

MOOC Behavior Analysis and Academic Performance Prediction Based on Entropy.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 5;21(19). Epub 2021 Oct 5.

National Engineering Laboratory for Educational Big Data, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China.

In recent years, massive open online courses (MOOCs) have received widespread attention owing to their flexibility and free access, which has attracted millions of online learners to participate in courses. With the wide application of MOOCs in educational institutions, a large amount of learners' log data exist in the MOOCs platform, and this lays a solid data foundation for exploring learners' online learning behaviors. Using data mining techniques to process these log data and then analyze the relationship between learner behavior and academic performance has become a hot topic of research. Firstly, this paper summarizes the commonly used predictive models in the relevant research fields. Based on the behavior log data of learners participating in 12 courses in MOOCs, an entropy-based indicator quantifying behavior change trends is proposed, which explores the relationships between behavior change trends and learners' academic performance. Next, we build a set of behavioral features, which further analyze the relationships between behaviors and academic performance. The results demonstrate that entropy has a certain correlation with the corresponding behavior, which can effectively represent the change trends of behavior. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and importance of the predictive features, we choose four benchmark models to predict learners' academic performance and compare them with the previous relevant research results. The results show that the proposed feature selection-based model can effectively identify the key features and obtain good prediction performance. Furthermore, our prediction results are better than the related studies in the performance prediction based on the same Xuetang MOOC platform, which demonstrates that the combination of the selected learner-related features (behavioral features + behavior entropy) can lead to a much better prediction performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21196629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512081PMC
October 2021

Thickness-dependent anisotropic transport of phonons and charges in few-layered PdSe.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 23;23(34):18869-18884. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

School of Physical Science and Technology, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013, China.

So far, layered PdSe has attracted much attention due to its completely tunable band-gap with varying layer numbers, yet the thickness-dependent transporting properties have been rarely studied. We have systematically studied the electronic structures, phonon and charge transport properties, and thermoelectric properties of few-layered (from 1L to 4L) and bulk PdSe by first-principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. As the thickness increases, the energy levels of band edges relative to 4s of selenium move oppositely due to their different bonding states, leading to the power-law decrease of the band-gap. Meanwhile, the electron effective mass decreases rapidly while the hole effective mass increases significantly compared with those unperturbed. Calculations on elastic constants reveal that both bulk and few-layered PdSe are mechanically stable, and the bulk is ductile with a Poisson's ratio of 0.27. The shifts of Raman active modes with respect to the thickness as well as their Gruneisen parameters are analyzed and the underlying physics is discussed. At room temperature, the thermal conductivities of the bulk are 7.7, 10.1 and 0.9 W m K along the a, b and c axes, respectively. It is found that the low-frequency modes (<2.0 THz) contribute about 80% of in-plane thermal conductivities. Due to the enhanced contribution from the ZA mode, the thermal conductivity of few-layered PdSe is much larger than that of the bulk. The ZA mode is mainly scattered by itself and the Umklapp scattering dominates in the process as the thickness increases. Calculations on charge transport reveal that the electron mobility increases from 2.5-13.2 (1L) to 121.9-167.8 (4L) cm V s with the decreasing anisotropy μ/μ, while the hole mobility remains to be ∼20 cm V s, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. Calculations on the thermoelectric properties reveal that the ZT value as well as the power factor increases largely as the thickness increases and it gets to be optimum for the triple layer. Interestingly, the transport of electrons and phonons is decoupled along the out-of-plane direction, which makes bulk PdSe exhibit good thermoelectric performance along the c axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp00992cDOI Listing
September 2021

Transforming the Degradation Rate of β-tricalcium Phosphate Bone Replacement Using 3-Dimensional Printing.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

From the Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, NYU College of Dentistry Hansjörg Wyss Department of Plastic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York Department of Biomedical Engineering, NYU Tandon School of Engineering, Brooklyn Department of Medicine, NYU Langone Health, New York Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, NYU Tandon School of Engineering, Brooklyn, NY.

Background: β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is one of the most common synthetic bone grafting materials utilized in craniofacial reconstruction; however, it is limited by a slow degradation rate. The aim of this study was to leverage 3-dimensional (3D) printing in an effort to accelerate the degradation kinetics of β-TCP.

Methods: Twenty-two 1-month-old New Zealand white rabbits underwent creation of calvarial and alveolar defects, repaired with 3D-printed β-TCP scaffolds coated with 1000 μM of osteogenic agent dipyridamole. Rabbits were euthanized after 2, 6, and 18 months after surgical intervention. Bone regeneration, scaffold degradation, and bone mechanical properties were quantified.

Results: Histological analysis confirmed the generation of vascularized and organized bone. Microcomputed tomography analysis from 2 to 18 months demonstrated decreased scaffold volume within calvarial (23.6% ± 2.5%, 5.1% ± 2.2%; P < 0.001) and alveolar (21.5% ± 2.2%, 0.2% ± 1.9%; P < 0.001) defects, with degradation rates of 54.6%/year and 90.5%/year, respectively. Scaffold-inducted bone generation within the defect was volumetrically similar to native bone in the calvarium (55.7% ± 6.9% vs 46.7% ± 6.8%; P = 0.064) and alveolus (31.4% ± 7.1% vs 33.8% ± 3.7%; P = 0.337). Mechanical properties between regenerated and native bone were similar.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates an improved degradation profile and replacement of absorbed β-TCP with vascularized, organized bone through 3D printing and addition of an osteogenic agent. This novel additive manufacturing and tissue engineering protocol has implications to the future of craniofacial skeletal reconstruction as a safe and efficacious bone tissue engineering method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000002965DOI Listing
October 2021

Accurately Locating Metastatic Foci in Lymph Nodes With Lugol's Iodine-Enhanced Micro-CT Imaging.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:594915. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Accurate evaluation of lymph node (LN) status is the key factor to determine the treatment and evaluate prognosis for patients with cancer. However, traditional pathological examination resulted in a 30% false-negative rate of detection of metastases in LNs. This study aimed to utilize Lugol's iodine (I-IK)-enhanced micro-CT imaging to reveal the 3-dimensional structure of regional LNs and decrease the false-negative rate in pathological examination.

Methods: To explore the feasibility of I-IK-enhanced micro-CT imaging in locating metastatic lesion in LNs, nonmetastatic and metastatic LNs from mice were used to mimic the imaging process. Then, the LNs from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients were applied to verify the value of I-IK-enhanced micro-CT imaging in revealing LN structure and locating metastatic lesions in LNs. The glycogen content in nonmetastatic and metastatic LNs was further detected by the use of a glycogen assay kit and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining to explain the imaging differences between them.

Results: In nude mice, 0.5% I-IK staining for 4 h was the best parameter for normal LN. The metastatic foci in metastatic LNs were also clearly outlined in this condition. For nonmetastatic LNs from patients with OSCC, 1% I-IK staining for 12 h was the best parameter. However, due to the increased volume of metastatic LNs, the image effect of 3% I-IK staining for 12 h was superior to 1% I-IK staining [tumor background ratio (TBR), 3% . 1%, 1.89 ± 0.10 . 1.27 ± 0.07, p < 0.001]. Compared with subsequent pathological sections, we found the CT intensity of metastatic foci in LNs and muscle tissues was significantly higher than in nonmetastatic regions. Meanwhile, the glycogen content of metastatic foci in LNs detected was also significantly higher than in nonmetastatic region.

Conclusions: I-IK-enhanced micro-CT imaging could identify the spatial location of metastatic foci in LNs. This will be an effective method to assist in decreasing the LN false-negative rate for cancer pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.594915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481801PMC
September 2021

Impact of Beijing healthcare reform on the curative care expenditure of outpatients with noncommunicable diseases based on SHA2011 and interrupted time series analysis.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Oct 2;21(1):1045. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: To analyse the changes in curative care expenditure (CCE) associated with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) before and after the Beijing healthcare reform, thus providing a reference for the healthcare system.

Methods: A total of 60 medical institutions were selected using multistage stratified cluster random sampling in Beijing, China. The records of approximately 100 million outpatients with NCDs in 2016-2018 were extracted. System of Health Accounts 2011 (SHA2011) was used to estimate the CCE. The segmented regression model was established to observe both the instant change and the slope change of intervention in interrupted time series analysis (ITSA). The study was conducted from December 2019 to May 2020 in Beijing, China.

Results: From SHA2011, we found that the CCE for outpatients with NCDs in Beijing were 58.59, 61.46 and 71.96 billion RMB in 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. The CCE continued to rise at all hospital levels, namely, tertiary, secondary, and community-level hospitals. However, the proportion of CCE in tertiary hospitals decreased. From ITSA, we can also conclude that the CCE showed a significant increasing trend change at the three hospital levels after the intervention. The drug proportion showed a significant decreasing trend change in secondary and tertiary hospitals.

Conclusions: Beijing healthcare reform does have an impact on the CCE of NCDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-07059-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8487539PMC
October 2021

Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction Is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 9;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China.

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. However, the association between NAFLD and pancreatic β-cell function is still ambiguous. Here, we assessed whether pancreatic β-cell function is associated with NAFLD.

Method: The data of NHANES III from 1988 to 1994 were used. NAFLD was diagnosed when subjects had ultrasonographically hepatic steatosis without other liver diseases. Disposition index (DI) was employed to assess pancreatic β-cell function. A total of 6168 participants were included in this study.

Results: NAFLD participants had much higher HOMA2-%B (weighted mean, 124.1; standard error, 1.8) than the non-NAFLD participants (weighted mean, 100.7; standard error, 0.9). However, when evaluating the β-cell function in the context of insulin resistance by using DI index, DI levels were much lower in NAFLD subjects (weighted mean, 79.5; standard error, 1.0) compared to non-NAFLD (weighted mean, 95.0; standard error, 0.8). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that DI was inversely associated with NAFLD prevalence. The adjusted OR (95% CI) for quartile 1 versus quartile 4 was 1.81 (1.31-2.50) ( < 0.001 for trend). Moreover, DI was also inversely associated with the presence of moderate to severe hepatic steatosis. The multivariable-adjusted ORs across quartiles of DI were 2.47, 1.44, 0.96 and 1.00 for the presence of moderate to severe hepatic steatosis ( < 0.001 for trend).

Conclusions: Pancreatic β-cell function might be a new predictor for the presence of NAFLD, and insufficient compensatory β-cell function is associated with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13093139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468093PMC
September 2021

A network representation approach for COVID-19 drug recommendation.

Methods 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Computer Science, Dalian University of Technology, LiaoNing, China. Electronic address:

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has outbreak since early December 2019, and COVID-19 has caused over 100 million cases and 2 million deaths around the world. After one year of the COVID-19 outbreak, there is no certain and approve medicine against it. Drug repositioning has become one line of scientific research that is being pursued to develop an effective drug. However, due to the lack of COVID-19 data, there is still no specific drug repositioning targeting the COVID-19. In this paper, we propose a framework for COVID-19 drug repositioning. This framework has several advantages that can be exploited: one is that a local graph aggregating representation is used across a heterogeneous network to address the data sparsity problem; another is the multi-hop neighbors of the heterogeneous graph are aggregated to recall as many COVID-19 potential drugs as possible. Our experimental results show that our COVDR framework performs significantly better than baseline methods, and the docking simulation verifies that our three potential drugs have the ability to against COVID-19 disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2021.09.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8458160PMC
September 2021

Chinese patent medicine Aidi injection for cancer care: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jan 20;282:114656. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Centre for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Aidi injection is one of the China Food and Drug Administration approved Chinese herbal injections and the most competitive product in cancer care in China. It is composed of the extracts from Mylabris Phalerata, Astragalus Membranaceus, Panax Ginseng, and Acanthopanax Senticosus.

Aim Of The Study: This overview aims to map systematic reviews (SRs) of Aidi injection for cancer and provide a summarized evidence for clinical practice and decision making.

Materials And Methods: Seven databases were searched for SRs and/or meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on Aidi injection for cancer care until December 2020. Six authors worked in pairs independently identified studies, collected data, and assessed the quality of included studies according to the revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR 2) and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). A narrative synthesis was used for the evidence mapping.

Results: Fifty-two SRs on Aidi injection as adjuvant therapy were included, involving lung cancer (20 SRs), liver cancer (10), colorectal cancer (7), gastric cancer (6), lymphoma (2), breast cancer (2), esophageal cancer (1), ovary cancer (1), and a mix of different cancers (4). Except for one SR focusing on Aidi injection used alone, other SRs evaluated Aidi injection in combination with chemotherapy (43), radiotherapy (4), or chemo/radiology/targeting therapy (4). Aidi injection showed additional beneficial effects on survival (9), objective response rate (44), quality of life (42), and the reduction of side-effects from chemo/radiotherapy (48). Using AMSTAR 2 tool, two reviews were assessed as low and the rest as critically low methodological quality mainly due to the lack of prospective registration. The reporting quality was insufficient assessed with PRISMA in the reporting of search strategy (26, 50.0%), additional analysis (19, 36.5%), and the summary of evidence (2, 3.8%).

Conclusion: Aidi injection has been evaluated for its adjuvant beneficial effects on cancer survival, tumor responses, quality of life, and reducing the side effects of chemo/radiotherapy, mainly focusing on lung, liver and colorectal cancer. The methodological and reporting quality are weak and need to be improved in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114656DOI Listing
January 2022

Transcription factor SOX2 contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease development by regulating the expression of the fatty acid transporter CD36.

FEBS Lett 2021 10 27;595(19):2493-2503. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Jeonbuk National University Medical School, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Jeonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The level of the transcription factor SOX2 correlates with HCC progression, but its role in fat accumulation remains unclear. Here, a high-fat diet, with and without fructose, significantly upregulated SOX2 in murine liver tissue. Treatment with free fatty acids (FFAs) and fructose upregulated SOX2 in murine FL83B hepatocytes. SOX2 overexpression or knockdown regulated triglyceride synthesis and lipid accumulation after FFA stimulation. CD36, a fatty acid transporter, and Yes-associated protein (YAP), a downstream molecule of the Hippo signaling pathway, were upregulated by FFA/fructose in vivo and in vitro. Transcriptional regulation of CD36 by SOX2 suggested the involvement of CD36 in SOX2-mediated hepatic steatosis. Thus, SOX2 may be a target to prevent NAFLD development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.14193DOI Listing
October 2021

IGFBP-2 as a biomarker in NAFLD improves hepatic steatosis: an integrated bioinformatics and experimental study.

Endocr Connect 2021 Oct 13;10(10):1315-1325. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background And Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a common chronic liver disease in the world. Simple steatosis (SS) is the early phase of NAFLD. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of steatosis have not yet been fully elucidated.

Methods: Two public datasets (GSE48452 and GSE89632) through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the development of steatosis. A total of 72 participants including 38 normal histological controls and 34 SS patients were included in this study. Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis were performed to explore the function of DEGs. The results were further confirmed in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and oleate-treated HepG2 cells.

Results: Total 57 DEGs including 31 up- and 26 down-regulated genes between SS patients and healthy controls were determined. GO and KEGG analysis showed that most of the DEGs were enriched in the ligand-receptor signaling pathways. PPI network construction was used to identify the hub genes of the DEGs. MYC, ANXA2, GDF15, AGTR1, NAMPT, LEPR, IGFBP-2, IL1RN, MMP7, and APLNR were identified as hub genes, and IGFBP-2 expression was found to be reversely associated with hepatic steatosis, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR index, and ALT levels. In HFD-fed mice, hepatic IGFBP-2 was also downregulated and negatively associated with hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels. Moreover, overexpression of IGFBP-2 ameliorated the oleate induced accumulation of TGs in hepatocytes.

Conclusions: This study identified novel gene signatures in the hepatic steatosis and will provide new understanding and molecular clues of hepatic steatosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-21-0353DOI Listing
October 2021

Liquid Metal Composites with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity and Stability Using Molecular Thermal Linker.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 12:e2103104. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Center of Hydrogen Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, P. R. China.

Gallium-based liquid metal (LM) composite with metallic fillers is an emerging class of thermal interface materials (TIMs), which are widely applied in electronics and power systems to improve their performance. In situ alloying between gallium and many metallic fillers like copper and silver, however, leads to a deteriorated composite stability. This paper presents an interfacial engineering approach using 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane (CPTES) to serve as effective thermal linkers and diffusion barriers at the copper-gallium oxide interfaces in the LM matrix, achieving an enhancement in both thermal conductivity and stability of the composite. By mixing LM with copper particles modified by CPTES, a thermal conductivity (κ) as high as 65.9 W m K is achieved. In addition, κ can be tuned by altering the terminal groups of silane molecules, demonstrating the flexibility of this approach. The potential use of such composite as a TIM is also shown in the heat dissipation of a computer central processing unit. While most studies on LM-based composites enhance the material performance via direct mixing of various fillers, this work provides a different approach to fabricate high-performance LM-based composites and may further advance their applications in various areas including thermal management systems, flexible electronics, consumer electronics, and biomedical systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103104DOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluation of Prognosis of Coma Patients With Acute Brain Injury by Electroencephalogram Bispectral Index Monitoring.

J Trauma Nurs 2021 Sep-Oct 01;28(5):298-303

Department of Neurology, The Fifth People's Hospital of Wuxi City, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China (Mr Shi); Departments of Neurosurgery (Mss Shen and Xu, Messrs Feng and Xiang, and Dr Chen) and Neurology (Ms Wu), 904th Hospital of Joint Logistic Support Force of PLA, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China; and Department of Nephrology, People's Hospital of Huishan District, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China (Mr Li).

Background: The high mortality rate of comatose patients with traumatic brain injury is a prominent public health issue that negatively impacts patients and their families. Objective, reliable tools are needed to guide treatment decisions and prioritize resources.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the bispectral index (BIS) in comatose patients with severe brain injury.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 84 patients with severe brain injury and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 8 and less treated from January 2015 to June 2017. Sedatives were withheld at least 24 hr before BIS scoring. The BIS value, GCS scores, and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) were monitored hourly for 48 hr. Based on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score, the patients were divided into poor (GOS score: 1-2) and good prognosis groups (GOS score: 3-5). The correlation between BIS and prognosis was analyzed by logistic regression, and the receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted.

Results: The mean (SD) of the BIS value: 54.63 (11.76), p = .000; and GCS score: 5.76 (1.87), p = .000, were higher in the good prognosis group than in the poor prognosis group. Lower BIS values and GCS scores were correlated with poorer prognosis. Based on the area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic curves, the optimal diagnostic cutoff value of the BIS was 43.6, and the associated sensitivity and specificity were 85.4% and 74.4%, respectively.

Conclusion: Taken together, our study indicates that BIS had good predictive value on prognosis. These findings suggested that BIS could be used to evaluate the severity and prognosis of severe brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JTN.0000000000000607DOI Listing
September 2021

The E3 ubiquitin ligase component, Cereblon, is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of Wnt signaling.

Nat Commun 2021 09 6;12(1):5263. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Molecular Oncology Program, The DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are important for the treatment of multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndrome. Binding of IMiDs to Cereblon (CRBN), the substrate receptor of the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase, induces cancer cell death by targeting key neo-substrates for degradation. Despite this clinical significance, the physiological regulation of CRBN remains largely unknown. Herein we demonstrate that Wnt, the extracellular ligand of an essential signal transduction pathway, promotes the CRBN-dependent degradation of a subset of proteins. These substrates include Casein kinase 1α (CK1α), a negative regulator of Wnt signaling that functions as a key component of the β-Catenin destruction complex. Wnt stimulation induces the interaction of CRBN with CK1α and its resultant ubiquitination, and in contrast with previous reports does so in the absence of an IMiD. Mechanistically, the destruction complex is critical in maintaining CK1α stability in the absence of Wnt, and in recruiting CRBN to target CK1α for degradation in response to Wnt. CRBN is required for physiological Wnt signaling, as modulation of CRBN in zebrafish and Drosophila yields Wnt-driven phenotypes. These studies demonstrate an IMiD-independent, Wnt-driven mechanism of CRBN regulation and provide a means of controlling Wnt pathway activity by CRBN, with relevance for development and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25634-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421366PMC
September 2021

Acoustic tweezer with complex boundary-free trapping and transport channel controlled by shadow waveguides.

Sci Adv 2021 Aug 18;7(34). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

Acoustic tweezers use ultrasound for contact-free, bio-compatible, and precise manipulation of particles from millimeter to submicrometer scale. In microfluidics, acoustic tweezers typically use an array of sources to create standing wave patterns that can trap and move objects in ways constrained by the limited complexity of the acoustic wave field. Here, we demonstrate spatially complex particle trapping and manipulation inside a boundary-free chamber using a single pair of sources and an engineered structure outside the chamber that we call a shadow waveguide. The shadow waveguide creates a tightly confined, spatially complex acoustic field inside the chamber without requiring any interior structure that would interfere with net flow or transport. Altering the input signals to the two sources creates trapped particle motion along an arbitrary path defined by the shadow waveguide. Particle trapping, particle manipulation and transport, and Thouless pumping are experimentally demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abi5502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373113PMC
August 2021

Are We in a De-Globalization Process? The Evidence from Global Trade During 2007-2017.

Glob Chall 2021 Aug 27;5(8):2000096. Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Systems Science Beijing Normal University Beijing 100875 China.

Through the analysis of statistical data, some scholars believe that the globalization of trade is declining, and de-globalization has become a trend, even since the financial crisis in 2008. However, the superficial decline of global trade volume cannot be taken as a corollary of the de-globalization. It needs go deep into the structural analysis, and "globalization or de-globalization" should be discussed by analyzing whether the global trade structure has changed. This paper finds that during 2007-2017, the global trade resistances are clearly classified, and trade resistance in the global community has increased significantly. Second, an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is applied to divide global trade relations into two categories: intimate trade relations, whose barriers are mainly related to geographical distance; and unfriendly trade relations with high artificial barriers. Third, the trade purity indicator (TPI) is introduced to describe the trade environment of countries, and its evolution indicates after the financial crisis and for quite a long time, the structure of global trade has not changed much. And it shows some deterioration trend and structural adjustment after 2015, which indicates an opportunity for the emergence of de-globalization in such an international environment full of uncertainty and challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gch2.202000096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8335849PMC
August 2021

Sound trapping in an open resonator.

Nat Commun 2021 Aug 10;12(1):4819. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

The ability of sound energy confinement with high-quality factor resonance is of vital importance for acoustic devices requiring high intensity and hypersensitivity in biological ultrasonics, enhanced collimated sound emission (i.e. sound laser) and high-resolution sensing. However, structures reported so far have been experimentally demonstrated with a limited quality factor of acoustic resonances, up to several tens in an open resonator. The emergence of bound states in the continuum makes it possible to realize high quality factor acoustic modes. Here, we report the theoretical design and experimental demonstration of acoustic bound states in the continuum supported by a single open resonator. We predicted that such an open acoustic resonator could simultaneously support three types of bound states in the continuum, including symmetry protected bound states in the continuum, Friedrich-Wintgen bound states in the continuum induced by mode interference, as well as a new type-mirror symmetry induced bound states in the continuum. We also experimentally demonstrated their existence with quality factor up to one order of magnitude greater than the highest quality factor reported in an open resonator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25130-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355331PMC
August 2021

ONECUT2 which is targeted by hsa-miR-15a-5p enhances stemness maintenance of gastric cancer stem cells.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Aug 9:15353702211038496. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, PR China.

Gastric cancer is the third dominating cause of cancer-associated death. MiroRNAs are potential clinical tools for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this project, we demonstrated significant overexpression of ONECUT2 and down-regulation of hsa-miR-15a-5p in gastric cancer via bioinformatics analysis and assays. Meanwhile, ONECUT2 expression is related to clinical prognosis in gastric cancer and inversely proportional to the differentiation degree of gastric adenocarcinoma according to immunohistochemistry results. Then, we separated CD133+/CD44+ MKN45 by flow cytometry and found that, compared with parental MKN45, CD133+/CD44+ MKN45 gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) had higher levels of ONECUT2 and lower levels of hsa-miR-15a-5p. In addition, we applied both and assays to demonstrate hsa-miR-15a-5p regulates the stemness maintenance, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and chemosensitivity of GCSCs through targeting ONECUT2. Also, hsa-miR-15a-5p inhibits G0 phase block of GCSCs by regulating ONECUT2/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, this study has provided novel perspective into the dynamic control of cancer stem cells for advanced gastric cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15353702211038496DOI Listing
August 2021

In vitro and in vivo immunoregulatory activity of sulfated fucan from the sea cucumber A. leucoprocta.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 4;187:931-938. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

School of Food Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261000, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The in vitro and in vivo immunoregulatory activity of a water-soluble sulfated fucan AL1-1 from the sea cucumber A. leucoprocta was elucidated. In vitro experiments showed that AL1-1 up-regulated immunostimulatory activities in RAW264.7 cells and that it could successfully promote ROS production and phagocytic activity, increase secretion levels of iNOS, and induce the production of considerable amounts of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-12). We found that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was mainly involved in AL1-1 mediated macrophage activation. AL1-1's in vivo immunomodulatory activity on cyclophosphamide (CY)-treated mice was investigated and it was shown that it could strongly enhance Sig A levels, promote the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the intestine. It could also increase activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX). These results demonstrate that AL1-1 has a significant effect on enhancing in vivo and in vitro immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.008DOI Listing
September 2021

In situ Chromatin Interaction Analysis Using Paired-End Tag Sequencing.

Curr Protoc 2021 Aug;1(8):e174

The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut.

Chromatin Interaction Analysis Using Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET) is an established method to map protein-mediated chromatin interactions. A limitation, however, is that it requires a hundred million cells per experiment, which hampers its broad application in biomedical research, particularly in studies in which it is impractical to obtain a large number of cells from rare samples. To reduce the required input cell number while retaining high data quality, we developed an in situ ChIA-PET protocol, which requires as few as 1 million cells. Here, we describe detailed step-by-step procedures for performing in situ ChIA-PET from cultured cells, including both an experimental protocol for sample preparation and data generation and a computational protocol for data processing and visualization using the ChIA-PIPE pipeline. As the protocol significantly simplifies the experimental procedure, reduces ligation noise, and decreases the required input of cells compared to previous versions of ChIA-PET protocols, it can be applied to generate high-resolution chromatin contact maps mediated by various protein factors for a wide range of human and mouse primary cells. © 2021 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Sample preparation and data generation Support Protocol: Bridge linker preparation Basic Protocol 2: Data processing and visualization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpz1.174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351913PMC
August 2021

Unexpected Order-Disorder Transition in Diacetylene Alcohol Langmuir Films.

Langmuir 2021 Aug 23;37(30):9034-9042. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UMR 7588 CNRS, Sorbonne Université, 4 place Jussieu, Paris, CEDEX 75252, France.

The phase diagram of the Langmuir film of diacetylene alcohol-henicosa-5,7-diyn-1-ol-is investigated by means of surface pressure versus surface area isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and grazing incident X-ray diffraction. Among the usual phases described in the generic phase diagram of small head group molecules, one observes an unexpected reversible transition from an ordered condensed phase to a disordered one upon increasing the surface pressure. We postulate that the origin of this unusual, unprecedented transition results from the competition between the interactions between the diacetylene blocks in the hydrophobic chain and the hydrogen bonds between head groups and water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c01038DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of Doping Ni on the Microstructures and Thermoelectric Properties of Co-Excessive NbCoSn Half-Heusler Compounds.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 19;13(29):34533-34542. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Materials Science, Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt 64287, Germany.

The half-Heusler (HH) compound NbCoSn with 18 valence electrons is a promising thermoelectric (TE) material due to its appropriate electrical properties as well as its suitable thermal and chemical stability. Nowadays, doping/substitution and tailoring of microstructures are common experimental approaches to enhance the TE performance of HH compounds. However, detailed theoretical insights into the effects of doping on the microstructures and TE properties are still missing. In this work, the microstructure of NbCoSn was tailored through precipitating the full-Heusler phases in the matrix by changing the nominal ratio of Co and Ni on the Co sites, focusing on the resulting TE properties. Further, first-principles calculations were employed to understand the relationship between the microstructure and the TE properties from the thermodynamic point of view. Detailed analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the presence of excess Co/Ni contributes to the increasing carrier concentration. Through an increase in the electrical conductivity and a reduction in the thermal conductivity, the TE performance is improved. Therefore, the present work offers a new pathway and insights to enhance the TE properties by modifying the microstructure of HH compounds via tailoring the chemical compositions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c08127DOI Listing
July 2021

Interventions to prevent aspiration in older adults with dysphagia living in nursing homes: a scoping review.

BMC Geriatr 2021 07 17;21(1):429. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

School of Nursing, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Dysphagia is highly prevalent condition in older adults living in nursing homes. There is also evidence indicating that aspiration is one of the major health risks for these older adults, which is more likely to result in respiratory infections, aspiration pneumonia and sudden bolus death. Evidence syntheses have demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions for prevention of aspiration among hospitalized older people. The aim of this scoping review is to describe the current spread of interventions to prevent or reduce aspiration in older adults with dysphagia with a specific focus on those who reside in nursing homes.

Methods: The Joanna Briggs Institute methods and PRISMA-ScR guidelines were used to inform this review. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute EBP Database and Web of Science were searched for related articles from 2010 to 2020 as well as Chinese databases (CNKI, WANFANG DATA and VIP) and databases for unpublished material. A three-step search strategy was utilized, including the use of citation software to manage search results and de-duplication, abstract review and full-text review by two reviewers. Details of included studies were then extracted using a prepared data extraction tool. The resulting map was displayed in tabular form along with a narrative summary.

Results: Although 637 articles were located, 19 papers were included in the final analysis. Interventions to prevent aspiration in older adults with dysphagia living in nursing homes included: more bedside evaluation, modification of dietary, creating an appropriate environment for swallowing, providing appropriate feeding assistance, appropriate posture or maneuver for swallowing, appropriate rehabilitation program, medication treatment, and stimulation treatment.

Conclusion: Nursing homes, particularly those in developing countries, require more support for staff training and necessary equipment. Professional interventions provided by speech and language therapists are still limited in the setting of nursing homes. Modification of dietary was the most frequently used intervention to prevent or reduce aspiration. Multi-disciplinary interventions had the best results for aspiration management, but for many nursing homes, access to such teams is limited. Nursing home residents respond well to person-centered interventions that have a comprehensive consideration of their degree of aspiration risk, health condition, individual feelings and cognitive state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02366-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285814PMC
July 2021

Bone morphogenetic protein-7 inhibits endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells and mouse model of systemic sclerosis via Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway.

J Dermatol Sci 2021 Aug 27;103(2):82-92. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Dermatology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune inflammatory and vascular disorder that causes tissue fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) has been considered an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling in SSc. Recent studies suggested that bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) has anti-fibrotic effects in several fibrotic diseases.

Objectives: To investigate the mechanism of BMP-7 in inhibiting TGF-β-induced EndoMT in systemic sclerosis (SSc).

Methods: Skin tissues of both healthy controls and SSc patients were detected the distribution of BMP-7. TGF-β was applied to induce the EndoMT model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and bleomycin was used to established the SSc mouse model. After treatment of BMP-7, the protein levels of endothelial specific markers, mesenchymal cell products, transcription factors and Akt signal pathway were examined by western blotting, immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry both in vivo and in vitro.

Results: The expression of BMP-7 was decreased in the basal layer of epidermis and dermis of SSc patients. EndoMT in TGF-β-treated HUVECs and skins of SSc mouse model were markedly attenuated after treatment with rh-BMP-7. Moreover, Akt/mTOR/p70S6K phosphorylation was involved in EndoMT and BMP-7 suppressed TGF-β- or bleomycin-induced theses phosphorylation in HUVECs or SSc mouse model.

Conclusion: BMP-7 reduced the production of TGF-β-induced EndoMT in HUVECs and SSc mouse model through Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway. These findings suggested that BMP-7 could be employed as a promising antifibrotic therapy for SSc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2021.06.009DOI Listing
August 2021

Discovery of novel tubulin inhibitors targeting taxanes site by virtual screening, molecular dynamic simulation, and biological evaluation.

J Cell Biochem 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Life Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

Microtubules play crucial role in process of mitosis and cell proliferation, which have been considered as attractive drug targets for anticancer therapy. The aim of this study was to discover novel and chemically diverse tubulin inhibitors for treatment of cancer. In this investigation, the multilayer virtual screening methods, including common feature pharmacophore model, structure-based pharmacophore model and molecular docking, were developed to screen BioDiversity database with 30,000 compounds. A total of 102 compounds were obtained by the virtual screening, and further filtered by diverse chemical clusters with desired properties and PAINS analysis. Finally, 50 compounds were selected and submitted to the biological evaluation. Among these hits, hits 8 and 30 with novel scaffolds displayed stronger antiproliferative activity on four human tumor cells including Hela, A549, MCF-7, and HepG2. Moreover, the two hits were subsequently submitted to molecular dynamic simulations of 90 ns with the aim of exploring the stability of ligand-protein interactions into the binding pocket, and further probing the mechanism of the interaction between tubulin and hits. The molecular dynamic simulation results revealed there had stronger interactions between tubulin and hits in equilibrium state. Therefore, the hits 8 and 30 have been well characterized as lead compounds for developing new tubulin inhibitors with potential anticancer activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.30077DOI Listing
July 2021

The prognostic value of preoperative serum albumin in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumor: A prospective cohort study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(27):e26548

Department of Urology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: To evaluate whether the preoperative serum albumin level can predict the survival outcome in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC) undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).

Methods: Four hundred fifty six newly diagnosed patients with BUC who underwent TURBT between January 2014 and December 2017 were retrospectively enrolled. Patients were categorized into low albumin (<40 g/L) and high albumin (≥40 g/L) groups. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional analyses were used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS). Of patients with available data, 108 (24%) and 348 (76%) patients were classified into the low albumin (<40 g/L) and high albumin (≥40 g/L) groups, respectively.

Results: The results of the Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test showed a significantly worse 5-year OS (P = .003) in the low albumin group than in the high albumin group. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding variables, the preoperative albumin level remained an independent predictor for 5-year OS (HR: 0.434, 95% confidence interval: 0.221-0.852; P = .015).

Conclusion: Our study determined that a low preoperative albumin level predicted poor OS in patients with BUC who underwent TURBT. Preoperative serum albumin is an inexpensive and easily available marker that has the potential to be a good prognostic factor for predicting mortality in patients with BUC treated with TURBT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270602PMC
July 2021

Quantum Mechanical Screening of 2D MBenes for the Electroreduction of CO to C1 Hydrocarbon Fuels.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 7;12(27):6370-6382. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Institute of Materials Science, TU Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany.

In this work, we propose a new family of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal borides (MBenes) to design and explore new high-efficiency catalysts for CO electroreduction according to the Density Functional Theory (DFT) approach. The recently reported MBenes have been synthesized experimentally and have been found to have high electrical conductivities and stability, so they are promising candidates for the development of CO electrocatalytic reduction (RR) catalysts. However, tuning the reaction mechanism such that the production of hydrocarbon species occurs at a low overpotential remains a challenge. Only C1 hydrocarbon products such as CH, CHOH, HCHO, CO, and HCOOH were identified, indicating that these MBenes have high stability, catalytic activity, and selectivity toward CO reduction and overcome the competing hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). These MBenes possess a metallic feature that can be tuned as a new catalyst for CORR, depending on the ability to control their selectivity and catalytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01499DOI Listing
July 2021

High-Q microresonators on 4H-silicon-carbide-on-insulator platform for nonlinear photonics.

Light Sci Appl 2021 Jul 5;10(1):139. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200050, Shanghai, China.

The realization of high-quality (Q) resonators regardless of the underpinning material platforms has been a ceaseless pursuit, because the high-Q resonators provide an extreme environment for confining light to enable observations of many nonlinear optical phenomenon with high efficiencies. Here, photonic microresonators with a mean Q factor of 6.75 × 10 were demonstrated on a 4H-silicon-carbide-on-insulator (4H-SiCOI) platform, as determined by a statistical analysis of tens of resonances. Using these devices, broadband frequency conversions, including second-, third-, and fourth-harmonic generations have been observed. Cascaded Raman lasing has also been demonstrated in our SiC microresonator for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Meanwhile, by engineering the dispersion properties of the SiC microresonator, we have achieved broadband Kerr frequency combs covering from 1300 to 1700 nm. Our demonstration represents a significant milestone in the development of SiC photonic integrated devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-021-00584-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257887PMC
July 2021

Achieving stable mainstream nitrogen and phosphorus removal assisted by hydroxylamine addition in a continuous partial nitritation/anammox process from real sewage.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 17;794:148478. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China. Electronic address:

Hydroxylamine (NHOH) as the putative intermediate for anammox ensures the robustness of partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) process; however, the feasible for NHOH addition to improve the stability of PN/A process under low-strength ammonia (NH-N) condition need to be further investigated. In this study, the restoration and steady operation of mainstream PN/A process were investigated to treat real sewage with in situ NHOH added in a continuous alternating anoxic/aerobic with integrated fixed-film activated sludge (A-IFAS) reactor. Results showed that the deteriorated PN/A process caused by nitrate (NO-N) built-up was rapidly restored with a distinct decrease of the NO-N/NH-N ratio from 28.7% to <10.0% within 20 days, after 5 mg N/L of NHOH was added daily into the aerobic zone of A-IFAS reactor. After 230 days of operation, the average total nitrogen (TN) and phosphate (PO-P) removal efficiencies of 80.8% and 91.5%, respectively were stably achieved, with average effluent sCOD, NH-N, TN and PO-P concentrations reaching 23.1, 2.3, 7.7 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively. Microbial community characterization revealed Candidatus Brocadia (3.60% and 2.92%) and Ignavibacteriae (1.56% and 2.66%) as the dominant anammox bacteria and denitrifying bacteria, respectively, jointly attached in the biofilm_1 and biofilm_2, while Candidatus Microthrix (5.17%) dominant in floc sludge was main responsible for phosphorus removal. This study confirmed that NHOH addition is an effective strategy for nitrite-oxidizing bacteria suppression, contributing to the in situ restoration of PN/A process and high stable mainstream nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a continuous PN/A process from real sewage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148478DOI Listing
November 2021

Initial Validation of a Chinese Version of the Mental Health Literacy Scale Among Chinese Teachers in Henan Province.

Front Psychiatry 2021 9;12:661903. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Behavior, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

Teachers' Mental health literacy (MHL) is one of the important factors that influence students' mental health literacy and even their mental health status. A valid, comprehensive measure is needed to adequately identify MHL levels in the Chinese teachers. Thus, this study aimed to validate a Chinese version of the Mental Health Literacy Scale (MHLS) among Chinese teachers. A total of 367 Chinese primary and secondary school teachers in Henan province were enrolled to complete the Chinese version of MHLS and several validation measures. A parallel analysis supported a four-factor structure model of the Chinese version, but because of the low communalities and mean factor loadings, the univariate structure of the original scale was selected. Additionally, the criterion construct validity of the Chinese version was supported by significant correlations with self-efficacy in coping with mental health problems, mental health status, the stigma associated with receiving mental health treatment, and socially distancing from patients with mental illness. The Cronbach's α of the Chinese version was acceptable. Females, younger teachers, teachers with higher educational level, and full-time mental health teachers showed higher levels of MHL. The Chinese version of MHLS is a valid and reliable tool to assess the level of Chinese teachers' MHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.661903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219938PMC
June 2021
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