Publications by authors named "Chen Pan"

497 Publications

Design of a metamaterial film with excellent conformability and adhesion for bandage substrates.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Sep 10;124:104799. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100089, PR China. Electronic address:

Developing films with excellent conformability and adhesion has become a research hotspot in many fields, such as medical bandages. The conventional method for enhancing films conformability and adhesion is to make the films thinner or modify the material of the films, which usually compromises the function of the films. In this paper, a novel metamaterial film was proposed to cover the skin area of a human elbow during the rotation of elbow. This structure is composed of unit cells with rectangular perforations, whose Poisson's ratio (PR) is determined by the length of the perforation. With finite element analysis (FEA), relations among the stretch strain, Poisson's ratio and length of the perforation of unit cell was obtained. Then, the proposed film was generated by mapping unit cells with different PR to the target skin surface. With the same deformation behavior as the elbow skin, conformability and adhesion of the generated film can be guaranteed during the entire rotation process of the elbow, which has been verified by both FEA and experimental tests. Theoretically, by changing the arrangement of different PR unit cells, the proposed method can be applied to design films for other complex surface on human body. It also provides a new way to introduce materials with better biocompatibility but poor mechanical properties as bandage substrates. As a possible application, a prototype of smart bandage was developed by installing a high-resolution temperature sensor on the proposed film, which can monitor the inflammation of the wounded skin in real time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104799DOI Listing
September 2021

Prevalence of problematic Internet use and its association with quality of life among undergraduate nursing students in the later stage of COVID-19 pandemic era in China.

Am J Addict 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Public Health and Medicinal Administration & Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China.

Background And Objectives: The prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era is not known. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of PIU among baccalaureate nursing students (hereafter: nursing students) in the post-COVID-19 era.

Methods: A total of 1070 nursing students were consecutively invited to participate in this study from the nursing schools of five universities. PIU and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. t Tests, χ , tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare basic demographic and clinical characteristics between participants with and without PIU. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine independent correlates.

Results: The prevalence of PIU was 23.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.7%-25.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that second- (p = .024) and third-year (p = .012) students were more likely to suffer from PIU compared with first year students. Students with more severe depressive (p = .014) and anxiety symptoms (p = .011) were independently and significantly associated with more severe PIU. After controlling for covariates, nursing students with PIU had a lower overall QOL score (p = .002).

Conclusion And Scientific Significance: Problematic Internet use (PIU) was common among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. Considering the negative impact of PIU on QOL and academic performance, regular screening should be conducted and effective interventions implemented for nursing students with PIU. This was the first study on the prevalence of PIU among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. The findings of this study could help health professionals and education authorities to understand the patterns of PIU and its influence on QOL among nursing students and to allocate health resources and develop effective measures to reduce the risk of PIU in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.13216DOI Listing
September 2021

The Association Between Internet Addiction and Anxiety in Nursing Students: A Network Analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2021 25;12:723355. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Public Health and Medicinal Administration, & Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, Macao, SAR China.

Nursing students who suffer from co-occurring anxiety experience added difficulties when communicating and interacting with others in a healthy, positive, and meaningful way. Previous studies have found strong positive correlations between Internet addiction (IA) and anxiety, suggesting that nursing students who report severe IA are susceptible to debilitating anxiety as well. To date, however, network analysis (NA) studies exploring the nature of association between individual symptoms of IA and anxiety have not been published. This study examined associations between symptoms of IA and anxiety among nursing students using network analysis. IA and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7), respectively. The structure of IA and anxiety symptoms was characterized using "Strength" as a centrality index in the symptom network. Network stability was tested using a case-dropping bootstrap procedure and a Network Comparison Test (NCT) was conducted to examine whether network characteristics differed on the basis of gender and by region of residence. A total of 1,070 nursing students participated in the study. Network analysis showed that IAT nodes, "Academic decline due to Internet use," "Depressed/moody/nervous only while being off-line," "School grades suffer due to Internet use," and "Others complain about your time spent online" were the most influential symptoms in the IA-anxiety network model. Gender and urban/rural residence did not significantly influence the overall network structure. Several influential individual symptoms including Academic declines due to Internet use, Depressed/moody/nervous only while being off-line, School grades suffering due to Internet use and Others complain about one's time spent online emerged as potential targets for clinical interventions to reduce co-occurring IA and anxiety. Additionally, the overall network structure provides a data-based hypothesis for explaining potential mechanisms that account for comorbid IA and anxiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.723355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424202PMC
August 2021

High lactate dehydrogenase was associated with adverse outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Previous studies found that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels predicted poor outcomes in hemorrhagic stroke, but the prognostic role of LDH in ischemic stroke (IS) remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between LDH and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

Methods: All patients were enrolled from the Third China National Stroke Registry (CNSR-III). Adverse outcomes included all-cause death and poor functional outcomes [defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 3-6 and 2-6] at 3 months and 1 year. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the association of LDH with risk of all-cause death and poor functional outcomes, respectively.

Results: Among 9,796 included patients, the median [interquartile range (IQR)] of LDH was 175.00 (151.00-205.40) U/L. After adjustment for confounding factors, patients in the highest LDH quartile had a higher risk of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR), 2.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-3.90], and a higher proportion of mRS score 3-6 (odds ratio (OR), 1.54; 95% CI, 1.26-1.90) and mRS score 2-6 (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.32-1.84) at 3 months. We also observed a J-shaped association between LDH and risk of each outcome. Consistent results were found at 1 year.

Conclusions: Higher LDH levels are independently associated with adverse outcomes in patients with AIS or TIA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-2195DOI Listing
August 2021

High lactate dehydrogenase was associated with adverse outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Previous studies found that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels predicted poor outcomes in hemorrhagic stroke, but the prognostic role of LDH in ischemic stroke (IS) remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between LDH and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

Methods: All patients were enrolled from the Third China National Stroke Registry (CNSR-III). Adverse outcomes included all-cause death and poor functional outcomes [defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 3-6 and 2-6] at 3 months and 1 year. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the association of LDH with risk of all-cause death and poor functional outcomes, respectively.

Results: Among 9,796 included patients, the median [interquartile range (IQR)] of LDH was 175.00 (151.00-205.40) U/L. After adjustment for confounding factors, patients in the highest LDH quartile had a higher risk of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR), 2.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-3.90], and a higher proportion of mRS score 3-6 (odds ratio (OR), 1.54; 95% CI, 1.26-1.90) and mRS score 2-6 (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.32-1.84) at 3 months. We also observed a J-shaped association between LDH and risk of each outcome. Consistent results were found at 1 year.

Conclusions: Higher LDH levels are independently associated with adverse outcomes in patients with AIS or TIA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-2195DOI Listing
August 2021

Super electro-optic modulation in bulk KTN:Cu based on electric-field-enhanced permittivity.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(17):4192-4195

The electric-field-enhanced effect of permittivity can improve the performance of electro-optic modulators and deflectors. A theoretical model of super electro-optic modulation based on the field-enhanced effect of the permittivity was proposed. Results showed that a strong field-enhanced effect can greatly reduce the half-wave voltage and increase the modulation depth as a result of increased relative dielectric permittivity and permittivity gradient to the electric field. For bulk paraelectric KTN:Cu near the Curie temperature, we found a novel phenomenon that the response of relative dielectric permittivity to the bias electric field was closely related to the frequency, including attenuation, invariance, and enhancement. We effectively selected the frequencies corresponding to the strong field-enhanced effect by measuring the dielectric-frequency spectrum under the bias voltage. At these frequencies, a phase retardation of was achieved through 2 AC modulation voltage, indicating that the half-wave voltage was reduced by one order of magnitude.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.433525DOI Listing
September 2021

[Study on synergistic effect of Qingkailing Injection and Shengmai Injection on organ injury in endotoxemia rats].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Aug;46(16):4193-4200

Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety of Chinese Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Innovative Natural Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine Injections, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sceiences Beijing 100700, China.

As a dangerous disease with rapid progression, endotoxemia is easy to induce the damage to multiple organs. However, its specific and efficient treatment methods are still lacking at present. Both Qingkailing Injection(QKLI) and Shengmai Injection(SMI) have been proved effective in anti-inflammation, anti-endotoxin and organ protection. In this study, carrageenan and endotoxin were injected successively into rats to establish an endotoxemia model. Different doses of QKLI and SMI were administered to the endotoxemia rats by intraperitoneal injection separately or in combination. Then the count of white blood cells, the number of platelets, the content of cytokines, biochemical indexes, organ coefficient and pathological changes of main organs in the rats were detected. The results showed that the rats in the model group had obvious symptoms of endotoxemia, i.e., leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, increase in cytokines(IL-6 and TNF-α) and biochemical indexes of liver and kidney function as well as pathological damage to liver, kidney and lung. QKLI alone can alleviate the above symptoms of endotoxemia and the organ injury. SMI alone is less effective in improving disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) and cytokine secretion complicated with endotoxemia, but capable of reducing the inflammation degree of the lung, liver and kidney. The combination of QKLI and SMI remarkably increased the number of platelets in the peripheral blood, improved the liver and kidney function and reduced inflammatory factors, with lung, liver, kidney and other organ structures protected well. Moreover, the improvement effect of the combination of QKLI and SMI was stronger than those of the two injections alone at fixed doses, indicative of a synergistic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210524.404DOI Listing
August 2021

Study on the potential nephrotoxicity and mutagenicity of aristolochic acid IVa and its mechanism.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 25;142:112081. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China. Electronic address:

Previous reports demonstrated that aristolochic acids (AAs) exposure-induced nephrotoxicity, mutations, and tumorigenesis are mainly due to aristolochic acid I (AAI). Notably, the chemical structure of aristolochic acid IVa (AAIVa), which exists at higher levels in many Aristolochiaceae herbs, is extremely similar to AAI. In lack of toxicological data, it is unknown whether AAIVa exposure leads to aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), mutations, and tumorigenesis as of AAI. To answer these questions, mice were administered AAIVa by single or repeated long-term gavage, while AAI was used as a positive control. We found that single gavage of 40 mg/kg of AAIVa exhibited no obvious toxicity. Also, there were no tumors or death in mice administrated with 1 and 10 mg/kg of AAIVa for 6 months followed by a 12-month recovery time. There were no noteworthy alterations in gene mutation frequency in the kidney, liver, and stomach between the AAIVa and control mice. Fascinatingly, AA-associated mutational signatures, adenine-to-thymine (A>T) transversions, were absent in AAIVa-treated mice. Nonetheless, 10 mg/kg of AAIVa triggered lymphocytic infiltration and slight fibrous hyperplasia in the kidney at the 6 month; however, these were alleviated at the 12 and 18 months. On the contrary, AAI (positive control) caused severe diffuse fibrosis, tubular atrophy, necrosis, tumors in the forestomach and kidney, and death after the 6 month. It seems that long-term AAIVa exposure induced mild renal lesions could be due to the activation of the canonical or noncanonical transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway. Overall, these findings suggest that the mutagenicity and carcinogenic risk of AAIVa are very low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112081DOI Listing
August 2021

Study on the potential nephrotoxicity and mutagenicity of aristolochic acid IVa and its mechanism.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 25;142:112081. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China. Electronic address:

Previous reports demonstrated that aristolochic acids (AAs) exposure-induced nephrotoxicity, mutations, and tumorigenesis are mainly due to aristolochic acid I (AAI). Notably, the chemical structure of aristolochic acid IVa (AAIVa), which exists at higher levels in many Aristolochiaceae herbs, is extremely similar to AAI. In lack of toxicological data, it is unknown whether AAIVa exposure leads to aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), mutations, and tumorigenesis as of AAI. To answer these questions, mice were administered AAIVa by single or repeated long-term gavage, while AAI was used as a positive control. We found that single gavage of 40 mg/kg of AAIVa exhibited no obvious toxicity. Also, there were no tumors or death in mice administrated with 1 and 10 mg/kg of AAIVa for 6 months followed by a 12-month recovery time. There were no noteworthy alterations in gene mutation frequency in the kidney, liver, and stomach between the AAIVa and control mice. Fascinatingly, AA-associated mutational signatures, adenine-to-thymine (A>T) transversions, were absent in AAIVa-treated mice. Nonetheless, 10 mg/kg of AAIVa triggered lymphocytic infiltration and slight fibrous hyperplasia in the kidney at the 6 month; however, these were alleviated at the 12 and 18 months. On the contrary, AAI (positive control) caused severe diffuse fibrosis, tubular atrophy, necrosis, tumors in the forestomach and kidney, and death after the 6 month. It seems that long-term AAIVa exposure induced mild renal lesions could be due to the activation of the canonical or noncanonical transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway. Overall, these findings suggest that the mutagenicity and carcinogenic risk of AAIVa are very low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112081DOI Listing
August 2021

HDAC8 drives spindle organization during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes.

Cell Prolif 2021 Aug 25:e13119. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Objectives: Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) is one of the class I HDAC family proteins, which participates in the neuronal disorders, parasitic/viral infections, tumorigenesis and many other biological processes. However, its potential function during female germ cell development has not yet been fully understood.

Materials And Methods: HDAC8-targeting siRNA was microinjected into GV oocytes to deplete HDAC8. PCI-34051 was used to inhibit the enzyme activity of HDAC8. Immunostaining, immunoblotting and fluorescence intensity quantification were applied to assess the effects of HDAC8 depletion or inhibition on the oocyte meiotic maturation, spindle/chromosome structure, γ-tubulin dynamics and acetylation level of α-tubulin.

Results: We observed that HDAC8 was localized in the nucleus at GV stage and then translocated to the spindle apparatus from GVBD to M II stages in porcine oocytes. Depletion of HDAC8 led to the oocyte meiotic failure by showing the reduced polar body extrusion rate. In addition, depletion of HDAC8 resulted in aberrant spindle morphologies and misaligned chromosomes due to the defective recruitment of γ-tubulin to the spindle poles. Notably, these meiotic defects were photocopied by inhibition of HDAC8 activity using its specific inhibitor PCI-34051. However, inhibition of HDAC8 did not affect microtubule stability as assessed by the acetylation level of α-tubulin.

Conclusions: Collectively, our findings demonstrate that HDAC8 acts as a regulator of spindle assembly during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.13119DOI Listing
August 2021

Electrolytes and clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(13):1069

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Abnormal electrolytes were closely related to the prognosis of various diseases, the prognostic role of electrolytes in stroke has not been investigated well. We aimed to investigate the association between electrolytes and clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

Methods: Data were recruited from the China National Stroke Registry III study. Patients were classified into three groups according to tertiles and the normal range of each electrolyte. Multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards regressions were adopted to explore the associations of electrolytes with poor functional outcomes [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 3-6/2-6] and all-cause death at 3 months and 1 year.

Results: A total of 10,299 eligible patients were enrolled. After adjusted for confounding factors, the first tertile electrolytes were associated with increased risk of poor functional outcome (mRS score 3-6) at 1 year, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.33 (1.14-1.55) for potassium, 1.41 (1.20-1.60) for sodium, 1.27 (1.08-1.48) for chloride, compared with the second tertile. Similar results were found when poor functional outcome was defined as mRS score 2-6 and all-cause death. However, almost no significant association was present of calcium with these outcomes. All results were consistent when each electrolyte was classified into three groups according to the normal range and the outcomes timepoint was set at 3 months.

Conclusions: Lower levels of potassium, sodium, chloride but not calcium were associated with higher risk of poor functional outcomes and death in patients with AIS or TIA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339832PMC
July 2021

Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(13):1047

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Neutrophils and lymphocytes mediate differential inflammatory responses after ischemic stroke and have different effects on patients' clinical outcomes. Several studies have used the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a prognostic indicator for ischemic stroke; however, some limitations remain.

Methods: We derived data from the Third China National Stroke Registry. The NLR is defined as neutrophil count/lymphocyte count. Patients included in the study were classified into four groups by NLR quartiles. Odds ratios (ORs) of adverse clinical outcomes were calculated with the lowest quartile group as the reference category. We plotted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of NLR for adverse clinical outcomes and calculated area under the curve (AUC) values and cutoff values. Under different TOAST classifications, medians of NLR and ORs of adverse clinical outcomes were also calculated. Furthermore, interaction tests between NLR and etiology were performed.

Results: A total of 13,018 patients were enrolled. At both 3- and 12-month follow-ups, higher quartile groups were associated with increased risks of death and poor functional outcomes, even after adjustments. For death, the cutoff values of NLR were 3.872 at 3-month follow-up and 3.180 at 12-month follow-up. For poor functional outcomes, the cutoff value of NLR was 2.846 at both 3- and 12-month follow-ups. The association between NLR and stroke recurrence was significant only at 3-month follow-up before adjustments. There was no correlation between NLR and hemorrhagic transformation during hospitalization. Under different TOAST classifications, the medians of NLR were different; conversely, the correlations of NLR with adverse clinical outcomes had no differences.

Conclusions: High level of NLR within the first 24 h after admission was associated with increased risks of both short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke, regardless of etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339844PMC
July 2021

An Integrated Metabolomic Study of Osteoporosis: Discovery and Quantification of Hyocholic Acids as Candidate Markers.

Front Pharmacol 2021 6;12:725341. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of General Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Osteoporosis is becoming a highly prevalent disease in a large proportion of the global aged population. Serum metabolite markers may be important for the treatment and early prevention of osteoporosis. Serum samples from 32 osteoporosis and 32 controls were analyzed by untargeted metabolomics and lipidomic approaches performed on an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) system. To find systemic disturbance of osteoporosis, weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) and statistical methods were employed for data-mining. Then, an in-depth targeted method was utilized to determine potential markers from the family of key metabolites. As a result, 1,241 metabolites were identified from untargeted methods and WGCNA indicated that lipids metabolism is deregulated and glycerol phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, and bile acids (BA) are majorly affected. As key metabolites of lipids metabolism, 66 bile acids were scanned and 49 compounds were quantified by a targeted method. Interestingly, hyocholic acids (HCA) were found to play essential roles during the occurrence of osteoporosis and may be potential markers. These metabolites may be new therapeutic or diagnosis targets for the screening or treatment of osteoporosis. Quantified measurement of potential markers also enables the establishment of diagnostic models for the following translational research in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.725341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378234PMC
August 2021

Network analysis of anxiety and depressive symptoms among nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Affect Disord 2021 Nov 22;294:753-760. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Public Health and Medicinal Administration, & Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China; Centre for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China; Institute of Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China. Electronic address:

Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the mental health and well-being of medical personnel, including nursing students. Network analysis provides a deeper characterization of symptom-symptom interactions in mental disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of anxiety and depressive symptom networks of Chinese nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Method: A total of 932 nursing students were included. Anxiety and depressive symptom were measured using the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), respectively. Central symptoms and bridge symptoms were identified via centrality indices and bridge centrality indices, respectively. Network stability was examined using the case-dropping procedure.

Results: Irritability, Uncontrollable worry, Trouble relaxing, and Depressed mood had the highest centrality values. Three bridge symptoms (Depressed mood, Nervousness, and Anhedonia) were also identified. Neither gender nor region of residence was associated with network global strength, distribution of edge weights or individual edge weights.

Limitations: Data were collected in a cross-sectional study design, therefore, causal relations and dynamic changes between anxiety and depressive symptoms over time could not be inferred. Generalizability of findings may be limited to Chinese nursing students during a particular phase of the current pandemic.

Conclusions: Irritability, Uncontrollable worry, Trouble relaxing, and Depressed mood constituted central symptoms maintaining the anxiety-depression network structure of Chinese nursing students during the pandemic. Timely, systemic multi-level interventions targeting central symptoms and bridge symptoms may be effective in alleviating co-occurring experiences of anxiety and depression in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.07.072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433813PMC
November 2021

Using a machine learning approach to identify key prognostic molecules for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2021 Aug 9;21(1):906. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Henan Key Laboratory of Microbiome and Esophageal Cancer Prevention and Treatment; Henan Key Laboratory of Cancer Epigenetics, Cancer Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Clinical Medicine, Medical College of Henan University of Science and Technology, 24 Jinghua Road, Jianxi Qu, Luoyang, 471003, P. R. China.

Background: A plethora of prognostic biomarkers for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) that have hitherto been reported are challenged with low reproducibility due to high molecular heterogeneity of ESCC. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal biomarkers for ESCC using machine learning algorithms.

Methods: Biomarkers related to clinical survival, recurrence or therapeutic response of patients with ESCC were determined through literature database searching. Forty-eight biomarkers linked to recurrence or prognosis of ESCC were used to construct a molecular interaction network based on NetBox and then to identify the functional modules. Publicably available mRNA transcriptome data of ESCC downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets included GSE53625 and TCGA-ESCC. Five machine learning algorithms, including logical regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN), random forest (RF) and XGBoost, were used to develop classifiers for prognostic classification for feature selection. The area under ROC curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the performance of the prognostic classifiers. The importances of identified molecules were ranked by their occurrence frequencies in the prognostic classifiers. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test were performed to determine the statistical significance of overall survival.

Results: A total of 48 clinically proven molecules associated with ESCC progression were used to construct a molecular interaction network with 3 functional modules comprising 17 component molecules. The 131,071 prognostic classifiers using these 17 molecules were built for each machine learning algorithm. Using the occurrence frequencies in the prognostic classifiers with AUCs greater than the mean value of all 131,071 AUCs to rank importances of these 17 molecules, stratifin encoded by SFN was identified as the optimal prognostic biomarker for ESCC, whose performance was further validated in another 2 independent cohorts.

Conclusion: The occurrence frequencies across various feature selection approaches reflect the degree of clinical importance and stratifin is an optimal prognostic biomarker for ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08647-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351329PMC
August 2021

The impacts of different anticoagulants and long-term frozen storage on multiple metal concentrations in peripheral blood: a comparative study.

Biometals 2021 Oct 7;34(5):1191-1205. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

It is important but remains unclear whether ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium heparin anticoagulants have different impacts on the levels of various metals in peripheral blood after long-term frozen storage. The concentrations of 22 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Mg, Mo, Ni, Fe, Pb, Rb, Se, Sn, Sb, Sr, Ti, V, Zn) in whole blood, blood cells and plasma from 22 healthy participants were determined twice, 18 months apart, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mean percentage error (MPE) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to evaluate the impact of the anticoagulants and long-term frozen storage on metal concentrations, respectively. The concentrations of Sb and Ba in whole blood, blood cells and plasma were significantly altered by EDTA and sodium heparin at two measurement timepoints (P < 0.05 and MPE > 80%). In EDTA tubes, the Ti and Ni concentrations in blood cells were changed significantly; and in heparin tubes, the concentrations of Ni and Mo in blood cells and Sb in plasma were also altered (P < 0.05 and MPE > 80%). The ICCs of 11 metals in whole blood, 15 metals in blood cells and 16 metals in plasma remained unchanged in EDTA tubes, and 16 metals in whole blood, 15 metals in blood cells and 17 metals in plasma remained unchanged in heparin tubes (ICC > 0.40). Our study suggested the use of EDTA tubes to determine Sb concentrations in peripheral blood and heparin tubes to determine Ba concentrations. Additionally, heparin tubes may be more suited for determining multiple metal concentrations in whole blood, whereas for blood cells and plasma either EDTA or heparin tubes could be used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-021-00336-7DOI Listing
October 2021

Assessing the Impacts of Recent Crop Expansion on Water Quality in the Missouri River Basin Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool.

J Adv Model Earth Syst 2021 May;13(6)

USEPA-Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC, USA.

The Missouri River Basin (MORB) has experienced a resurgence of grassland conversion to crop production, which raised concerns on water quality. We applied the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to address how this conversion would impact water quality. We designed three crop production scenarios representing conversion of grassland to: (a) continuous corn; (b) corn/soybean rotation; and (c) corn/wheat rotation to assess the impact. The SWAT model results showed: (a) the lower MORB produced high total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load before conversion (baseline) due mainly to high precipitation and high agricultural activity; (b) the greatest percentage increases of TN and TP occurred in the North and South Dakotas, coinciding with the highest amount of grassland conversion to cropland; and (c) grassland conversion to continuous corn resulted in the greatest increase in TN and TP loads, followed by conversion to corn/soybean and then conversion to corn/wheat. Although the greatest percentage increases of TN and TP occurred in the North and South Dakotas, these areas still contributed relatively low TN and TP to total basin loads after conversion. However, watersheds, predominantly in the lower MORB continued to be "hotspots" that contributed the greatest amounts of TN and TP to the total basin loads-driven by a combination of grassland conversion, high precipitation, and loading from pre-existing cropland. At the watershed outlet, the TN and TP loads were increased by 6.4% (13,800 t/yr) and 8.7% (3,400 t/yr), respectively, during the 2008-2016 period for the conversion to continuous corn scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2020ms002284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318093PMC
May 2021

Engineering polar vortex from topologically trivial domain architecture.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 30;12(1):4620. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Topologically nontrivial polar structures are not only attractive for high-density data storage, but also for ultralow power microelectronics thanks to their exotic negative capacitance. The vast majority of polar structures emerging naturally in ferroelectrics, however, are topologically trivial, and there are enormous interests in artificially engineered polar structures possessing nontrivial topology. Here we demonstrate reconstruction of topologically trivial strip-like domain architecture into arrays of polar vortex in (PbTiO)/(SrTiO) superlattice, accomplished by fabricating a cross-sectional lamella from the superlattice film. Using a combination of techniques for polarization mapping, atomic imaging, and three-dimensional structure visualization supported by phase field simulations, we reveal that the reconstruction relieves biaxial epitaxial strain in thin film into a uniaxial one in lamella, changing the subtle electrostatic and elastostatic energetics and providing the driving force for the polar vortex formation. The work establishes a realistic strategy for engineering polar topologies in otherwise ordinary ferroelectric superlattices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24922-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8324780PMC
July 2021

Structural and functional brain alterations in anorexia nervosa:A multimodal meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Oct 23;42(15):5154-5169. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Medical Imaging Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex psychiatric disorder with poorly understood etiology. Numerous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional imaging studies have provided strong evidence of abnormal brain structure and intrinsic and functional activities in AN, but with inconsistent conclusions. Herein, a whole-brain meta-analysis was conducted on VBM (660 patients with AN, and 740 controls) and resting-state functional imaging (425 patients with AN, and 461 controls) studies that measured differences in the gray matter volume (GMV) and intrinsic functional activity between patients with AN and healthy controls (HCs). Overall, patients with AN displayed decreased GMV in the bilateral median cingulate cortex (extending to the bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate cortex), and left middle occipital gyrus (extending to the left inferior parietal lobe). In resting-state functional imaging studies, patients with AN displayed decreased resting-state functional activity in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral median cingulate cortex, and increased resting-state functional activity in the right parahippocampal gyrus. This multimodal meta-analysis identified reductions of gray matter and functional activity in the anterior and median cingulate in patients with AN, which contributes to further understanding of the pathophysiology of AN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25602DOI Listing
October 2021

Multiregional profiling of the brain transmembrane proteome uncovers novel regulators of depression.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 21;7(30). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

iHuman Institute, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China.

Transmembrane proteins play vital roles in mediating synaptic transmission, plasticity, and homeostasis in the brain. However, these proteins, especially the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are underrepresented in most large-scale proteomic surveys. Here, we present a new proteomic approach aided by deep learning models for comprehensive profiling of transmembrane protein families in multiple mouse brain regions. Our multiregional proteome profiling highlights the considerable discrepancy between messenger RNA and protein distribution, especially for region-enriched GPCRs, and predicts an endogenous GPCR interaction network in the brain. Furthermore, our new approach reveals the transmembrane proteome remodeling landscape in the brain of a mouse depression model, which led to the identification of two previously unknown GPCR regulators of depressive-like behaviors. Our study provides an enabling technology and rich data resource to expand the understanding of transmembrane proteome organization and dynamics in the brain and accelerate the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for depression treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abf0634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294761PMC
July 2021

Holocellulose Nanofibril-Assisted Intercalation and Stabilization of TiCT MXene Inks for Multifunctional Sensing and EMI Shielding Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 21;13(30):36221-36231. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China.

2D transition-metal carbide/nitride (MXene)-based conductive inks have received tremendous attention due to their high electrical conductivity and other fascinating properties. However, the unstability of MXene-based inks, low fabrication yield of MXene flakes, and poor mechanical properties of printed products strongly limit the proper and large-scale printing of MXene patterns. Here, functioning as a dispersant, an intercalation agent, and reinforcement, sulfated holocellulose nanofibrils (HCNFs) with a unique "core-shell" structure are conducive to the fabrication, storage, and subsequent printing of MXene inks. The MXene/HCNF (MH) ink with high yield (97.2%), good stability, and good homogeneity exhibits excellent printing performance (high resolution and good coverage). It could print various products with adjustable thicknesses and electrical conductivity properties on different substrates. The products printed by the MH ink can be applied as multifunctional sensing materials responding to multiple external stimuli, such as stress/strain, blowing, humidity, and temperature. Furthermore, the resulting products also display a high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of 54.3 dB at a shallow thickness of 100 μm and an excellent specific EMI SE of SSE/ of 7159 dB cm g.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c10583DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluation of a Pharmacist-Led Remote Warfarin Management Model Using a Smartphone Application (Yixing) in Improving Patients' Knowledge and Outcomes of Anticoagulation Therapy.

Front Pharmacol 2021 1;12:677943. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The management of warfarin-treated patients has been recognized as a challenge due to narrow therapeutic range and food and drug interactions in warfarin therapy. We aim to evaluate the effect of a pharmacist-led remote warfarin management model using a smartphone application (app) on anticoagulation therapy. Eligible patients who had received warfarin therapy after mechanical heart valve replacement were enrolled. The intervention group was offered a pharmacist-led remote warfarin management model using the app named Yixing. Yixing incorporates functions including automatic daily reminder, personal health record, educational program, and online counseling. The control group received traditional pharmacy services without Yixing. Co-primary outcomes were patients' awareness score of warfarin therapy obtained from questionnaire, the medication adherence measured by the percentage of the correct-warfarin-taken days in the monitored period, the fraction of time in therapeutic range (FTTR), and the incidence of anticoagulation-related complications. The needed information of the patients was acquired electronic medical records from the hospital, Yixing system and telephone follow-up when necessary. 64 and 66 patients were initially in the intervention and control groups respectively. After propensity score matching, 50 patients were assigned in each group. The intervention group had a median age of 51.0 years, in which 27 (54%) were male. The control group had a median age of 50.5 years, in which 28 (56%) were male. Patient awareness score in the intervention group was 8.00 (2.00), which was higher than that in the control group, with score at 6.50 (2.50) ( = 0.001). No significant difference was found in the percentage of the correct-warfarin-taken days between the two groups ( = 0.520). The median (interquartile range) value of FTTR was 80.3% (21.9%) and 72.1% (17.7%) in the intervention and control groups respectively ( = 0.033), and no significant differences in the incidence of anticoagulation-related complications were observed ( = 0.514). The pharmacist-led remote warfarin management model using Yixing improves patients' awareness of warfarin therapy and increases FTTR, but may not have significant improvements on medication adherence and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.677943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281133PMC
July 2021

Leukocyte subtypes and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(9):748

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Our study aimed to evaluate whether the effects on adverse clinical outcomes, defined as death, recurrent stroke, and poor functional outcomes, differed by leukocyte subtype in patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events, including both ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA).

Methods: We derived data from the Third China National Stroke Registry (CNSR-III). The counts and percentages of each leukocyte subtype were collected within the first 24 hours after admission. Enrolled patients were classified into four groups by the quartiles of each leukocyte subtype count or percentage. Hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of adverse clinical outcomes were calculated, with the lowest quartile group as the reference category. We used C statistics, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and the net reclassification index (NRI) to evaluate each leukocyte subtype's incremental predictive value beyond conventional risk factors.

Results: A total of 14,174 patients were enrolled. Higher counts of leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes were associated with elevated risks of adverse clinical outcomes. In contrast, higher counts of lymphocytes and eosinophils were related to reduced risks of adverse clinical outcomes. Meanwhile, basophil counts seemed to not correlate with adverse clinical outcomes. Furthermore, there were also significant associations between the percentages of leukocyte subtypes and adverse clinical outcomes.

Conclusions: Leukocyte subtypes had different relationships with adverse clinical outcomes at 3-month and 1-year follow-up in patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events and could slightly increase the predictive value compared with the conventional model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-7931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246222PMC
May 2021

Hepatic Vps33b deficiency aggravates cholic acid-induced cholestatic liver injury in male mice.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Design and Evaluation, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Vacuolar protein sorting 33B (VPS33B) is important for intracellular vesicular trafficking process and protein interactions, which is closely associated with the arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis syndrome. Our previous study has shown a crucial role of Vps33b in regulating metabolisms of bile acids and lipids in hepatic Vps33b deficiency mice with normal chow, but it remains unknown whether VPS33B could contribute to cholestatic liver injury. In this study we investigated the effects of hepatic Vps33b deficiency on bile acid metabolism and liver function in intrahepatic cholestatic mice. Cholestasis was induced in Vps33b hepatic knockout and wild-type male mice by feeding 1% CA chow diet for 5 consecutive days. We showed that compared with the wild-type mice, hepatic Vps33b deficiency greatly exacerbated CA-induced cholestatic liver injury as shown in markedly increased serum ALT, AST, and ALP activities, serum levels of total bilirubin, and total bile acid, as well as severe hepatocytes necrosis and inflammatory infiltration. Target metabolomics analysis revealed that hepatic Vps33b deficiency caused abnormal profiles of bile acids in cholestasis mice, evidenced by the upregulation of conjugated bile acids in serum, liver, and bile. We further demonstrated that the metabolomics alternation was accompanied by gene expression changes in bile acid metabolizing enzymes and transporters including Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Ntcp, Oatp1b1, Bsep, and Mrp2. Overall, these results suggest a crucial role of hepatic Vps33b deficiency in exacerbating cholestasis and liver injury, which is associated with the altered metabolism of bile acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00723-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Scalable massively parallel computing using continuous-time data representation in nanoscale crossbar array.

Nat Nanotechnol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Institute of Brain-Inspired Intelligence, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

The growth of connected intelligent devices in the Internet of Things has created a pressing need for real-time processing and understanding of large volumes of analogue data. The difficulty in boosting the computing speed renders digital computing unable to meet the demand for processing analogue information that is intrinsically continuous in magnitude and time. By utilizing a continuous data representation in a nanoscale crossbar array, parallel computing can be implemented for the direct processing of analogue information in real time. Here, we propose a scalable massively parallel computing scheme by exploiting a continuous-time data representation and frequency multiplexing in a nanoscale crossbar array. This computing scheme enables the parallel reading of stored data and the one-shot operation of matrix-matrix multiplications in the crossbar array. Furthermore, we achieve the one-shot recognition of 16 letter images based on two physically interconnected crossbar arrays and demonstrate that the processing and modulation of analogue information can be simultaneously performed in a memristive crossbar array.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-021-00943-yDOI Listing
July 2021

A novel MYH9 mutation related to non-syndromic delayed post-lingual sensorineural hearing loss.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Otolaryngology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Objective: Hearing loss (HL) is the most common sensory organ dysfunction disease. The cause is often complex, though genetics are the main factor.

Methods: In this study, we investigated a Chinese family with non-syndromic delayed post-lingual deafness. Comprehensive data collection was performed on this family's members, including basic information, audiological examinations, blood system examinations and imaging examinations. A pedigree diagram was drawn and the genetic patterns were analyzed.

Results: A new gene mutation, c.314A>T:p.Y105F in the MYH9 exon, was confirmed by next generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. This mutation co-segregated with the phenotype in the pedigree. Patients in this family present bilateral symmetry and gradual and delayed high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. The age of onset was approximately 30 years old. Except for hearing loss, no lesions were seen in other organs, especially the blood system.

Conclusion: The identification and detection of a novel MYH9 mutation may be of great significance to provide the basis for gene function research and genetic consultation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06976-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Potential role of glutathione S-transferase P1 gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome in lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

World J Urol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Urology, Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, China.

Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene polymorphism and metabolic syndrome (MS) on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Methods: This study included 195 patients diagnosed with LUTS secondary to BPH as case group, divided into simple BPH group (S-BPH group) and combined with MS group (MS-BPH group). Control group included 200 healthy elderly men without LUTS. Use peripheral blood samples detected the GSTP1 gene polymorphism (Ile 105 Val A → G polymorphism) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Recorded age, GSTP1 gene polymorphism, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), prostate volume (PV), residual urine volume (RV), maximal urinary flowrate (Qmax), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to statistical analysis.

Results: Pairwise compared between control group, S-BPH group and MS-BPH, the PV (P < 0.001), PSA (P < 0.001), RV (P < 0.001), Qmax (P < 0.001), IPSS (P < 0.001), frequencies of GSTP1 gene (P < 0.05) were shown significant different, and MS-BPH group had larger PV, and more severe LUTS. In case group, variation genotypes (GSTP1 A/G + G/G) always had larger PV, higher PSA and IPSS, more RV and lower Qmax than homozygote (GSTP1 A/A) and the comparison were significant different (P < 0.05). Variation genotypes were positively correlated with PV (β = 0.092, P < 0.001), RV (β = 0.228, P = 0.004), IPSS (β = 0.274, P = 0.038), PSA (β = 1.243, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with Qmax (β = -0.362, P = 0.025).

Conclusion: In patients with BPH, GSTP1 variation genotypes and MS might be potential risk factors for faster progression of benign prostatic enlargement and LUTS, which might increase the surgical rate.

Trial Registration: ChiCTR-IPR-14005580.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03778-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Song variation of a native songbird in a modified habitat by invasive plant.

Integr Zool 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.

Habitat structure has been considered as an important factor affecting the acoustic evolution of birds, and bird songs are increasingly affected by artificial environmental variation. Invasive plants sometimes can dramatically alter native habitats, but the song variation of native songbirds migrating into invaded habitats has received little attention. The invasion of smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora in the coastal wetlands of eastern China has drastically altered the vegetation structure and some small passerines have begun to use invaded habitats to breed. In this study, we compared the song type prevalence and the song characteristics of male plain prinia Prinia inornata to identify differences in vocal behavior between native and invaded habitats. We also tested for differences in vocal behavior in relation to singing perch and wind speed variation between different habitats. The results indicated that males of plain prinia in invaded habitats sang shorter songs than those in native habitats and had a lower song diversity. The homogeneous vegetation structure and higher wind speed in invaded habitats likely leads to males changing the traditional perched singing style. The song variation may be related to the founder effect, the alteration of vegetation structure and microclimate in invaded habitats. This finding highlights the need for better understanding the behavioral evolution of native species in the process of adapting to the invaded habitat. In the future, experimental manipulation is needed to ascertain how the invasive plant drove these vocal behavior changes of native songbirds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12573DOI Listing
July 2021

The Lightest 2D Nanomaterial: Freestanding Ultrathin Li Nanosheets by In Situ Nanoscale Electrochemistry.

Small 2021 Aug 1;17(32):e2101641. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory, Dongguan, Guangdong, 523808, China.

As the lightest solid element and also the simplest metal, lithium (Li) is one of the best representations of quasi-free electron model in both bulk form and the reduced dimensions. Herein, the controlled growth of 2D ultrathin Li nanosheets is demonstrated by utilizing an in situ electrochemical platform built inside transmission electron microscope (TEM). The as-grown freestanding 2D Li nanosheets have strong structure-anisotropy with large lateral dimensions up to several hundreds of nanometers and thickness limited to just a few nanometers. The nanoscale dynamics of nanosheets growth are unraveled by in situ TEM imaging in real-time. Further density-functional theory calculations indicate that oxygen molecules play an important role in directing the anisotropic 2D growth of Li nanosheets through controlling the growth kinetics by their facet-specific capping. The plasmonic optical properties of the as-grown Li nanosheets are probed by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy equipped within TEM, and a broadband visible emission is observed that contains contributions of both in-plane and out-of-plane plasmon resonance modes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202101641DOI Listing
August 2021

Structural Design of Vascular Stents: A Review.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Zhongguancun South Street No. 5, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China.

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is currently the most conventional and effective method for clinically treating cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Stent implantation, as one of the ways of PCI in the treatment of coronary artery diseases, has become a hot spot in scientific research with more and more patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. However, vascular stent implanted into vessels of patients often causes complications such as In-Stent Restenosis (ISR). The vascular stent is one of the sophisticated medical devices, a reasonable structure of stent can effectively reduce the complications. In this paper, we introduce the evolution, performance evaluation standards, delivery and deployment, and manufacturing methods of vascular stents. Based on a large number of literature pieces, this paper focuses on designing structures of vascular stents in terms of "bridge (or link)" type, representative volume unit (RVE)/representative unit cell (RUC), and patient-specific stent. Finally, this paper gives an outlook on the future development of designing vascular stents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12070770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305143PMC
June 2021
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