Publications by authors named "Chen Liu"

1,728 Publications

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Comparative root transcriptome analysis of two soybean cultivars with different cadmium sensitivities reveals the underlying tolerant mechanisms.

Genome 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Shenyang Agricultural University, 98428, Shenyang, Liaoning, China;

The soybean can provide rich protein and fat and has great economic value worldwide. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal to organisms. It can accumulate in plants and be transmitted to the human body via food chain. Cd is a serious threat to soybean development, especially to root growth. Some soybean cultivars present tolerant symptoms under Cd stress; however, the potential mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we optimized RNA-seq to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Cd-sensitive (KUAI) and Cd-tolerant (KAIYU) soybean roots and compared the DEGs between KAIYU and KUAI. A total of 1,506 and 1,870 DEGs were identified in the roots of KUAI and KAIYU, respectively. Through Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and gene function analyses, we found that genes related to antioxidants and sequestration were responsible for Cd tolerance in KAIYU. In addition, overexpression of Glyma11g02661, which encodes a heavy metal transporting ATPase, significantly improved Cd tolerance in transgenic hairy roots. These results provide a preliminary understanding of the tolerance mechanisms in response to Cd stress in soybean root development and are of great importance in developing Cd-resistant soybean cultivars by using the identified DEGs through genetic modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/gen-2021-0048DOI Listing
October 2021

Genome-wide identification of expansin gene family in barley and drought-related expansins identification based on RNA-seq.

Genetica 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Institute of Horticulture, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310021, People's Republic of China.

Expansins are cell wall loosening proteins and involved in various developmental processes and abiotic stress. No systematic research, however, has been conducted on expansin genes family in barley. A total of 46 expansins were identified and could be classified into three subfamilies in Hordeum vulgare: HvEXPA, HvEXPB, and HvEXLA. All expansin proteins contained two conserved domains: DPBB_1 and Pollen_allerg_1. Expansins, in the same subfamily, share similar motifs composition and exon-intron organization; but greater differences were found among different subfamilies. Expansins are distributed unevenly on 7 barley chromosomes; tandem duplicates, including the collinear tandem array, contribute to the forming of the expansin genes family in barley with few whole-genome duplication events. Most HvEXPAs mainly expressed in embryonic and root tissues. HvEXPBs and HvEXLAs showed different expression patterns in 16 tissues during different developmental stages. In response to water deficit, expansins in wild barley were more sensitive than that in cultivated barley; the expressions of HvEXPB5 and HvEXPB6 were significantly induced in wild barley under drought stress. Our study provides a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the barley expansin genes in genome-wide level. This information will lay a solid foundation for further functional exploration of expansin genes in plant development and drought stress tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10709-021-00136-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Potassium transporter TRH1/KUP4 contributes to distinct auxin-mediated root system architecture responses.

Plant Physiol 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Biotechnology, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 118 55, Athens, Greece.

In plants, auxin transport and development are tightly coupled, just as hormone and growth responses are intimately linked in multicellular systems. Here we provide insights into uncoupling this tight control by specifically targeting the expression of TINY ROOT HAIR 1 (TRH1), a member of plant HAK/KUP/KT transporters that facilitate potassium uptake by co-transporting protons, in Arabidopsis root cell files. Use of this system pinpointed specific root developmental responses to acropetal versus basipetal auxin transport. Loss of TRH1 function shows tiny root hairs and defective root gravitropism, associated with auxin imbalance in the root apex. Cell file-specific expression of TRH1 in the central cylinder rescued trh1 root agravitropism, whereas positional TRH1 expression in peripheral cell layers, including epidermis and cortex, restored trh1 root hair defects. Applying a systems-level approach, the role of RAP2.11 and RSL5 transcription factors in root hair development was verified. Furthermore, ERF53 and WRKY51 transcription factors were overrepresented upon restoration of root gravitropism supporting involvement in gravitropic control. Auxin has a central role in shaping root system architecture by regulating multiple developmental processes. We reveal that TRH1 jointly modulates intracellular ionic gradients and cell-to-cell polar auxin transport to drive root epidermal cell differentiation and gravitropic response. Our results indicate the developmental importance of HAK/KUP/KT proton-coupled K+ transporters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiab472DOI Listing
October 2021

High ORAI3 expression correlates with good prognosis in human muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Gene 2021 Oct 7;808:145994. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Shandong University, Jinan City, Shandong Province, China.

The involvement of store-operated calcium channels (SOCCs) in tumor initiation and metastatic dissemination has been extensively studied, but how its member ORAI3 influences tumor progression is still elusive. The present study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of ORAI3 expression and examine the correlation between ORAI3 expression and immune cell infiltration within the tumor microenvironment (TME) in human muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We examined the expression profile of ORAI3 in MIBC using data from two databases; analyzed the correlation between ORAI3 expression and patient survival; explored cellular pathways related to ORAI3 expression by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA); and predicted potential drugs using Connectivity Map (CMap). ORAI3 was significantly lower expressed in tumor mass compared to normal samples in MIBC, with a higher level of methylation at the promoter region in tumor than in normal tissue, indicating that ORAI3 is suppressed during cancer progression. Survival analysis showed that higher expression of ORAI3 correlated with good prognosis in MIBC. GSEA demonstrated that ORAI3 expression inversely correlated with cell differentiation, development and gene silencing, with differential expression of genes involved in epidermal and keratinocyte differentiation pathways and inflammatory responses. RNA sequencing of an ORAI3-silenced human bladder cancer cell line (T24 cells) corroborated enhancement of pro-neoplastic pathways in absence of ORAI3. Western blottingMoreover, ORAI3 facilitated the recruitment of Th17 cells and natural killer cells, whereas hampered Th2 and macrophage infiltration. Our results revealed 4 molecules with potential to be beneficial as adjuvant drugs in MIBC treatment. We concluded that high ORAI3 expression correlates with increased survival in human MIBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145994DOI Listing
October 2021

Stoma-Output Reinfusion Device for Ileostomy Patients: A Feasibility Study.

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 Nov;64(11):e662-e668

Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000002233DOI Listing
November 2021

Coordination of root auxin with the fungus Piriformospora indica and bacterium Bacillus cereus enhances rice rhizosheath formation under soil drying.

ISME J 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Center for Plant Water-use and Nutrition Regulation and College of Life Sciences, Joint International Research Laboratory of Water and Nutrient in Crop, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Moderate soil drying (MSD) is a promising agricultural technique that can reduce water consumption and enhance rhizosheath formation promoting drought resistance in plants. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (P. indica) with high auxin production may be beneficial for rhizosheath formation. However, the integrated role of P. indica with native soil microbiome in rhizosheath formation is unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of P. indica and native bacteria on rice rhizosheath formation under MSD using high-throughput sequencing and rice mutants. Under MSD, rice rhizosheath formation was significantly increased by around 30% with P. indica inoculation. Auxins in rice roots and P. indica were responsible for the rhizosheath formation under MSD. Next, the abundance of the genus Bacillus, known as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, was enriched in the rice rhizosheath and root endosphere with P. indica inoculation under MSD. Moreover, the abundance of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) with high auxin production was further increased by P. indica inoculation. After inoculation with both P. indica and B. cereus, rhizosheath formation in wild-type or auxin efflux carrier OsPIN2 complemented line rice was higher than that of the ospin2 mutant. Together, our results suggest that the interaction of the endophytic fungus P. indica with the native soil bacterium B. cereus favors rice rhizosheath formation by auxins modulation in rice and microbes under MSD. This finding reveals a cooperative contribution of P. indica and native microbiota in rice rhizosheath formation under moderate soil drying, which is important for improving water use in agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-021-01133-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Nomogram to Predict the Survival of Chinese Patients with Alcohol-Related Liver Disease.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 27;2021:4073503. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Division 3, Department of Hepatology, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100015, China.

Objectives: Alcohol-related liver disease is an increasing public health burden in China, but there is a lack of models to predict its prognosis. This study established a nomogram for predicting the survival of Chinese patients with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD).

Methods: Hospitalized alcohol-related liver disease patients were retrospectively enrolled from 2015 to 2018 and followed up for 24 months to evaluate survival profiles. A total of 379 patients were divided into a training cohort ( = 265) and validation cohort ( = 114). Cox proportional hazard survival analysis identified survival factors of the patients in the training cohort. A nomogram was built and internally validated.

Results: The 3-month, 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month survival rates for the training cohort were 82.6%, 81.1%, 74.3%, and 64.5%, respectively. The Cox analysis showed relapse (=0.001), cirrhosis (=0.044), liver cancer ( < 0.001), and a model for end-stage liver diseases score of ≥21 (=0.041) as independent prognostic factors. A nomogram was built, which predicted the survival of patients in the training cohort with a concordance index of 0.749 and in the internal validation cohort with a concordance index of 0.756.

Conclusion: The long-term survival of Chinese alcohol-related liver disease patients was poor with a 24-month survival rate of 64.5%. Relapse, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and a model for end-stage liver disease score of ≥21 were independent risk factors for those patients. A nomogram was developed and internally validated for predicting the probability of their survival at different time points.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4073503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490064PMC
September 2021

Evaluation of Droplet Digital PCR Assay for the Diagnosis of Candidemia in Blood Samples.

Front Microbiol 2021 3;12:700008. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

The Laboratory of Medical Mycology, Jining No. 1 People's Hospital, Jining, China.

Numerous studies have shown that droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a promising tool for the diagnosis of pathogens, especially in samples with low concentrations of pathogenic DNA. An early diagnosis of candidemia is critical for the effective treatment of patients. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ddPCR assay for DNA detection both by mixing fungal cells with human blood and by analyzing blood samples from infected mice and patients with suspected candidemia. The results showed that ddPCR assay could detect a minimum of 4.5 DNA copies per reaction in blood samples. ddPCR showed higher sensitivity and specificity for DNA detection than traditional culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods and also exhibited significantly better positive and negative predictive values than the culture and qPCR methods that were commonly used in clinical practice. Hence, our study demonstrates that ddPCR assay is a promising method for the timely diagnosis of candidemia and could be useful for monitoring the treatment of candidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.700008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8480469PMC
September 2021

Adaptive Parameter Modulation of Deep Brain Stimulation Based on Improved Supervisory Algorithm.

Front Neurosci 2021 16;15:750806. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States.

Clinically deployed deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease operates in an open loop with fixed stimulation parameters, and this may result in high energy consumption and suboptimal therapy. The objective of this manuscript is to establish, through simulation in a computational model, a closed-loop control system that can automatically adjust the stimulation parameters to recover normal activity in model neurons. Exaggerated beta band activity is recognized as a hallmark of Parkinson's disease and beta band activity in model neurons of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) was used as the feedback signal to control DBS of the GPi. Traditional proportional controller and proportional-integral controller were not effective in eliminating the error between the target level of beta power and the beta power under Parkinsonian conditions. To overcome the difficulties in tuning the controller parameters and improve tracking performance in the case of changes in the plant, a supervisory control algorithm was implemented by introducing a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network to build the inverse model of the plant. Simulation results show the successful tracking of target beta power in the presence of changes in Parkinsonian state as well as during dynamic changes in the target level of beta power. Our computational study suggests the feasibility of the RBF network-driven supervisory control algorithm for real-time modulation of DBS parameters for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.750806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481598PMC
September 2021

The physical nature of the interaction in DMSO extraction separation of CH isomer/-decane systems.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Oct 13;23(39):22629-22639. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

School of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China.

In this study, the liquid-liquid equilibrium of DMSO-CH aromatic isomer--decane systems was measured at 30 °C under atmospheric pressure at first, followed by Othmer-Tobias equation data reliability verification and NRTL/UNIQUAC activity coefficient model correlation. Moreover, intermolecular interaction energies and molecular polarity indexes (MPI) were calculated to interpret the extraction results. Finally, a set of wave function analyses was accomplished to elaborate the physical nature of the interaction in the DMSO extraction process. These investigations show that: (1) intermolecular interaction energy and the MPI results corroborate the aromatic and alkane extraction distribution coefficients well. (2) The interactions between aromatics and DMSO are weak hydrogen bonding and van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The attractive part mainly involves dispersion (49.57-53.30%) and electrostatic (35.49-37.83%) effects. (3) The interactions between aromatics and -decane are vdW interactions, dominated by attractive dispersion (70.41-70.93%) and repulsive exchange effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp03128gDOI Listing
October 2021

Up-regulated DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 promotes differentiation of regulatory T cell to influence antiviral immunity in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

Life Sci 2021 Sep 28;285:119991. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology (Peking University), Beijing, China; Institute of Biological Sciences, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Aim: Elevated Treg is relevant to persistent HBV infection, and the regulatory mechanism of Treg levels remains unclear. E proteins are important transcriptional regulators and could be antagonized by inhibitors of DNA-binding (Id) 1-4. We aim to clarify the role of Ids during HBV infection.

Main Methods: Changes of Ids and their relationship with Treg were investigated in both HBV transfection model and hepatitis B patients. Significance of Ids was studied by in vitro Treg differentiation induction with Id inhibited or over-expressed. The role of inflammatory cytokines for Id was studied by co-culture. RNA-Seq was conducted to explore the differentially expressed genes in Id-overexpressed CD4 T cells upon Treg differentiation induction conditions.

Key Findings: Id-overexpressed mice attenuated virus clearance in HBV transfection model. In the HBV transfection mouse model, Tregs were up-regulated, with Id3 increased in Treg as well. Clinically, circulating Tregs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were elevated, and elevated Id3 transcriptional levels were positively correlated with Tregs. IL-1β could up-regulate Id3 in Treg cells induced in vitro. RNA-Seq revealed that increased Id could cause a series of signaling pathway changes during Treg differentiation.

Significance: Id3 is elevated during HBV infection to ease Treg differentiation, and the antiviral immunity is influenced that make the infection to develop into chronic state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119991DOI Listing
September 2021

Mn(II)-directed dual-photosensitizers co-assemblies for multimodal imaging-guided self-enhanced phototherapy.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Oct 31;129:112351. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Innovative Drug Target Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China. Electronic address:

Phototherapy has attracted increasing attention in cancer therapy owing to its non-invasive nature, high spatiotemporal selectivity, and negligible side effects. However, a single photosensitizer often exhibits poor photothermal conversion efficiency or insufficient reactive oxygen species (ROS) productivity. Even worse, the ROS can be consumed by tumor overexpressed reductive glutathione, resulting in severely compromised phototherapy. In this paper, we prepared a Mn-coordination driven dual-photosensitizers co-assemblies (IMCP) for imaging-guided self-enhanced PDT/PTT. Specifically, a photothermal agent indocyanine green (ICG), a photodynamic agent chlorin e6 (Ce6), and a transition metal ion (Mn) were chosen to synthesize the nanodrug via coordination-driven co-assembly. The as-prepared IMCP exhibited extremely high photosensitizer payload (96 wt%), excellent physiological stability, and outstanding tumor accumulation. Moreover, the existence of Mn not only assists the nanostructure formation but also could competitively coordinate with GSH to minimize the unnecessary ROS consumption, thus improving PDT efficiency. Meanwhile, benefiting from the intrinsic fluorescence, photoacoustic imaging ability of photosensitizers, and the MRI contrast potential of Mn, IMCP exhibited superior imaging potential for guiding tumor phototherapy. By changing the excitation wavelength suitably, IMCP could realize the switch between PTT and PDT. In short, the dual-PSs co-assembled nanotheranostic has great potential for multi-modal imaging guided phototherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112351DOI Listing
October 2021

Prediction score project for the incidence of long-term cerebrovascular events among patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a retrospective study from the real world.

Pol Arch Intern Med 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Introduction: Although the long-term outcome event rates are low, stroke is associated with high short- and long-term mortality and adversely affects the patient's quality of life after they undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Objectives: We sought to develop and validate a novel marker-based risk score to improve stroke prognostication in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) undergoing primary PCI.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to internally validate a new biomarker-based risk score for the incidence of stroke in 4103 patients with MI undergoing primary PCI who were randomized into a derivation and a validation cohort.

Results: Significant predictors of the incidence of cerebrovascular events were age, history of atrial fibrillation, history of hypertension, and the target lesion involving branches. The models had good calibration and discrimination in derivation and internal validation. The areas under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for predicting cerebrovascular events were 0.826 (sensitivity: 84.78%, specificity: 65.18%) and 0.846 (sensitivity: 71.43%, specificity: 90.29%) for the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively, at the 5-year follow-up. We calculated the total risk score for each participant, and divided them into low-risk and high-risk groups according to the median of the total risk score. We conducted a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the cohort, and it displayed significant differences in the total cohort (P <0.001) and derivation cohorts (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: The prediction model was internally validated and calibrated in large cohorts of patients with MI receiving primary PCI therapy. This risk score allows re-evaluation of the risk of cerebrovascular events after patients have undergone primary PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20452/pamw.16088DOI Listing
September 2021

Quantifying Voice Characteristics for Detecting Autism.

Front Psychol 2021 7;12:665096. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Departments of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States.

The presence of prosodic anomalies in autistic is recognized by experienced clinicians but their quantitative analysis is a cumbersome task beyond the scope of typical pen and pencil assessment. This paper proposes an automatic approach allowing to tease apart various aspects of prosodic abnormalities and to translate them into fine-grained, automated, and quantifiable measurements. Using a harmonic model (HM) of voiced signal, we isolated the harmonic content of speech and computed a set of quantities related to harmonic content. Employing these measures, along with standard speech measures such as loudness, we successfully trained machine learning models for distinguishing individuals with autism from those with typical development (TD). We evaluated our models empirically on a task of detecting autism on a sample of 118 youth (90 diagnosed with autism and 28 controls; mean age: 10.9 years) and demonstrated that these models perform significantly better than a chance model. Voice and speech analyses could be incorporated as novel outcome measures for treatment research and used for early detection of autism in preverbal infants or toddlers at risk of autism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.665096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8452864PMC
September 2021

Culprit-Plaque Morphology and Residual SYNTAX Score Predict Cardiovascular Risk in Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.

Aims: Culprit-plaque morphology [plaque rupture (PR) and plaque erosion (PE)] and high-risk plaques (HRP) identified by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and residual SYNTAX score (rSS) have been reported to influence clinical outcomes. Thus, in this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic implication of culprit-plaque morphology and rSS for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: Based on plaque morphology and rSS, 274 STEMI patients were divided into 4 groups: PE/low-rSS (n=61), PE/high-rSS (n=58), PR/low-rSS (n=55), and PR/high-rSS (n=100). According to HRP and rSS, patients were stratified to non-HRP/low-rSS (n=97), non-HRP/high-rSS (n=109), HRP/low-rSS (n=19), and HRP/high-rSS (n=49). MACE was defined as the composite of all-cause death, recurrence of myocardial infarction, stroke, and unplanned revascularization of any coronary artery.

Results: During the follow-up of 2.2 years, 47 (17.2%) MACE were observed. Patients with PR/high-rSS and HRP/high-rSS presented lower survival probability on revascularization and MACE. In fully adjusted analyses, PR/high-rSS group presented higher MACE risk than PE/low-rSS (HR: 4.80, 95% CI: 1.43-16.11, P=0.025). Patients with non-HRP/high-rSS (HR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.01-8.38, P=0.049) and HRP/high-rSS (HR: 8.67, 95% CI: 2.67-28.21, P<0.001) presented higher risk of cardiac events than non-HRP/low-rSS. Adding rSS and HRP to the risk prediction model increased the C-statistic to 0.797 (95% CI: 0.737-0.857), with ΔC-statistic of 0.066 (P=0.002) and the NRI (46.0%, 95% CI: 20.5-56.8%, P<0.001) and IDI (8.7%, 95% CI: 3.6-18.2%, P<0.001).

Conclusion: High-risk plaques in combination with rSS enhanced the predictive ability for MACE, indicating culprit-plaque features and residual atherosclerosis burden should be taken into account in risk stratification of STEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.63103DOI Listing
September 2021

Generation and characterization of a Myh6-driven Cre knockin mouse line.

Transgenic Res 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 393 Middle Huaxia Road, Pudong, Shanghai, 201210, China.

Gene deletion by the Cre-Loxp system has facilitated functional studies of many critical genes in mice, offering important insights and allowing deeper understanding on the mechanisms underlying organ development and diseases, such as heart development and diseases. In this study, we generated a Myh6-Cre knockin mouse model by inserting the IRES-Cre-wpre-polyA cassette between the translational stop codon and the 3' untranslated region of the endogenous Myh6 gene. By crossing knockin mice with the Rosa26 reporter lines, we found that Myh6-Cre targeted cardiomyocytes at the embryonic and postnatal stages. In addition, we were able to inactivate the desmosome gene Desmoplakin (Dsp) by breeding Myh6-Cre mice with a conditional Dsp knockout mouse line, which resulted in embryonic lethality during the mid-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the new Myh6-Cre mouse line can serve as a robust tool to dissect the distinct roles of genes involved in heart development and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11248-021-00285-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Circ_0022382 ameliorated intervertebral disc degeneration by regulating TGF-β3 expression through sponge adsorption of miR-4726-5p.

Bone 2021 Sep 16;154:116185. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College Wuhu, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) participate in the progression of many diseases, but knowledge on the role of circRNAs in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is limited. In this study, we discovered the characteristics of a new circRNA (circ_0022382) in human endplate chondrocytes. Currently, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed that the relative expression level of circ_0022382 was significantly lower under intermittent cyclic tension stimulation than in the control group. circ_0022382, miR-4726-5p and Transforming growth factor 3 (TGF-β3) were evaluated by RT-qPCR, Western Blot and immunofluorescence assay. Additionally, the role and mechanism of circ_0022382 in vivo were also consistent in the rat model. Furthermore, Intermittent cyclic mechanical tension can cause degeneration of endplate chondrocytes. The tension-sensitive circRNA_0022382 was decreased, and we found that circRNA_0022382 promoted morphology of endplate chondrocytes by sponge-binding miR-4726-5p down-regulation of target gene the TGF-β3 expression, thereby alleviating IDD. In a rat model of acupuncture, intervertebral disc injection of circ_0022382 relieved the progression of IDD in vivo. In conclusion, the circ_0022382/miR-4726-5p/TGF-β3 axis plays a key role in the anabolism and catabolism of the endplate chondrocyte extracellular matrix (ECM). It is suggested that circ_0022382 may provide a new approach for the prevention and treatment of IDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116185DOI Listing
September 2021

Reduced Hippocampal GABA+ Is Associated With Poorer Episodic Memory in Healthy Older Women: A Pilot Study.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 26;15:695416. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Leonard Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

: The current pilot study was designed to examine the association between hippocampal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration and episodic memory in older individuals, as well as the impact of two major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD)-female sex and Apolipoprotein ε4 ( ε4) genotype-on this relationship. : Twenty healthy, community-dwelling individuals aged 50-71 (11 women) took part in the study. Episodic memory was evaluated using a Directed Forgetting task, and GABA+ was measured in the right hippocampus using a Mescher-Garwood point-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) sequence. Multiple linear regression models were used to quantify the relationship between episodic memory, GABA+, , and sex, controlling for age and education. : While GABA+ did not interact with ɛ4 carrier status to influence episodic memory ( = 0.757), the relationship between GABA+ and episodic memory was moderated by sex: lower GABA+ predicted worse memory in women such that, for each standard deviation decrease in GABA+ concentration, memory scores were reduced by 11% ( = 0.001). : This pilot study suggests that sex, but not ɛ4 genotype, moderates the relationship between hippocampal GABA+ and episodic memory, such that women with lower GABA+ concentration show worse memory performance. These findings, which must be interpreted with caution given the small sample size, may serve as a starting point for larger studies using multimodal neuroimaging to understand the contributions of GABA metabolism to age-related memory decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2021.695416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427754PMC
August 2021

Plasma Pentraxin-3 Combined with Plaque Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Risk in ST-Segment Elevated Myocardial Infarction: An Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

J Inflamm Res 2021 2;14:4409-4419. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shenzhen, People's Republic of China.

Background: Culprit‑plaque morphology [plaque rupture (PR) and plaque erosion (PE) identified by optical coherence tomography (OCT)] and biomarker of vascular inflammation, pentraxin-3 (PTX3), have been reported to influence clinical outcomes in coronary diseases. We aimed to investigate the prognostic implication of culprit-plaque morphology and plasma PTX3 for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: A total of 236 patients were enrolled and divided into four groups: PE/low-PTX3 (n = 57), PE/high-PTX3 (n = 47), PR/low-PTX3 (n = 78) and PR/high-PTX3 (n = 54). MACE was defined as the composite of all-cause death, recurrence of myocardial infarction, stroke and unplanned revascularization of any coronary artery.

Results: During the follow-up of 1.9 years, a total of 40 (16.9%) MACE were observed: 5.3% (3 patients) among patients with PE/low-PTX3, 21.3% (10 patients) among patients with PE/high-PTX3, 17.9% (14 patients) among patients with PR/low-PTX3 and 24.1% (13 patients) among patients with PR/high-PTX3 (Log rank P = 0.013). In fully adjusted analyses, patients with high-PTX3 were associated with higher MACE risk (HR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.26-4.57, P = 0.008). Patients with PR/high-PTX3 (HR: 5.63, 95% CI: 1.57-20.16, P = 0.008) and PE/high-PTX3 (HR: 5.44, 95% CI: 1.46-20.29, P = 0.012) presented higher MACE risk than those with PE/low-PTX3. Adding plasma PTX3 levels and PR to the risk prediction model increased the area under curves to 76.1% (95% CI: 67.6-84.5%) and the NRI (28.1%, 95% CI: 0.3-48.3%, P=0.040) and IDI (2.4%, 95% CI: 0.1-12.9%, P = 0.040).

Conclusion: Patients with PR/high-PTX3 and PE/high-PTX3 presented a poorer prognosis than those with PE/low-PTX3. Combining the culprit-plaque morphology with PTX3 enhanced the predictive ability for MACE and contributed to better identification of high-risk patients.

Trial Registration Number: This study is registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT03593928.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S330600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421556PMC
September 2021

Discovery of Novel Pterostilbene-Based Derivatives as Potent and Orally Active NLRP3 Inflammasome Inhibitors with Inflammatory Activity for Colitis.

J Med Chem 2021 Sep 10;64(18):13633-13657. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

School of Pharmacy, Inflammation and Immune Mediated Diseases Laboratory of Anhui Province, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, P.R. China.

Studies have shown that the abnormal activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in a variety of inflammatory-based diseases. In this study, a high content screening model targeting the activation of inflammasome was first established and pterostilbene was discovered as the active scaffold. Based on this finding, total of 50 pterostilbene derivatives were then designed and synthesized. Among them, compound was found to be the best one for inhibiting cell pyroptosis [inhibitory rate (IR) = 73.09% at 10 μM], showing low toxicity and high efficiency [against interleukin-1β (IL-1β): half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) = 0.56 μM]. Further studies showed that compound affected the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasomes by targeting NLRP3. The biological activity showed that this compound significantly alleviated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In general, our study provided a novel lead compound directly targeting the NLRP3 protein, which is worthy of further research and structural optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c01007DOI Listing
September 2021

Recent Advanced Metabolic and Genetic Engineering of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Pathways.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 3;22(17). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Guangdong Technology Research Center for Marine Algal Bioengineering, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Epigenetics, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

The MYB transcription factors (TFs) are evolving as critical role in the regulation of the phenylpropanoid and tanshinones biosynthetic pathway. MYB TFs relate to a very important gene family, which are involved in the regulation of primary and secondary metabolisms, terpenoids, bioactive compounds, plant defense against various stresses and cell morphology. R2R3 MYB TFs contained a conserved N-terminal domain, but the domain at C-terminal sorts them different regarding their structures and functions. MYB TFs suppressors generally possess particular repressive motifs, such as pdLNLD/ELxiG/S and TLLLFR, which contribute to their suppression role through a diversity of complex regulatory mechanisms. A novel flower specific "NF/YWSV/MEDF/LW" conserved motif has a great potential to understand the mechanisms of flower development. In the current review, we summarize recent advanced progress of MYB TFs on transcription regulation, posttranscriptional, microRNA, conserved motif and propose directions to future prospective research. We further suggest there should be more focus on the investigation for the role of MYB TFs in microalgae, which has great potential for heterologous protein expression system for future perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8431357PMC
September 2021

Pulmonary AngII promotes LPS-induced lung inflammation by regulating microRNA-143.

Cytotechnology 2021 Sep 3:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, 157 Jinbi Road, Xishan District, Kunming, 650032 Yunnan China.

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a terminal carboxypeptidase, which cleaves single terminal residues from several bioactive peptides such as Angiotensin II (AngII). Many investigations indicated that ACE2 functions in angiotensin system and plays a crucial role in inflammatory lung diseases. However, the mechanism behind the involvement of ACE2 in inflammatory lung disease has not been fully elucidated. In this study, BEAS-2B cells were treated with gradient concentration of AngII and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammatory condition. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to detect the level of ACE2 and miR-143-3p. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were performed to measure the expression of related proteins. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and cell viability were respectively measured by ELISA and CCK-8 kits. And ACE2 activity was detected by corresponding commercial kits. Bioinformatics methods were employed to predict the potential microRNA targeting ACE2, which was then confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay. The results showed that ACE2 expression and activity were time-dependently decreased in LPS group for the first 12 h, after which this tendency was reversed. AngII addition enhanced these effects, compared with LPS group. Additionally, the lowest ACE2 activity level was found in both LPS and AngII + LPS groups at 6 h. The number of nuclei and the ACE2 expression were decreased in LPS groups at 6 h and further reduced by addition of AngII, detected by immunofluorescence. Moreover, ACE2 was validated to be a direct target of miR-143-3p. Pretreatment of AngII and LPS regulated the activity of ACE2, increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and cell apoptosis and regulated the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 in BEAS-2B cells, which could be reversed by transfecting miR-143-3p inhibitor. The results collectively suggest that AngII promotes LPS-induced inflammation by regulating miR-143-3p in BEAS-2B cells. Therefore, miR-143-3p is considered a potential molecular target for the treatment of lung inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10616-021-00493-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414951PMC
September 2021

Boosting the zinc ion storage capacity and cycling stability of interlayer-expanded vanadium disulfide through in-situ electrochemical oxidation strategy.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 1;607(Pt 1):68-75. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Guangdong Research Center for Interfacial Engineering of Functional Materials, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, PR China. Electronic address:

Metallic vanadium dichalcogenides with high conductivity and large layer spacing are fantastically potential to be cathode candidates for aqueous zinc ion batteries. However, simply reliance on the reversible Zn intercalation/deintercalation process in the layer structure of vanadium dichalcogenides makes it suffer from low specific capacity and limited cycling number. Here we report a facile in-situ electrochemical oxidation strategy to boost the zinc ion storage capacity of interlayer-expanded vanadium disulfide (VS·NH) hollow spheres with satisfying cyclic stability. The hydrated vanadium oxide (VO·nHO) generated from oxidized VS·NH, are endowed with reduced nanosheet size and subordinated porous structure, which provides abundant accessible sites and accelerates the zinc ion diffusion process. As a result, the VS·NH derived cathode after the electrochemical oxidation process delivers a high reversible capacity of 392 mA h g at 0.1 A g and long cyclic stability (110% capacity retention at 3 A g after 2000 cycles). The efficient oxidation process of VS·NH cathode and the storage mechanism in the subsequent cycles are schematically investigated. This work not only reveals the zinc ion storage mechanism of the oxidized VS·NH but also sheds light on advanced design for high-performance Zn ion cathode materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.194DOI Listing
September 2021

Combination of the Distance From Tumor Edge to Subventricular Zone and IDH Mutation Predicts Prognosis of Patients With Glioma.

Front Oncol 2021 19;11:693693. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Both subventricular zone (SVZ) contact and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation have been reported to be related to the outcome of glioma, respectively. However, far too little attention has been paid to the role of tumor edge-SVZ distance in the outcome of glioma. We aim to assess the value of tumor-SVZ distance, as well as combined tumor-SVZ distance and IDH status, in predicting the outcome of gliomas (WHO grade II-IV). Here, the MR images and clinical data from 146 patients were included in the current study. The relationship between survival and the tumor-SVZ distance as well as survival and combination of tumor-SVZ distance and IDH status were determined univariate and multivariate analyses. In univariate analysis of tumor-SVZ distance, the patients were divided into three types (SVZ involvement, tumor-SVZ distance from 0 to 10 mm, and tumor-SVZ distance >10 mm). The results showed that the OS (p = 0.02) and PFS (p = 0.002) for the patients had a positive correlation with the tumor-SVZ distance. In addition, simple linear correlation found a significant relationship between the two parameters (OS and PFS) and tumor-SVZ distance in patients with non-SVZ-contacting glioma. Combination analysis of the tumor-SVZ distance and IDH status showed that IDH1 mutation and SVZ non-involvement enable favorable outcomes, whereas IDH1 wild type with SVZ involvement indicates a significantly worse prognosis in all patients. Moreover, in patients with non-SVZ-contacting glioma, IDH1 mutation concurrent with tumor-SVZ distance >10 mm has better OS and PFS. IDH1 wild type and tumor-SVZ distance from 0 to 10 mm suggest poorer OS and PFS. Multivariate analysis showed WHO grade IV, SVZ involvement, tumor-SVZ distance from 0 to 10 mm, IDH1 mutation, gross total resection, and chemotherapy serve as independent predictors of OS. WHO grade IV, SVZ involvement, tumor-SVZ distance from 0 to 10 mm, IDH1 mutation, and chemotherapy serve as independent predictors of PFS of patients with glioma. In conclusion, tumor-SVZ distance and IDH1 mutation status are the determinants affecting patient outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.693693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417404PMC
August 2021

A Data Driven Experimental System for Individualized Brain Stimulation Design and Validation.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2021 14;29:1848-1857. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective clinical treatment for epilepsy. However, the individualized setting and adaptive adjustment of DBS parameters are still facing great challenges. This paper investigates a data-driven hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experimental system for closed-loop brain stimulation system individualized design and validation. The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is utilized to estimate critical parameters of neural mass model (NMM) from the electroencephalogram recordings to reconstruct individual neural activity. Based on the reconstructed NMM, we build a digital signal processor (DSP) based virtual brain platform with real time scale and biological signal level scale. Then, the corresponding hardware parts of signal amplification detection and closed-loop controller are designed to form the HIL experimental system. Based on the designed experimental system, the proportional-integral controller for different individual NMM is designed and validated, which proves the effectiveness of the experimental system. This experimental system provides a platform to explore neural activity under brain stimulation and the effects of various closed-loop stimulation paradigms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2021.3110275DOI Listing
September 2021

LATS2 Deletion Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Biogenesis.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 17;2021:1058872. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Cardiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Reperfusion therapy is the most effective treatment for acute myocardial infarction, but it can damage cardiomyocytes through a mechanism known as myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI). In this study, we investigated whether the large tumor suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2) contributes to the development of myocardial MIRI by disrupting mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data demonstrate that cardiomyocyte viability was reduced and apoptosis was increased in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. However, suppression of LATS2 by shRNA sustained cardiomyocyte viability by maintaining mitochondrial function. Compared to H/R-treated control cardiomyocytes, cardiomyocytes transfected with LATS2 shRNA exhibited increased mitochondrial respiration, improved mitochondrial ATP generation, and more stable mitochondrial membrane potential. LATS2 suppression increased cardiomyocyte viability and mitochondrial biogenesis in a manner dependent on PGC1, a key regulator of mitochondrial metabolism. These results identify LATS2 as a new inducer of mitochondrial damage and myocardial MIRI and suggest that approaches targeting LATS2 or mitochondrial biogenesis may be beneficial in the clinical management of cardiac MIRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1058872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8390173PMC
September 2021

Detecting Abnormal Neuronal Activity in a Chronic Migraine Model by Egr1-EGFP Transgenic Mice.

Front Neurosci 2021 12;15:705938. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Neurology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Chronic migraine (CM) is a highly disabling neurological disorder characterized by recurrent headache accompanied by a variety of sensory and/or emotional symptoms. However, the mechanisms of migraine onset and its chronicity have not been elucidated. The present study was designed to search for brain regions and neurons that were abnormally activated by CM and might be related to its pathogenesis and different concomitant symptoms. CM models were established here by repeated intraperitoneal injection of nitroglycerin (NTG) every other day for 9 days to early growth response gene 1 (Egr1)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice, which allowed monitoring of neuronal activities in the whole brain. CM-related behaviors were recorded through head grooming test and light aversion assay. Elevation of Egr1 expression signals was detected in trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC), primary somatosensory cortex (SSp), lateral amygdala nucleus (LA), primary visual area (VISp), and temporal association areas (TEa) 2 h after the last injection of NTG by immunofluorescence and digital slice scanning technology. Meanwhile, no change of Egr1 expression was found in auditory areas (AUD), CA1, ectorhinal area (ECT), piriform (PIR), and anterior cingulate area (ACC). Furthermore, with the strongest support by evidence-based medicine among the current limited oral treatments of CM, topiramate was administrated every day for 11 days from 2 days before the first NTG injection. The results showed that topiramate partially improved the photophobia behavior of CM models in the short-term with gradually weakened efficacy as the course of the disease prolonged. Meanwhile, NTG-induced increase in Egr1 expression was completely reversed in TNC, SSp, and VISp and partially reduced in LA and TEa by topiramate at the same time point mentioned above. In conclusion, the current results suggested that the abnormal hyperactivities in TNC, SSp and VISp were associated with the pathogenesis of CM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.705938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387874PMC
August 2021

Ga-labeled ODAP-Urea-based PSMA agents in prostate cancer: first-in-human imaging of an optimized agent.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 100034, China.

Purpose: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising target for prostate cancer imaging and therapy. The most commonly used scaffold incorporates a glutamate-urea (Glu-Urea) function. We recently developed oxalyldiaminopropionic acid-urea (ODAP-Urea) PSMA ligands in an attempt to improve upon the pharmacokinetic properties of existing agents. Here, we report the synthesis of an optimized Ga-labeled ODAP-Urea-based ligand, [Ga]Ga-P137, and first-in-human results.

Methods: Twelve ODAP-Urea-based ligands were synthesized and radiolabeled with Ga in high radiochemical yield and purity. Their PSMA inhibitory capacities were determined using the NAALADase assay. Radioligands were evaluated in mice-bearing 22Rv1 prostate tumors by microPET. Lead compound [Ga]Ga-P137 was evaluated for stability, cell uptake, and biodistribution. PET imaging of [Ga]Ga-P137 was performed in three patients head-to-head compared to [Ga]Ga-PSMA-617.

Results: Ligands were synthesized in 11.1-44.4% yield and > 95% purity. They have high affinity to PSMA (K of 0.13 to 5.47 nM). [Ga]Ga-P137 was stable and hydrophilic. [Ga]Ga-P137 showed higher uptake than [Ga]Ga-PSMA-617 in tumor-bearing mice at 6.43 ± 0.98%IA/g vs 3.41 ± 1.31%IA/g at 60-min post-injection. In human studies, the normal organ biodistribution of [Ga]Ga-P137 was grossly equivalent to that of [Ga]Ga-PSMA-617 except for within the urinary tract, in which [Ga]Ga-P137 demonstrated lower uptake.

Conclusion: The optimized ODAP-Urea-based ligand [Ga]Ga-P137 can image PSMA in xenograft models and humans, with lower bladder accumulation to the Glu-Urea-based agent, [Ga]Ga-PSMA-617, in a preliminary, first-in-human study.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04560725, Registered 23 September 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04560725.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-021-05486-xDOI Listing
August 2021

AgentDress: Realtime Clothing Synthesis for Virtual Agents using Plausible Deformations.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Aug 27;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

We present a CPU-based real-time cloth animation method for dressing virtual humans of various shapes and poses. Our approach formulates the clothing deformation as a high-dimensional function of body shape parameters and pose parameters. In order to accelerate the computation, our formulation factorizes the clothing deformation into two independent components: the deformation introduced by body pose variation (Clothing Pose Model) and the deformation from body shape variation (Clothing Shape Model). Furthermore, we sample and cluster the poses spanning the entire pose space and use those clusters to efficiently calculate the anchoring points. We also introduce a sensitivity-based distance measurement to both find nearby anchoring points and evaluate their contributions to the final animation. Given a query shape and pose of the virtual agent, we synthesize the resulting clothing deformation by blending the Taylor expansion results of nearby anchoring points. Compared to previous methods, our approach is general and able to add the shape dimension to any clothing pose model. Furthermore, we can animate clothing represented with tens of thousands of vertices at 50+ FPS on a CPU. We also conduct a user evaluation and show that our method can improve a user's perception of dressed virtual agents in an immersive virtual environment (IVE) compared to a realtime linear blend skinning method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2021.3106429DOI Listing
August 2021
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