Publications by authors named "Chen Liang"

3,735 Publications

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Cytotoxicity and changes in gene expression under aluminium potassium sulfate on Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu province, China.

Aluminium, a substance found in large amounts in nature, has been widely used for various purposes, especially food additives. The effects of long-term and excessive exposure to aluminium on human health are receiving increasing attention. The extensive human use of aluminium food additives can also cause aluminium to enter the ecosystem, where it has significant impacts on insects. This study explored the cytotoxicity and changes in gene expression under aluminium potassium sulfate toward Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells. We found that high concentrations of aluminium resulted in cell enlargement and cell membrane breakage, decreased cell vitality, and apoptosis. Through RNA-Seq transcriptomics, we found that aluminium ions may inhibit the expression of regulatory-associated protein of mTOR, tdIns-dependent protein kinase-1, and small heat shock proteins (heat shock 70 kDa protein and crystallin alpha B), leading to changes in mTOR-related pathways (such as the longevity regulation pathway and PI3K-Akt signalling pathway), and promoting cell apoptosis. On the other hand, aluminium ions lead to the overexpression of GSH S-transferase, prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase and pyrimidodiazepine synthase, and induce intracellular oxidative damage, which ultimately affects cell growth and apoptosis through a series of cascade reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-021-02478-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Single-Cell Transcriptome Sequencing and Proteomics Reveal Neonatal Ileum Dynamic Developmental Potentials.

mSystems 2021 Sep 21:e0072521. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The neonatal period is a crucial time during development of the mammalian small intestine. Moreover, neonatal development and maturation of the small intestine are exceptionally important for early growth, successful weaning, and postweaning growth and development, in order to achieve species-specific milestones. Although several publications recently characterized intestinal epithelial cell diversity at the single-cell level, it remains unclear how differentiation and molecular interactions take place between types and subtypes of epithelial cells during the neonatal period. A single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) survey of 40,186 ileal epithelial cells and proteomics analysis of ileal samples at 6 time points in the swine neonatal period were performed. The results revealed previously unknown developmental changes: specific increases in undifferentiated cells, unique enterocyte differentiation, and time-dependent reduction in secretory cells. Moreover, we observed specific transcriptional factors, ligand-receptor pairs, G protein-coupled receptors, transforming growth factor β, bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways, and gut mucosal microbiota playing vital roles in ileal development during the neonatal window. This work offers new comprehensive information regarding ileal development throughout the neonatal period. Reference to this data set may assist in the creation of novel interventions for inflammation-, metabolism-, and proliferation-related gut pathologies. We found previously unknown neonatal ileum developmental potentials: specific increases in undifferentiated cells, unique enterocyte differentiation, and time dependent reduction in secretory cells. Specific transcriptional factors (TFs), ligand-receptor pairs, G protein-coupled receptors, transforming growth factor β, bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways, and the gut mucosal microbiota are involved in this process. Our results may assist in the creation of novel interventions for inflammation-, metabolism-, and proliferation-related gut pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00725-21DOI Listing
September 2021

Rational integration of defense and repair synergy on PEEK osteoimplants via biomimetic peptide clicking strategy.

Bioact Mater 2022 Feb 10;8:309-324. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006, Jiangsu, China.

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been widely used as orthopedic and dental materials due to excellent mechanical and physicochemical tolerance. However, its biological inertness, poor osteoinduction, and weak antibacterial activity make the clinical applications in a dilemma. Inspired by the mussel adhesion mechanism, here we reported a biomimetic surface strategy for rational integration and optimization of anti-infectivity and osteo-inductivity onto PEEK surfaces using a mussel foot proteins (Mfps)-mimic peptide with clickable azido terminal. The peptide enables mussel-like adhesion on PEEK biomaterial surfaces, leaving azido groups for the further steps of biofunctionalizations. In this study, antimicrobial peptide (AMP) and osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were bioorthogonally clicked on the azido-modified PEEK biomaterials to obtain a dual-effect of host defense and tissue repair. Since bioorthogonal clicking allows precise collocation between AMP and OGP through changing their feeding molar ratios, an optimal PEEK surface was finally obtained in this research, which could long-term inhibit bacterial growth, stabilize bone homeostasis and facilitate interfacial bone regeneration. In a word, this upgraded mussel surface strategy proposed in this study is promising for the surface bioengineering of inert medical implants, in particular, achieving rational integration of multiple biofunctions to match clinical requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427090PMC
February 2022

Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Benzo[cd]indol-2(1H)-ones Derivatives as a Lysosome-Targeted Anti-metastatic Agent.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:733589. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine and Immuno-Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

Lysosomes have become a hot topic in tumor therapy; targeting the lysosome is therefore a promising strategy in cancer therapy. Based on our previous lysosome-targeted bio-imaging agent, homospermine-benzo[cd]indol-2(1H)-one conjugate (HBC), we further developed three novel series of polyamine- benzo[cd]indol-2(1H)-one conjugates. Among them, compound 15f showed potent inhibitory activity in hepatocellular carcinoma migration both and . Our study results showed that compound 15f entered the cancer cells the polyamine transporter localized in the lysosomes and caused autophagy and apoptosis. The mechanism of action revealed that the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis induced by 15f was mutually reinforcing patterns. Besides, 15f also targeted lysosomes and exhibited stronger green fluorescence than HBC, which indicated its potential as an imaging agent. To summarize, compound 15f could be used as a valuable dual-functional lead compound for future development against liver-cancer metastasis and lysosome imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.733589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446683PMC
August 2021

Molecular photoacoustic imaging for early diagnosis and treatment monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis in a mouse model.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(8):8873-8884. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University Wenzhou 325000, P. R. China.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a progressive inflammatory joint disease. Early diagnosis is critical for timely therapeutic intervention. However, it lacks effective diagnostic methods capable of detecting disease progression in its early stage and evaluating treatment efficacy in clinics. Photoacoustic (PA) molecular imaging is a novel imaging modality that can detect in the early stage of disease and continuously monitor its progression. In this study, Evans blue (EB) was used as a PA contrast agent to detect the angiogenesis and microcirculation dysfunction in RA joint. In collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model, a distinct increase of PA signal was detected early at 2 weeks, with significant higher PA signal intensities from the RA joints compared to the normal joints. More importantly, we detected an increasing trend of PA signal intensity week by week post CIA induction, demonstrating the potential of EB-enhanced PA imaging in monitoring the development of RA. However, joint damage was silent in the X-ray at 2 weeks post CIA induction, which suggested the superiority of PA imaging in RA early detection. In addition, striking decrease of PA signal intensities in the RA joints was observed after administration with etanercept compared with the untreated RA joints. The signal changes exhibited by PA imaging were confirmed by clinical observation and histological examinations. This study demonstrated the promising use of EB-enhanced PA imaging for the early diagnosis and its feasibility for RA treatment monitoring.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430181PMC
August 2021

Atomically Dispersed High-Density Al-N Sites in Porous Carbon for Efficient Photodriven CO Cycloaddition.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 18:e2103186. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201, P. R. China.

Highly active catalysts that can directly utilize renewable energy (e.g., solar energy) are desirable for CO value-added processes. Herein, aiming at improving the efficiency of photodriven CO cycloaddition reactions, a catalyst composed of porous carbon nanosheets enriched with a high loading of atomically dispersed Al atoms (≈14.4 wt%, corresponding to an atomic percent of ≈7.3%) coordinated with N (AlN motif, Al-N-C catalyst) via a versatile molecule-confined pyrolysis strategy is reported. The performance of the Al-N-C catalyst for catalytic CO cycloaddition under light irradiation (≈95% conversion, reaction rate = 3.52 mmol g h ) is significantly superior to that obtained under a thermal environment (≈57% conversion, reaction rate = 2.11 mmol g h ). Besides the efficient photothermal conversion induced by the carbon matrix, both experimental and theoretical analysis reveal that light irradiation favors the photogenerated electron transfer from the semiconductive Al-N-C catalyst to the epoxide reactant, facilitating the formation of a ring-opened intermediate through the rate-limiting step. This study not only provides an advanced Al-N-C catalyst for photodriven CO cycloaddition, but also furnishes new insight for the rational design of superior photocatalysts for diverse heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103186DOI Listing
September 2021

Synergistic Tumor Cytolysis by NK Cells in Combination With a Pan-HDAC Inhibitor, Panobinostat.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:701671. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Guangdong Immune Cell Therapy Engineering and Technology Research Center, Center for Protein and Cell-Based Drugs, Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are frequently overexpressed in tumors, and their inhibition has shown promising anti-tumor effects. However, the synergistic effects of HDAC inhibition with immune cell therapy have not been fully explored. Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes for anti-tumor immune surveillance, with immunotherapy potential. We showed that a pan-HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat, alone demonstrated anti-tumor and anti-proliferative activities on all tested tumors . Additionally, panobinostat co-treatment or pretreatment synergized with NK cells to mediate tumor cell cytolysis. Mechanistically, panobinostat treatment increased the expression of cell adhesion and tight junction-related genes, promoted conjugation formation between NK and tumor cells, and modulates NK cell-activating receptors and ligands on tumor cells, contributing to the increased tumor cytolysis. Finally, panobinostat therapy led to better tumor control and synergized with anti-PD-L1 therapy. Our data highlights the anti-tumor potential of HDAC inhibition through tumor-intrinsic toxicity and enhancement of NK -based immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.701671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438531PMC
August 2021

Changes of [F]FDG-PET/CT quantitative parameters in tumor lesions by the Bayesian penalized-likelihood PET reconstruction algorithm and its influencing factors.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 Sep 16;21(1):133. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 3 East Qingchun Rd, Jianggan District, Hangzhou, 310000, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: To compare the changes in quantitative parameters and the size and degree of F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([F]FDG) uptake of malignant tumor lesions between Bayesian penalized-likelihood (BPL) and non-BPL reconstruction algorithms.

Methods: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography images of 86 malignant tumor lesions were reconstructed using the algorithms of ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), OSEM + time of flight (TOF), OSEM + TOF + point spread function (PSF), and BPL. [F]FDG parameters of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of these lesions were measured. Quantitative parameters between the different reconstruction algorithms were compared, and correlations between parameter variation and lesion size or the degree of [F]FDG uptake were analyzed.

Results: After BPL reconstruction, SUVmax, SUVmean, and SBR were significantly increased, MTV was significantly decreased. The difference values of %ΔSUVmax, %ΔSUVmean, %ΔSBR, and the absolute value of %ΔMTV between BPL and OSEM + TOF were 40.00%, 38.50%, 33.60%, and 33.20%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those between BPL and OSEM + TOF + PSF. Similar results were observed in the comparison of OSEM and OSEM + TOF + PSF with BPL. The %ΔSUVmax, %ΔSUVmean, and %ΔSBR were all significantly negatively correlated with the size and degree of [F]FDG uptake in the lesions, whereas significant positive correlations were observed for %ΔMTV and %ΔTLG.

Conclusion: The BPL reconstruction algorithm significantly increased SUVmax, SUVmean, and SBR and decreased MTV of tumor lesions, especially in small or relatively hypometabolic lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-021-00664-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444406PMC
September 2021

LncRNA Neat1/miR-298-5p/Srpk1 Contributes to Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity.

Neurochem Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University, No. 415, Fengyang Road, Huangpu District, 200003, Shanghai, China.

Sevoflurane is a widely used volatile anesthetic, that can cause long-term neurotoxicity and learning and memory impairment. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to function as key mediators in neurotoxicity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of lncRNA Neat1 on sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. The expression of Neat1, miR-298-5p, and Srpk1 was measured by RT-qPCR. Cell viability, cell apoptosis, inflammation markers, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were examined by CCK-8, TUNEL, ELISA, and the ROS kit. The interaction between miR-298-5p and Neat1 or Srpk1 was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. In our study, it was found that sevoflurane aggravated neurotoxicity through inhibiting cell viability and enhancing cell apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and ROS generation. Neat1 was up-regulated in sevoflurane-treated HT22 cells, and Neat1 knockdown improved sevoflurane-mediated neurotoxicity. Through the exploration of the ceRNA mechanism, we found that Neat1 bound with miR-298-5p, and Srpk1 was a direct target gene of miR-298-5p. Finally, rescue assays proved that up-regulation of Srpk1 reversed the effects of Neat1 knockdown on neurotoxicity. In conclusion, our study revealed that lncRNA Neat1 facilitated sevoflurane-stimulated neurotoxicity by sponging miR-298-5p to up-regulate Srpk1. These findings might provide novel insights into the treatment of sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03436-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Copper and Zirconium Codoped O3-Type Sodium Iron and Manganese Oxide as the Cobalt/Nickel-Free High-Capacity and Air-Stable Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China.

Considering the abundance of iron and manganese within the Earth's crust, the cathode O3-NaFeMnO has shown great potential for large-scale energy storage. Following the strategy of introducing specific heteroelements to optimize the structural stability for energy storage, the work has obtained an O3-type NaFeMnCuZrO that exhibits enhanced electrochemical performance and air stability. It displays an initial reversible capacity of 147.5 mAh g at 0.1C between 2 and 4.1 V, a capacity retention ratio exceeding 69.6% after 100 cycles at 0.2C, and a discharge capacity of 70.8 mAh g at a high rate of 5C, which is superior to that of O3-NaFeMnO. The codoping of Cu/Zr reserves the layered O3 structure and enlarges the interlayer spacing, promoting the diffusion of Na. In addition, the structural stability and air stability observed by Cu-doping is well maintained the incorporation of extra Zr favoring a highly reversible phase conversion process. Thus, this work has demonstrated an efficient strategy for developing cobalt/nickel-free high-capacity and air-stable cathodes for sodium-ion batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12684DOI Listing
September 2021

Observation of the fine structure of antennal sensilla of the stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

Micron 2021 Aug 28;150:103143. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

College of Plant Protection, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650201, China. Electronic address:

In order to explore the mechanism underlying chemosensation in Eocanthecona furcellata, the external morphology of its antennae and the type, quantity, distribution and ultrastructure of the sensilla were observed on both sexes of adults and 5th-instar nymphs using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the antennae of E. furcellata consisted of three parts: scape, pedicel and flagellum. There were five types of sensilla on the antennae, which included sensilla trichoidea (ST), sensilla chaetica (SCh), sensilla coeloconica (SCo), sensilla basiconica (SB) and squamifornia denticles (SD). Further, there were 4 subtypes of ST and SB and 2 subtypes of SCo and SCh. The number of sensilla on nymphs was significantly lower than that on adults. The antennae of adults showed sexual dimorphism, as the number of sensilla on female adults was higher than that on male adults. SB4 was found only on females and SCo2 was found only on males. These inter-sexual differences may be related to chemoreception of sex pheromone and chemical predation location. The morphology and putative functions of each sensilla were compared and discussed. These results provide a reference for further study of the behavioral biology, chemical ecology and electrophysiology of insects, and also provides a scientific basis for new ways of biological control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2021.103143DOI Listing
August 2021

Numerical study of the impact of glottis properties on the airflow field in the human trachea using V-LES.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2021 Sep 10;295:103784. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

School of Aerospace Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

The influences of the profiles and cross-sectional areas of glottal aperture on the upper respiratory airway are investigated using an idealized cast-based mouth-throat model and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The open source CFD code OpenFOAM is employed. The transient flows are modeled using the very-large eddy simulation with the Smagorinsky sub-grid scale (SGS) model. Five different shapes of glottis are considered, including circular glottis with 100 %, 75 % and 50 % cross-sectional area and elliptic glottis with 75 % and 50 % cross-sectional area. Both instantaneous and averaged flow fields are analyzed. It is found that the variations of glottis have great impacts on the properties of downstream flow fields such as the secondary flow, laryngeal jet, recirculation zone, turbulent kinetic energy, and vortex. Evident impacts are observed in the region within 6 tracheal diameters downstream of the glottis. The profile of the glottis has more impacts on the laryngeal shape, while the cross-sectional area has more impacts on velocity of the laryngeal jet and turbulent intensity. It is concluded that both the glottal areas and profiles are critical for an idealized geometrical mouth-throat model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2021.103784DOI Listing
September 2021

The correlation between myocardial resilience after high-intensity exercise and markers of myocardial injury in swimmers.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(36):e27046

Medical Supervision Center, Internist of Sport Medicine Research Institute, General Administration of Sport of China, Beijing, China.

Abstract: To investigate how high-intensity exercise influences an athlete's myocardial resilience and the correlation between myocardial resilience and markers of myocardial ischemic injury.Fifteen swimmers participated in high-intensity exercises. Cardiac ultrasound was performed before and after exercise on each subject. Left ventricular general strain, systolic general strain rate, and the differences (▴general strain and ▴ general strain rate, respectively), before and after exercise were analyzed. Blood was collected at the morning of the exercise day and 6 hours after exercise to measure cardiac enzyme indicators.The correlation between myocardial resilience and markers of myocardial injury were evaluated. Most cardiac enzymes concentrations increased after exercise (P < .05). Cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase MB, and cardiac troponin T were all correlated with the degree of ▴ peak strain (differential value of posterior wall basal segment before and after exercise) and ▴ peak strain rate (differential value before and after exercise) (P < .05).After high-intensity exercise, the concentrations of creatine kinase MB and cardiac troponin T in the blood are positively correlated with two-dimensional ultrasound deformation indices, proving the fact that the seindices can be used as a diagnostic basis for myocardial injury, and are more sensitive than general strain. The two-dimensional strain echocardiogram is non-invasive and easily accepted by the patient. It can make up for the shortage of myocardial enzymes in the injury areas, including weak timeliness and the inability to locate injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000027046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428701PMC
September 2021

Learning impurity spectral functions from density of states.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Mathematics and Physics Department, North China Electric Power University, No. 2, Beinong Road, Changping District, Beijing, 102206, CHINA.

Using numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculation, we construct a dataset with 100K samples, and train six different neural networks for the prediction of spectral functions from density of state (DOS) of the host material. We find that a combination of gated recurrent unit network (GRU) and bidirectional GRU (BiGRU) performances the best among all the six neural networks. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the GRU+BiGRU network can reach 0.052 and 0.043 when this network is evaluated on the original dataset and two other independent datasets. The average time of spectral function predictions from machine learning is on the scale of 10∼ 10that of traditional impurity solvers for Anderson impurity model. This investigation pave the way for the application of recurrent neural network (RNN) and convolutional neural network (CNN) in the prediction of spectral functions from DOSs in machine learning solvers of magnetic impurity problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac2533DOI Listing
September 2021

Tumor-derived exosomal miR-3157-3p promotes angiogenesis, vascular permeability and metastasis by targeting TIMP/KLF2 in non-small cell lung cancer.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Sep 8;12(9):840. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with advanced lung cancer. The exosomes released by cancer cells create tumor microenvironment, and then accelerate tumor metastasis. Cancer-derived exosomes are considered to be the main driving force for metastasis niche formation at foreign sites, but the mechanism in Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is unclear. In metastatic NSCLC patients, the expression level of miR-3157-3p in circulating exosomes was significantly higher than that of non-metastatic NSCLC patients. Here, we found that miR-3157-3p can be transferred from NSCLC cells to vascular endothelial cells through exosomes. Our work indicates that exosome miR-3157-3p is involved in the formation of pre-metastatic niche formation before tumor metastasis and may be used as a blood-based biomarker for NSCLC metastasis. Exosome miR-3157-3p has regulated the expression of VEGF/MMP2/MMP9 and occludin in endothelial cells by targeting TIMP/KLF2, thereby promoted angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability. In addition, exosome miR-3157-3p promoted the metastasis of NSCLC in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04037-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8426367PMC
September 2021

Duodenal bulbar necrosis with hemorrhage caused by cholecystolithiasis: a case report.

J Int Med Res 2021 Sep;49(9):3000605211043415

Department of Gastroenterology, 12582Soochow University, Suzhou Ninth People's Hospital, Suzhou Ninth Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Gastrointestinal bleeding and gallbladder stones are common diseases of the digestive system. However, duodenal necrosis and bleeding caused by gallbladder stone compression is relatively rare. The present report describes a patient with repeated hematemesis and melena that relapsed after several symptomatic treatments. The patient and his family elected surgical treatment. Intraoperative examination revealed necrosis of the duodenal bulb with hemorrhage, which was related to compression of the gallbladder neck. Because the imaging manifestations of this disease lack specificity, early diagnosis is difficult.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211043415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438272PMC
September 2021

Crown ethers in hydrogenated graphene.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 1;23(34):18983-18989. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Optical Engineering, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 311300, P. R. China.

Crown ethers could serve as hosts to selectively incorporate various guest atoms or molecules within the macrocycles. However, the high flexibility of crown ether molecules limits their applications in areas requiring a higher binding strength and selectivity. As an important graphene derivate, graphane, which is composed of entirely sp hybridized carbon atoms and possesses the characteristic of non-wrinkle in contrast to graphene, provides an ideal two-dimensional platform to rigidify crown ether molecules. In this work, using first principles calculations, we demonstrate that the embedment of various crown ethers with different cavity sizes in the graphane lattice are thermodynamically and kinetically stable. Compared with the corresponding crown ether molecules, the binding strength for alkali metal cations can be increased by up to ∼14 times, which may provide a good means in the field of alkali metal cation separation. Meanwhile, the electronic properties of graphane could be tuned in a range of 4.43-5.85 eV by controlling the densities of the crown ethers. These crown ether graphanes are also good candidates for the photolysis of water. Therefore, considering the easy synthesis and tunable crystal structures of graphane, we expect that our findings will trigger a new wave of research and applications of both crown ethers and graphane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp03069hDOI Listing
September 2021

Pan-cancer analysis and single-cell analysis revealed the role of ABCC5 transporter in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Channels (Austin) 2021 Dec;15(1):541-554

Department of General Surgery, Fuyang Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, Fuyang, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common subtype of liver cancer. Many patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are diagnosed at an advanced stage because the early symptoms are not obvious. For advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, immunotherapy and targeted therapy seem to be a promising direction. Finding a new prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma and exploring its role in the immune microenvironment is of great value. ABCC transporters have previously been associated with drug resistance in hepatocellular tumors, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. Here, we conducted a study on ABCC5 in HCC and found that the expression of ABCC5 was up-regulated in HCC and was associated with poor prognosis. Further exploration revealed that ABCC5 was associated with immune infiltration of hepatocellular carcinoma. Single-cell analysis revealed a potential relationship between ABCC5 and immune cell differentiation. Therefore, it is significant to continue to explore the role of ABCC5 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19336950.2021.1968592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8437464PMC
December 2021

Microglia modulation with 1070-nm light attenuates Aβ burden and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

Light Sci Appl 2021 Sep 8;10(1):179. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Med-X Research Institute and School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, China.

Photobiomodulation, by utilizing low-power light in the visible and near-infrared spectra to trigger biological responses in cells and tissues, has been considered as a possible therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD), while its specific mechanisms have remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that cognitive and memory impairment in an AD mouse model can be ameliorated by 1070-nm light via reducing cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) burden, the hallmark of AD. The glial cells, including microglia and astrocytes, play important roles in Aβ clearance. Our results show that 1070-nm light pulsed at 10 Hz triggers microglia rather than astrocyte responses in AD mice. The 1070-nm light-induced microglia responses with alteration in morphology and increased colocalization with Aβ are sufficient to reduce Aβ load in AD mice. Moreover, 1070-nm light pulsed at 10 Hz can reduce perivascular microglia and promote angiogenesis to further enhance Aβ clearance. Our study confirms the important roles of microglia and cerebral vessels in the use of 1070-nm light for the treatment of AD mice and provides a framework for developing a novel therapeutic approach for AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-021-00617-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423759PMC
September 2021

Pradefovir Treatment in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B: Week 24 Results from a Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Noninferiority, Phase 2 Trial.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Quality management, The 5th medical center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objectives: Pradefovir is a liver-targeted prodrug of adefovir, a nucleotide analog with antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA polymerase. This phase 2 study compared the efficacy and safety of oral pradefovir (30mg, 45mg, 60mg, and 75mg) versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF; 300mg) and aimed to identify the most appropriate dose of pradefovir for the forthcoming phase 3 study.

Methods: Treatment-naive and experienced (not on treatment >6 months) patients with chronic hepatitis B were eligible.

Results: A total of 240 participants were randomized and treated in the study (48 per group). Approximately 80% were HBeAg positive and 10% had liver cirrhosis. The reductions from baseline in HBV DNA levels achieved at week 24 were 5.40, 5.34, 5.33, and 5.40 log10 IU/ml with pradefovir doses of 30mg, 45mg, 60mg, and 75mg, respectively, compared to 5.12 log10 IU/ml with TDF. However, HBeAg loss was attained by more participants who received 45mg, 60mg or 75mg pradefovir than those receiving TDF (12%, 6%, 9% vs. 3%). The TDF group exhibited a more significant increase in serum creatinine than the pradefovir 30mg or 45mg groups, and serum phosphate levels were comparable among all groups. Most adverse events were mild (grade 1). No treatment-related severe adverse events were reported. Overall, adverse events and laboratory abnormalities were comparable to the TDF group.

Conclusions: Pradefovir exhibited comparable reductions in HBV DNA levels to TDF. All treatments were safe and well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab763DOI Listing
September 2021

miRNA-7062-5p Promoting Bone Resorption After Bone Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer Through Inhibiting GPR65.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 17;9:681968. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Orthopedics, Army Medical Center, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Bone metastasis is positively associated with a poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC always leads to osteolytic change, which is regulated by aberrant activation of osteoclasts. MicroRNAs are remarkedly involved in metastasis of CRC; however, their role in bone metastasis of CRC is still unclear. The aim of this study is to find key microRNAs that are critical to bone resorption in bone metastasis of CRC. In this study, bone metastasis model was established through intratibially injecting CT-26 cells or MC-38 cells. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was performed to explore the osteoclastogenesis of primary early osteoclast precursors (OCPs) after stimulation by CT-26 conditioned medium (CM). Then, microarray assay was performed to find differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs. The target gene of miRNA was confirmed by dual-luciferase analysis. The effect of miRNA, its target gene on osteoclastogenesis, and involved pathways were explored by Western blot, immunofluorescence analysis, and TRAP staining. Finally, the effect of miRNA on bone resorption was observed. miRNA-7062-5p was upregulated in early OCPs cultured in CT-26 CM or MC-38 CM. GPR65 was proven to be the target gene of miRNA-7062-5p. Overexpression of GPR65 can rescue the osteoclastogenesis caused by miRNA-7062-5p through activation of AMPK pathway. Local injection of miRNA-7062-5p inhibitors efficiently improved the bone resorption. Our study found the role of miRNA-7062-5p in regulating osteoclast formation, and our findings provided a potential therapeutic target in treatment of bone metastasis of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.681968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416178PMC
August 2021

Design, Preparation, and Bioactivity Study of New Fusion Protein HB-NC4 in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 18;9:700064. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Institute of Materia Medica, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is now becoming the main disease that affects public health. There is no specific medicine used for OA in clinical application until now. Recently, several studies demonstrated that OA is closely related to the complement system, and some complement regulators such as N-terminal non-collagenous domain 4 (NC4) aimed at alleviating OA have shown a promising therapeutic effect. However, targeting ability is the main limitation for NC4. In this study, a fusion protein named heparin-binding domain-N-terminal non-collagenous domain 4 (HB-NC4) was proposed to solve this problem, which could provide a better way for OA treatment. First, HB-NC4 plasmid was constructed using ClonExpress II one-step ligation kit method. And BL21 was utilized to express the fusion protein, Ni-sepharose, and a desalting gravity column were introduced to purify HB-NC4. The results showed that 0.84 mg HB-NC4 could be obtained from a 1 L culture medium with a purity higher than 92.6%. Then, the hemolytic assay was introduced to validate the anti-complement activity of HB-NC4; these results demonstrated that both HB-NC4 and NC4 had a similar anti-complement activity, which indicated that heparin-binding (HB) did not affect the NC4 structure. Targeting ability was investigated . HB-NC4 showed a higher affinity to cartilage tissue than NC4, which could prolong the retention time in cartilage. Finally, the destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) model was applied to investigate HB-NC4 pharmacodynamics . The results indicated that HB-NC4 significantly slowed cartilage degradation during the OA process. In summary, compared with NC4, HB-NC4 had better-targeting ability which could improve its therapeutic effect and prolonged its action time. It could be used as a new complement regulator for the treatment of OA in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.700064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416466PMC
August 2021

Identification of Immune-Related Genes in Sepsis due to Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 26;2021:8020067. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Emergency, Minhang Hospital, Fudan University, No. 170 Xinsong Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 201199, China.

Background: Immunosuppression has a key function in sepsis pathogenesis, so it is of great significance to find immune-related markers for the treatment of sepsis.

Methods: Datasets of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with sepsis from the ArrayExpress database were extracted. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the CAP group and normal group by Limma package were performed. After calculation of immune score through the ESTIMATE algorithm, the DEGs were selected between the high immune score group and the low immune score group. Enrichment analysis of the intersected DEGs was conducted. Further, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) of the intersected DEGs was drawn by Metascape tools. Related publications of the key DEGs were searched in NCBI PubMed through Biopython models, and RT-qPCR was used to verify the expression of key genes.

Results: 360 intersected DEGs (157 upregulated and 203 downregulated) were obtained between the two groups. Meanwhile, the intersected DEGs were enriched in 157 immune-related terms. The PPI of the DEGs was performed, and 8 models were obtained. In sepsis-related research, eight genes were obtained with degree ≥ 10, included in the models.

Conclusion: CXCR3, CCR7, HLA-DMA, and GPR18 might participate in the mechanism of CAP with sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8020067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413041PMC
August 2021

Designing novel magnesium oxysulfate cement for stabilization/solidification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 25;423(Pt A):127025. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is a typical hazardous waste worldwide. In this study, an innovative magnesium oxysulfate cement (MOSC) binder was designed for stabilization/solidification (S/S) of MSWI fly ash, focusing on the interactions between MOSC binder and typical metallic cations (Pb)/oxyanions (AsO). Experimental results showed that Pb and As slightly inhibited the reaction of high-sulfate 5MS system but significantly suppressed the reaction process of low-sulfate 10MS system. The 5MS binder system exhibited excellent immobilization efficiencies (99.8%) for both Pb and As. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra suggested that Pb coordinated with SO/OH in the MOSC system and substituted Mg ion sites in the internal structure of 5Mg(OH)·MgSO.7HO (5-1-7) phase. In contrast, the AsO substituted SO sites with the formation of inner-sphere complexes with Mg in the large interlayer space of the 5-1-7 structure. Subsequent MSWI fly ash S/S experiments showed that a small amount of reactive Si in MSWI fly ash interfered with the MOSC reaction and adversely influenced the immobilization efficiencies of Pb, As, and other elements. Through the use of 33 wt% tailored MOSC binder for MSWI fly ash treatment, a satisfying S/S performance could be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127025DOI Listing
August 2021

Emergence and evolution of big data science in HIV research: Bibliometric analysis of federally sponsored studies 2000-2019.

Int J Med Inform 2021 Aug 18;154:104558. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.

Background: The rapid growth of inherently complex and heterogeneous data in HIV/AIDS research underscores the importance of Big Data Science. Recently, there have been increasing uptakes of Big Data techniques in basic, clinical, and public health fields of HIV/AIDS research. However, no studies have systematically elaborated on the evolving applications of Big Data in HIV/AIDS research. We sought to explore the emergence and evolution of Big Data Science in HIV/AIDS-related publications that were funded by the US federal agencies.

Methods: We identified HIV/AIDS and Big Data related publications that were funded by seven federal agencies from 2000 to 2019 by integrating data from National Institutes of Health (NIH) ExPORTER, MEDLINE, and MeSH. Building on bibliometrics and Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods, we constructed co-occurrence networks using bibliographic metadata (e.g., countries, institutes, MeSH terms, and keywords) of the retrieved publications. We then detected clusters among the networks as well as the temporal dynamics of clusters, followed by expert evaluation and clinical implications.

Results: We harnessed nearly 600 thousand publications related to HIV/AIDS, of which 19,528 publications relating to Big Data were included in bibliometric analysis. Results showed that (1) the number of Big Data publications has been increasing since 2000, (2) US institutes have been in close collaborations with China, Canada, and Germany, (3) some institutes (e.g., University of California system, MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Harvard Medical School) are among the most productive institutes and started using Big Data in HIV/AIDS research early, (4) Big Data research was not active in public health disciplines until 2015, (5) research topics such as genomics, HIV comorbidities, population-based studies, Electronic Health Records (EHR), social media, precision medicine, and methodologies such as machine learning, Deep Learning, radiomics, and data mining emerge quickly in recent years.

Conclusions: We identified a rapid growth in the cross-disciplinary research of HIV/AIDS and Big Data over the past two decades. Our findings demonstrated patterns and trends of prevailing research topics and Big Data applications in HIV/AIDS research and suggested a number of fast-evolving areas of Big Data Science in HIV/AIDS research including secondary analysis of EHR, machine learning, Deep Learning, predictive analysis, and NLP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2021.104558DOI Listing
August 2021

Estradiol ameliorates metformin-inhibited Sertoli cell proliferation via AMPK/TSC2/mTOR signaling pathway.

Theriogenology 2021 Aug 28;175:7-22. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Forage and Herbivore, College of Veterinary Medicine, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, PR China. Electronic address:

Metformin is a commonly used for treating type 2 diabetes and it acts on a variety of organs including the male reproductive system. 17β-estradiol plays an important role in Sertoli cell (SC) proliferation which determines the germ cell development and spermatogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of metformin on immature chicken SC proliferation and the potential mechanisms by which 17β-estradiol regulate this process. Results showed that metformin significantly inhibited SC proliferation, whereas 17β-estradiol weakened the inhibitory effects of metformin on SC viability, cell growth, and cell cycle progression. SC proliferation-inhibiting effect of metformin exposure was regulated by decreasing adenosine triphosphate level and respiratory enzyme activity in the mitochondria; this process was possibly mediated by the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which was regulated by the down-expressed miR-1764 and by the decreased antioxidant enzyme activity and excessive reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, SCs transfected with the miR-1764 agomir led to an improvement of proliferation capacity through down-regulating AMPKα2 level, which further decreased TSC2 expression and induced mTOR activation. However, the anti-proliferative effect of miR-1764 antagomir can be alleviated by 17β-estradiol treatment via the up-expression of miR-1764 in transfected SCs. Our findings suggest appropriate dose of exogenous 17β-estradiol treatment can ameliorate the inhibitory effect of metformin on SC proliferation via the regulation of AMPK/TSC2/mTOR signaling pathway, this might reduce the risk of poor male fertility caused by the abuse of anti-diabetic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2021.08.030DOI Listing
August 2021

Ultrathin Reduced Graphene Oxide/Organosilica Hybrid Membrane for Gas Separation.

JACS Au 2021 Mar 11;1(3):328-335. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201, P. R. China.

Here, reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) nanosheets were embedded in an organosilica network to assemble an ultrathin hybrid membrane on the tubular ceramic substrate. With the organosilica nanocompartments inside the r-GO stacks and the intensified polymerization, r-GO sheets endow the as-prepared hybrid membranes with high H and CO separation performance. The resulting selectivities of H/CH and CO/CH are found to be 223 and 55, respectively, together with gas permeance of approximately 2.5 × 10 mol·m·s·Pa for H and 6.1 × 10 mol·m·s·Pa for CO at room temperature and 0.2 MPa. To separate larger molecules from H, the H/CH and H/-CH selectivities are as high as 1775 and 2548, respectively. Moreover, at 150 °C and 0.2 MPa, the hybrid membrane retains high separation performances with ideal selectivities higher than 200 and 30 for H/CH and CO/CH, respectively, which are attractive for gas separation and purification of practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.0c00073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395671PMC
March 2021

Effects of application of rapeseed cake as organic fertilizer on rice quality at high yield level.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Physiology, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Background: Applying organic fertilizer coupled with chemical fertilizer has been widely adopted to improve crop productivity and quality and develop sustainable agriculture. However, little information is available about the effects of organic fertilizer on the grain quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.), especially nutritional quality and starch quality. In the present study, high yielding 'super' rice cultivars were grown in the field with three cultivation practices, including zero nitrogen application (0N), local high yielding practice with chemical fertilizer (T1) and T1 treatment with additional organic fertilizer (T2).

Results: Application of organic fertilizer synergistically improved rice production, nitrogen use efficiency, milling and appearance quality, and nutritional quality, including the contents of glutelin, essential amino acids and microelements, and also increased amylopectin and the ratio of the short chain of amylopectin, leading to a reduction in relative crystallinity, and decreased prolamin content. Application of organic fertilizer also increased the viscosity and breakdown values, whereas it decreased the pasting temperature and gelatinization enthalpy, resulting in better cooking and eating quality.

Conclusion: Overall, application of organific fertilizer could synergistically improve nitrogen use efficiency and grain quality, including the structure and physicochemical properties of starch, contents of high value protein and amino acids, contents of microelements, and cooking and eating quality. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11518DOI Listing
August 2021

Coating Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Loaded with Quercetin on Titanium Surfaces by Layer-By-Layer Assembly Technique to Improve Surface Osteogenesis Under Osteoporotic Condition.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Jul;17(7):1392-1403

Department of Orthopaedics Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lucheng District, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

Titanium (Ti) and its alloy implants are widely used in the field of orthopedics, and osteoporosis is an important reason for implantation failure. This study aimed to establish a quercetin (QTN) controlled release system on the surface of titanium implants and to study its effects on osteogenesis and osseointegration on the surface of implants. Polyethylenimine (PEI) was first immobilized on a titanium substrate as the base layer, and then, hyaluronic acid/chitosan-quercetin (HA/CS-QTN) multilayer films were assembled on the PEI layer by a self-assembly technique. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements were used to characterize and analyze the samples. The release characteristics of QTN were studied by release assays. The osteogenic ability of the samples was evaluated by experiments on an osteoporosis rat model and MC3T3-E1 cells. The FTIR, SEM, and contact angle measurements all showed that the PEI substrate layer and HA/CS-QTN multilayer film were successfully immobilized on the titanium matrix. The drug release test showed the successful establishment of a QTN controlled release system. The results showed that osteoblasts exhibited higher adhesion, proliferation and differentiation ability on the coated titanium matrix than on the pure titanium surface. In addition, the results showed that the HA/CS-QTN coating significantly increased the new bone mass around the implant. By depositing a PEI matrix layer and HA/CS-QTN multilayer films on titanium implants, a controlled release system of QTN was established, which improved implant surface osseointegration under osteoporotic conditions. This study proposes a new implant therapy strategy for patients with osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2021.3115DOI Listing
July 2021

First Record of Erysiphe cf. elevata on Cerbera manghas (Apocynaceae) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Minjiang University, 26465, Institute of Oceanography, Fuzhou, Fujian, China;

Cerbera manghas L. (sea mango) is an evergreen shrub or small flowering tree up to12 m tall. It naturally occupies coastal habitats and is distributed from Seychelles in the Indian Ocean eastward to French Polynesia. In China, it is a popular ornamental urban species growing in roadside green belts, public parks, and residential areas in various coastal cities. In March 2019, powdery mildew symptoms were observed on six trees of C. manghas growing in a residential area near Minjiang University campus, in Minhou district of Fuzhou city. Approximately 60 % of leaves per plant were infected. Initial symptoms appeared as small circular to irregular white patches of superficial mycelia, conidiophores and conidia covered on both surfaces of leaves, which later coalesced and formed dense covered, resulting in discoloration and defoliation. Hyphae were septate, hyaline, smooth with simple to multilobed lobed appressoria formed singly or opposite pairs and 5 to 8 µm diam. Conidiophores were erect and 35 to 80 × 5 to 9 μm, composed of foot-cells, 20 to 35 × 5 to 9 µm, straight to usually curved or flexuous-sinuous at the base, followed by two to three shorter cells. Conidia were solitary, ellipsoid to oblong-elliptical, smooth, and 24 to 37 × 13 to 16 μm without fibrosin bodies. The teleomorph was not found on infected trees. These morphological characteristics were typical for anamorph of the genus Erysiphe (Braun and Cook 2012). To confirm fungal identification, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA were amplified using primers ITS1/ITS4 and LSU1/LSU2 (Scholin et al. 1994; White et al. 1990), respectively. The sequences were deposited in GenBank (ITS: MZ379159; LSU: MZ379160). BLAST analysis of sequences showed 99-100% similarity with Erysiphe elevata on Eucalyptus camaldulensis (LC177375), Catalpa bignonioides (MH638203), Tabernaemontana divaricata (MT802112), and Plumeria rubra (MH507182). Based on morphological and molecular analyses, the fungus was identified as E. elevata. To confirm pathogenicity, infected leaves were gently pressed onto the leaves of three healthy plants in separate pots, while three noninoculated plants were used as controls. All plants were maintained in a greenhouse at 25°C with a relative humidity of 65% to 70%. Disease symptoms were observed only on the inoculated plants after 10 days and the fungus was morphologically identical to that of the original infected leaves. Previously E. elevata has been reported on Catalpa spp. (Cook et al. 2006) from Europe, while E. camaldulensis (Meeboon and Takamatsu 2017), P. rubra (Wu et al. 2019; Yeh et al. 2019), and T. divaricata (Xu et al. 2021) have been reported as hosts from Thailand, Taiwan and China respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of powdery mildew caused by E. elevata on C. manghas in China and in the world. The disease would be a serious threat to ornamental plantings of C. manghas in China. References Braun, U., and Cook, R. T. A. 2012. Taxonomic Manual of the Erysiphales (Powdery Mildews). CBS Biodiversity Series No. 11. CBS, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Cook, R. T. A., et al. 2006. Mycol. Res. 110:672. Meeboon, J., and Takamatsu, S. 2017. Mycoscience 58:253. Scholin, C. A., et al. 1994. J. Phycol. 30:999. White, T. J., et al. 1990. Page 315 in: PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Wu, H., et al. 2019. Plant Dis. 103:1035. Xu, D., et al. 2021. Plant Dis. 105:1203. Yeh, Y. W., et al. 2019. Plant Dis. 103:371.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-21-1419-PDNDOI Listing
August 2021
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