Publications by authors named "Chen Gao"

541 Publications

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps may be a Potential Target for Treating Early Brain Injury in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jiefang Road 88th, Hangzhou, 310000, China.

Neuroinflammation is closely associated with poor prognosis in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are important regulators of sterile inflammation, in SAH. In this study, markers of NET formation, quantified by the level of citrullinated histone H3 (CitH3), were significantly increased after SAH and correlated with SAH severity. CitH3 peaked at 12 h in peripheral blood and at 24 h in the brain. Administration of the peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) selective antagonist GSK484 substantially attenuated SAH-induced brain edema and neuronal injury. Moreover, the benefit of NET inhibition was also confirmed by DNAse I treatment and neutrophil depletion. Mechanistically, NETs markedly exacerbated microglial inflammation in vitro. NET formation aggravated neuroinflammation by promoting microglial activation and increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, while inhibiting NETs demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the levels of these proinflammatory factors. Moreover, neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE), a severe nonneurological complication after SAH, is associated with a high level of NET formation. However, GSK484 effectively inhibited the formation of NETs in the lungs of NPE mice, thereby preventing the diffusion of neutrophilic infiltration and attenuating the swelling of the alveolar interstitium. In conclusion, NETs promoted neuroinflammation after SAH, while pharmacological inhibition of PAD4-NETs could reduce the inflammatory damage caused by SAH. These results supported the idea that NETs might be potential therapeutic targets for SAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-021-00909-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Novel LncRNA OXCT1-AS1 indicates poor prognosis and contributes to tumorigenesis by regulating miR-195/CDC25A axis in glioblastoma.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Apr 8;40(1):123. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Jiefang Road 88th, Hangzhou, 310016, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) contribute to multiple biological processes in human glioblastoma (GBM). However, identifying a specific lncRNA target remains a challenge. In this study, bioinformatics methods and competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network regulatory rules were used to identify GBM-related lncRNAs and revealed that OXCT1 antisense RNA 1 (OXCT1-AS1) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma.

Methods: Based on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset, we identified differential lncRNAs, microRNAs and mRNAs and constructed an lncRNA-associated ceRNA network. The novel lncRNA OXCT1-AS1 was proposed to function as a ceRNA, and its potential target miRNAs were predicted through the database LncBase Predicted v.2. The expression patterns of OXCT1-AS1 in glioma and normal tissue samples were measured. The effect of OXCT1-AS1 on glioma cells was checked using the Cell Counting Kit 8 assay, cell colony formation assay, Transwell assay and flow cytometry in vitro. The dual-luciferase activity assay was performed to investigate the potential mechanism of the ceRNA network. Finally, orthotopic mouse models of glioma were created to evaluate the influence of OXCT1-AS1 on tumour growth in vivo.

Results: In this study, it was found that the expression of lncRNA OXCT1-AS1 was upregulated in both The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) GBM patients and GBM tissue samples, and high expression of OXCT1-AS1 predicted a poor prognosis. Suppressing OXCT1-AS1 expression significantly decreased GBM cell proliferation and inhibited cell migration and invasion. We further investigated the potential mechanism and found that OXCT1-AS1 may act as a ceRNA of miR-195 to enhance CDC25A expression and promote glioma cell progression. Finally, knocking down OXCT1-AS1 notably attenuated the severity of glioma in vivo.

Conclusion: OXCT1-AS1 inhibits glioma progression by regulating the miR-195-5p/CDC25A axis and is a specific tumour marker and a novel potential therapeutic target for glioma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-01928-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028723PMC
April 2021

Application of 3D modeling and fusion technology of medical image data in image teaching.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Apr 6;21(1):194. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Imaging, Yi-Ji Shan Hospital, Wannan Medical College, Zheshan West Road on the 2nd, Wuhu, 241000, Anhui, China.

Background: We combined anatomy with imaging, transformed the 2D information of various imaging techniques into 3D information, and form the assessment system of real medical imaging cases in order to make up for the deficiencies in the current teaching of the medical imaging technology students.

Methods: A total of 460 medical imaging students were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The research group received the teaching of the fusion of the original CT and MR data 3D model and the original image combined with 3D anatomical image. CT and MRI data are imported through load DICOM of 3D slicer. Different tissues and organs are segmented by threshold and watershed algorithm of segment editor module. Models are exported through export / import models and label maps in segmentation. Save the NHDR file of the original data and Obj file of the corresponding model through save the NHDR and corresponding Obj files are loaded into probe 1.0 software. The software can give different colors to the three-dimensional models of different organs or tissues to display the stereo models and related data, and display the hook edges of organ models on coronal, sagittal and axial images. At the same time, annotation can be established in the corresponding anatomical position. Finally, it can be saved as a single file of Hwl, and the teaching can be opened at any time through the program of probe 1.0. Statistical analysis Academic self-efficacy scale and Self-directed learning ability scale was adopted by self-directed learning evaluation scale between two groups.

Results: Compare the theoretical scores and case analysis scores of the two groups. The scores of the study and control groups were significantly higher than those of the control group. Before the experiment, no significant difference was detected in the self-efficacy of learning ability and learning behavior between the two groups, while after the experiment, these differences between the two groups were statistically significan. Moreover, the learning ability self-efficacy and learning behavior of the two groups of students after the experiment was significantly higher than that before the experiment. The self-efficacy of the learning behavior of the control group was higher after the experiment than that before the experiment, albeit the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: The modern, information-based and humanized experimental teaching mode will be constantly improved under the support of PACS system in order to optimize the medical imaging teaching activities for the development of modern medical education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-02620-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025386PMC
April 2021

Flagella hook protein FlgE is a novel vaccine candidate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa identified by a genomic approach.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 26;39(17):2386-2395. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China. Electronic address:

Infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are becoming a serious threat to patients in intensive care units. A PA vaccine is a practical and economical solution to solve the problems caused by PA infection successfully. In recent years, several antigen candidates have been tested in animal and human clinical trials, but none of them has been approved to date. An alternative strategy for antigen screening and protective antigens is in urgent demand. In this study, we generated a genome-wide library of PA protein fragments tagged with maltose-binding protein (MBP). Using sera from patients who recovered after PA infection, we identified a novel protective antigen, FlgE, which is the structural component of the flagella hook. Vaccination with recombinant FlgE (reFlgE) induced a Th2-predominant immune response and reduced bacterial load and inflammation in PA-infected mice. Anti-reFlgE antibodies recognized native FlgE on the bacterial membrane in vitro and conferred protection in mice, which may be due to the mediation of opsonophagocytic killing and inhibition of bacterial motility. In addition, the combination of reFlgE with rePcrV, an engineered antigen we reported previously, provided elevated protection against PA infection. Our data demonstrate that FlgE is a promising vaccine candidate for PA and provide a new strategy for the efficient screening of antigens of other pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.03.051DOI Listing
April 2021

Light limitation inducing overcompensatory growth of cyanobacteria and function of serine/threonine kinase (STK) genes involved.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Mar;83(6):1347-1356

Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology and Aquaculture of Tianjin, College of Fishery, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin, China E-mail:

The rapid overcompensatory growth that appears when cyanobacteria are supplied with adequate resources after a period of resource deprivation might contribute to the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms. We investigated the changing characteristics of overcompensatory growth and serine/threonine kinase (STK) genes expression of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in response to light limitation. The results showed M. aeruginosa exhibited overcompensatory growth for 2 days after light recovery, during which the increase in growth was inversely related to light intensity. Expression of STK genes, such as spkD, was upregulated significantly at 0.5-4 h after light recovery (P < 0.05). To investigate the function of STK genes in the overcompensatory growth, M. aeruginosa spkD was heterologously expressed in Synechocystis. Transgenic Synechocystis exhibited greater and longer overcompensatory growth than wild-type Synechocystis after light recovery. Relative expression levels of STK genes in transgenic Synechocystis were significantly higher than those in wild-type Synechocystis at 24 h of light recovery (P < 0.05). Heterologous expression of Microcystis spkD might stimulate overcompensatory growth of Synechocystis by affecting its STK gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.071DOI Listing
March 2021

Development of a chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticle vaccine for protection against Escherichia coli K1 caused meningitis in mice.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Mar 5;19(1):69. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, The 30th, Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400038, China.

Background: Escherichia coli K1 (E. coli K1) caused neonatal meningitis remains a problem, which rises the urgent need for an effective vaccine. Previously, we rationally designed and produced the recombinant protein OmpAVac (Vo), which elicited protective immunity against E. coli K1 infection. However, Vo has limited stability, which hinders its future industrial application.

Method: Chitosan-modified poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared and used as carried for the recombinant Vo. And the safety, stability and immunogenicity of Vo delivered by chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles were tested in vitro and in a mouse model of bacteremia.

Results: We successfully generated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles for the delivery of recombinant Vo (VoNP). In addition, we found that a freeze-drying procedure increases the stability of the VoNPs without changing the shape, size distribution and encapsulation of the Vo protein. Unlike aluminum adjuvant, the nanoparticles that delivered Vo were immunoprotective in mice even after storage for as long as 180 days.

Conclusions: We identified an effective strategy to improve the stability of Vo to maintain its immunogenicity, which will contribute to the future development of vaccines against E. coli K1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00812-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934409PMC
March 2021

The Mechanism of Sugar Export from Long Conifer Needles.

New Phytol 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

The green leaves of plants are optimized for carbon fixation and the production of sugars, which are used as central units of carbon and energy throughout the plant. However, there are physical limits to this optimization that remain insufficiently understood. Here, quantitative anatomical analysis combined with mathematical modeling and sugar transport rate measurements were employed to determine how effectively sugars are exported from the needle-shaped leaves of conifers in relation to leaf length. Mathematical modeling indicated that phloem anatomy constrains sugar export in long needles. However, we identified two mechanisms by which this constraint is overcome, even in needles longer than 20 cm: i) the grouping of transport conduits, and ii) a shift in the diurnal rhythm of sugar metabolism and export in needle tips. The efficiency of sugar transport in the phloem can have a significant influence on leaf function. The constraints on sugar export described here for conifer needles are likely to also be relevant in other groups of plants, such as grasses and angiosperm trees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17302DOI Listing
February 2021

Sea spray aerosol concentration modulated by sea surface temperature.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(9)

NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, CO 80305.

Natural aerosols in pristine regions form the baseline used to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on climate. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) is a major component of natural aerosols. Despite its importance, the abundance of SSA is poorly constrained. It is generally accepted that wind-driven wave breaking is the principle governing SSA production. This mechanism alone, however, is insufficient to explain the variability of SSA concentration at given wind speed. The role of other parameters, such as sea surface temperature (SST), remains controversial. Here, we show that higher SST promotes SSA mass generation at a wide range of wind speed levels over the remote Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, in addition to demonstrating the wind-driven SSA production mechanism. The results are from a global scale dataset of airborne SSA measurements at 150 to 200 m above the ocean surface during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography Mission. Statistical analysis suggests that accounting for SST greatly enhances the predictability of the observed SSA concentration compared to using wind speed alone. Our results support implementing SST into SSA source functions in global models to better understand the atmospheric burdens of SSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2020583118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936265PMC
March 2021

The Frequency of Natural Killer Cell Subsets in Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome with Deep Fungal Infections.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 9;14:467-473. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases, People's Hospital of Deyang City, Deyang, 618000, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the expression of natural killer (NK) cell subsets in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and deep fungal infections and the significance of such expression.

Methods: A total of 829 patients with AIDS, who were treated in People's Hospital of Deyang City our hospital between January 2011 and March 2019, were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups: those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and invasive fungal infection (IFI) (HIV + IFI) (n = 390) and those with HIV and no IFI (HIV + non-IFI) (n = 439). Another 200 healthy volunteers were enrolled as the control group. The numbers of NK cell subsets in each group were compared.

Results: The level of NK cells, number of NK cells in all lymphocytes, proportions of CD56, CD56, and CD56 NK cells in NK cells, and the level of CD56CD16 NK cells were significantly lower in the HIV + IFI group than in the HIV + non-IFI group and control group ( < 0.05). Moreover, CD4 T, CD4/CD8, and NK cells were negatively correlated with HIV-RNA expression ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: A combination of AIDS and deep fungal infection can change the immune status of a patient. This condition can be diagnosed early through the detection of NK cell expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S269905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881942PMC
February 2021

Do dispersers shape diaspore mass in vespicochory?

Ecology 2021 Feb 9:e03302. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Biodiversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, 650201, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3302DOI Listing
February 2021

Serine/threonine Kinases Play Important Roles in Regulating Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in sp. PCC6803.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 21;9:618969. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, China.

Serine/threonine kinases (STKs) play important roles in prokaryotic cellular functions such as growth, differentiation, and secondary metabolism. When the external environment changes, prokaryotes rely on signal transduction systems, including STKs that quickly sense these changes and alter gene expression to induce the appropriate metabolic changes. In this study, we examined the roles of the STK genes and in fatty acid biosynthesis in the unicellular cyanobacterium sp. PCC6803, using targeted gene knockout. The linoleic acid (C18: 2), γ-linolenic acid (C18: 3n6), α-linolenic acid (C18: 3n3), and stearidonic acid (C18: 4) levels were significantly lower in and gene knockout mutants than in the wild type at a culture temperature of 30°C and a light intensity of 40 μmol⋅m⋅s. The expression levels of fatty acid desaturases and STK genes differed between the and gene knockout mutants. These observations suggest that and may directly or indirectly affect the fatty acid composition in sp. PCC6803 by regulating the expression of fatty acid desaturases genes. Therefore, the STK genes and play important roles in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in sp. PCC6803. These findings could facilitate the development of cyanobacteria germplasm resources that yield high levels of fatty acids. In addition, they provide a theoretical basis for the genetic engineering of cyanobacteria with improved yields of secondary metabolites and increased economic benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.618969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860145PMC
January 2021

Development of a Chimeric Vaccine Against Based on the Th17-Stimulating Epitopes of PcrV and AmpC.

Front Immunol 2020 21;11:601601. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Pulmonary infection caused by (PA) has created an urgent need for an efficient vaccine, but the protection induced by current candidates is limited, partially because of the high variability of the PA genome. Antigens targeting pulmonary Th17 responses are able to provide antibody-independent and broad-spectrum protection; however, little information about Th17-stimulating antigens in PA is available. Herein, we identified two novel PA antigens that effectively induce Th17-dependent protection, namely, PcrV (PA1706) and AmpC (PA4110). Compared to intramuscular immunization, intranasal immunization enhanced the protection of rePcrV due to activation of a Th17 response. The Th17-stimulating epitopes of PcrV and AmpC were identified, and the recombinant protein PVAC was designed and generated by combining these Th17-stimulating epitopes. PVAC was successfully produced in soluble form and elicited broad protective immunity against PA. Our results provide an alternative strategy for the development of Th17-based vaccines against PA and other pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.601601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859429PMC
January 2021

Inhibition of Dectin-1 Ameliorates Neuroinflammation by Regulating Microglia/Macrophage Phenotype After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Jiefang Road 88th, Hangzhou, 310016, China.

Polarization of microglia/macrophages toward the pro-inflammatory phenotype is an important contributor to neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Dectin-1 is a pattern recognition receptor that has been reported to play a key role in regulating neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke and spinal cord injury. However, the role and mechanism of action of Dectin-1 after ICH remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Dectin-1 on modulating the microglia/macrophage phenotype and neuroinflammation and the possible underlying mechanism after ICH. We found that Dectin-1 expression increased after ICH, and was mainly localized in microglia/macrophages. Neutrophil infiltration and microglia/macrophage polarization toward the pro-inflammatory phenotype increased after ICH. However, treatment with a Dectin-1 inhibitor reversed these phenomena and induced a shift the anti-inflammatory phenotype in microglia/macrophages; this resulted in alleviation of neurological dysfunction and facilitated hematoma clearance after ICH. We also found that Dectin-1 crosstalks with the downstream pro-inflammatory pathway, Card9/NF-κB, by activating spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our data suggest that Dectin-1 is involved in the microglia/macrophage polarization and functional recovery after ICH, and that this mechanism, at least in part, may contribute to the involvement of the Syk/Card9/NF-kB pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-021-00889-2DOI Listing
February 2021

The Infratentorial Localization of Brain Metastases May Correlate with Specific Clinical Characteristics and Portend Worse Outcomes Based on Voxel-Wise Mapping.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 17;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 17.

School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, China.

The infratentorial regions are vulnerable to develop brain metastases (BMs). However, the associations between the infratentorial localization of BMs and clinical characteristics remained unclear. We retrospectively studied 1102 patients with 4365 BM lesions. Voxel-wise mapping of MRI was applied to construct the tumor frequency heatmaps after normalization and segmentation. The analysis of differential involvement (ADIFFI) was further used to obtain statistically significant clusters. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used to analyze the prognosis. The parietal, insular and left occipital lobes, and cerebellum were vulnerable to BMs with high relative metastatic risks. Infratentorial areas were site-specifically affected by the lung, breast, and colorectal cancer BMs, but inversely avoided by melanoma BMs. Significant infratentorial clusters were associated with young age, male sex, lung neuroendocrine and squamous cell carcinomas, high expression of Ki-67 of primaries and BMs, and patients with poorer prognosis. Inferior OS was observed in patients with ≥3 BMs and those who received whole-brain radiotherapy alone. Infratentorial involvement of BMs was an independent risk factor of poor prognosis for patients who received surgery ( = 0.023, hazard ratio = 1.473, 95% confidence interval = 1.055-2.058). The current study may add valuable clinical recognition of BMs and provide references for BMs diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognostic prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831020PMC
January 2021

Investigation of factors controlling PM variability across the South Korean Peninsula during KORUS-AQ.

Elementa (Wash D C) 2020 ;8(28)

NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Boulder, Colorado, US.

The Korea - United States Air Quality Study (May - June 2016) deployed instrumented aircraft and ground-based measurements to elucidate causes of poor air quality related to high ozone and aerosol concentrations in South Korea. This work synthesizes data pertaining to aerosols (specifically, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 micrometers, PM) and conditions leading to violations of South Korean air quality standards (24-hr mean PM < 35 μg m). PM variability from AirKorea monitors across South Korea is evaluated. Detailed data from the Seoul vicinity are used to interpret factors that contribute to elevated PM. The interplay between meteorology and surface aerosols, contrasting synoptic-scale behavior vs. local influences, is presented. Transboundary transport from upwind sources, vertical mixing and containment of aerosols, and local production of secondary aerosols are discussed. Two meteorological periods are probed for drivers of elevated PM. Clear, dry conditions, with limited transport (Stagnant period), promoted photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol from locally emitted precursors. Cloudy humid conditions fostered rapid heterogeneous secondary inorganic aerosol production from local and transported emissions (Transport/Haze period), likely driven by a positive feedback mechanism where water uptake by aerosols increased gas-to-particle partitioning that increased water uptake. Further, clouds reduced solar insolation, suppressing mixing, exacerbating PM accumulation in a shallow boundary layer. The combination of factors contributing to enhanced PM is challenging to model, complicating quantification of contributions to PM from local versus upwind precursors and production. We recommend co-locating additional continuous measurements at a few AirKorea sites across South Korea to help resolve this and other outstanding questions: carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide (transboundary transport tracer), boundary layer height (surface PM mixing depth), and aerosol composition with aerosol liquid water (meteorologically-dependent secondary production). These data would aid future research to refine emissions targets to further improve South Korean PM air quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/elementa.424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784633PMC
January 2020

Spatiotemporal spread pattern of the COVID-19 cases in China.

PLoS One 2020 31;15(12):e0244351. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

College of Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

The COVID-19 pandemic is currently spreading widely around the world, causing huge threats to public safety and global society. This study analyzes the spatiotemporal pattern of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, reveals China's epicenters of the pandemic through spatial clustering, and delineates the substantial effect of distance to Wuhan on the pandemic spread. The results show that the daily new COVID-19 cases mostly occurred in and around Wuhan before March 6, and then moved to the Grand Bay Area (Shenzhen, Hong Kong and Macau). The total COVID-19 cases in China were mainly distributed in the east of the Huhuanyong Line, where the epicenters accounted for more than 60% of the country's total in/on 24 January and 7 February, half in/on 31 January, and more than 70% from 14 February. The total cases finally stabilized at approximately 84,000, and the inflection point for Wuhan was on 14 February, one week later than those of Hubei (outside Wuhan) and China (outside Hubei). The generalized additive model-based analysis shows that population density and distance to provincial cities were significantly associated with the total number of the cases, while distances to prefecture cities and intercity traffic stations, and population inflow from Wuhan after 24 January, had no strong relationships with the total number of cases. The results and findings should provide valuable insights for understanding the changes in the COVID-19 transmission as well as implications for controlling the global COVID-19 pandemic spread.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244351PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775067PMC
January 2021

Changes in the anterior cingulate cortex in Crohn's disease: A neuroimaging perspective.

Brain Behav 2021 Mar 12;11(3):e02003. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

The First Clinical Medical College of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

Introduction: Evidence suggests that Crohn's disease (CD) pathophysiology goes beyond the gastrointestinal tract and is also strongly associated with the brain. In particular, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which plays an integral role in the first brain as part of the default mode network (DMN) and pain matrix, shows abnormalities using multiple neuroimaging modalities. This review summarizes nine related studies that investigated changes in the ACC using structural magnetic resonance imaging, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Methods: An extensive PubMed literature search was conducted from 1980 to August 2020. In a review of the articles identified, particular attention was paid to analysis methods, technical protocol characteristics, and specific changes in the ACC.

Results: In terms of morphology, a decrease in gray matter volume and cortical thickness was observed along with an increase in local gyrification index. In terms of function, functional connectivity (FC) within the DMN was increased. FC between the ACC and the amygdala was decreased. Higher amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation and graph theory results, including connectivity strength, clustering coefficient, and local efficiency, were detected. In terms of neurotransmitter changes, the concentrations of glutamate increased along with a decrease in gamma-aminobutyric acid, providing a rational explanation for abdominal pain. These changes may be attributed to stress, pain, and negative emotions, as well as changes in gut microbiota.

Conclusions: For patients with CD, the ACC demonstrates structural, functional, and metabolic changes. In terms of clinical findings, the ACC plays an important role in the onset of depression/anxiety and abdominal pain. Therefore, successful modulation of this pathway may guide treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994700PMC
March 2021

Genome Sequence of " Dehalogenimonas etheniformans" Strain GP, a Vinyl Chloride-Respiring Anaerobe.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Dec 10;9(50). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

" Dehalogenimonas etheniformans" strain GP couples growth with the reductive dechlorination of vinyl chloride and several polychlorinated ethenes. The genome sequence comprises a circular 2.07-Mb chromosome with a G+C content of 51.9% and harbors 50 putative reductive dehalogenase genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01212-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729418PMC
December 2020

Acupuncture in the treatment of fatigue in Parkinson's disease: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Nov;99(48):e23389

Jinan Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China.

Background: Fatigue is a commonly occurring nonmotor symptom among individuals of Parkinson's disease (PD). Little is known about how to measure fatigue in PD. This study is aiming to investigate the safety and efficacy of acupuncture for PD-related fatigue.

Methods: RCTs of acupuncture for PD-related fatigue will be retrieved from inception to July 2020 in 9 different databases such as Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and so on. Search words will be used for the BC and acupuncture. The analysis would include randomised, controlled, clinical trials of PD patients with fatigue that were published in either Chinese or English. The primary outcome is the fatigue condition. Two or three reviewers should be in charge of study selection, data extraction and evaluating the risk of bias. RevMan software (V.5.3) will be used to perform the assessment of the risk of bias and data synthesis.

Results: To provide evidence for the efficacy and safety of acupuncture treating PD-related fatigue.

Conclusion: This study will be helpful for understanding the effect and safety of acupuncture for PD-related fatigue.

Trial Registration Number: CRD42020160823.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710230PMC
November 2020

Comparison of Operative and Conservative Treatment for Asymptomatic Moyamoya Disease: Preliminary Experience in Small Retrospective Series.

World Neurosurg 2021 Feb 18;146:e955-e960. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Neurological Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Objective: The best management of asymptomatic moyamoya disease (MMD) remains controversial. In this study, the authors aimed to explore an experience for treatment modality for asymptomatic MMD.

Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed a total of 23 patients (age range 30-58 years) with asymptomatic MMD during the past 5 years at their institutions. The patients were divided into 2 groups: The surgical group included 11 patients, and the conservative group included 12 patients. The demographic, radiologic, and clinical findings of the patients were evaluated. At follow-up over 13-65 months, the future clinical and radiologic progression events were evaluated.

Results: During the follow-up period, 3 patients suffered from future clinical progression events in the conservative group: 1 experienced stroke, and 2 experienced transient ischemic attack. Among the patients in the surgical group, only 1 experienced transient ischemic attack. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients undergoing surgeries had longer clinical progression-free survival times compared with patients in the conservative group (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: Surgical treatment may be an alternative choice for patients with asymptomatic MMD. However, the best strategy for asymptomatic MMD in order to reduce future cerebrovascular risks still needs to be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.11.045DOI Listing
February 2021

Nondestructive evaluation of soluble solids content in tomato with different stage by using Vis/NIR technology and multivariate algorithms.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Mar 4;248:119139. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

School of Information Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 234000, China.

In this study Vis/NIR spectroscopy was applied to evaluate soluble solids content (SSC) of tomato. A total of 168 tomato samples with five different maturity stages, were measured by two developed systems with the wavelength ranges of 500-930 nm and 900-1400 nm, respectively. The raw spectral data were pre-processed by first derivative and standard normal variate (SNV), respectively, and then the effective wavelengths were selected using competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and random frog (RF). Partial least squares (PLS) and least square-support vector machines (LS-SVM) were employed to build the prediction models to evaluate SSC in tomatoes. The prediction results revealed that the best performance was obtained using the PLS model with the optimal wavelengths selected by CARS in the range of 900-1400 nm (Rp = 0.820 and RMSEP = 0.207 °Brix). Meanwhile, this best model yielded desirable results with Rp and RMSEP of 0.830 and 0.316 °Brix, respectively, in 60 samples of the independent set. The method proposed from this study can provide an effective and quick way to predict SSC in tomato.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.119139DOI Listing
March 2021

Progress in Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury.

Stem Cells Int 2020 5;2020:2853650. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the serious neurological diseases that occur in young people with high morbidity and disability. However, there is still a lack of effective treatments for it. Stem cell (SC) treatment of SCI has gradually become a new research hotspot over the past decades. This article is aimed at reviewing the research progress of SC therapy for SCI.

Methods: Review the literature and summarize the effects, strategies, related mechanisms, safety, and clinical application of different SC types and new approaches in combination with SC in SCI treatment.

Results: A large number of studies have focused on SC therapy for SCI, most of which showed good effects. The common SC types for SCI treatment include mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The modes of treatment include in vivo and in vitro induction. The pathways of transplantation consist of intravenous, transarterial, nasal, intraperitoneal, intrathecal, and intramedullary injections. Most of the SC treatments for SCI use a number of cells ranging from tens of thousands to millions. Early or late SC administration, application of immunosuppressant or not are still controversies. Potential mechanisms of SC therapy include tissue repair and replacement, neurotrophy, and regeneration and promotion of angiogenesis, antiapoptosis, and anti-inflammatory. Common safety issues include thrombosis and embolism, tumorigenicity and instability, infection, high fever, and even death. Recently, some new approaches, such as the pharmacological activation of endogenous SCs, biomaterials, 3D print, and optogenetics, have been also developed, which greatly improved the application of SC therapy for SCI.

Conclusion: Most studies support the effects of SC therapy on SCI, while a few studies do not. The cell types, mechanisms, and strategies of SC therapy for SCI are very different among studies. In addition, the safety cannot be ignored, and more clinical trials are required. The application of new technology will promote SC therapy of SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2853650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661146PMC
November 2020

The Growth Trend Predictions in Pulmonary Ground Glass Nodules Based on Radiomic CT Features.

Front Oncol 2020 20;10:580809. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University (Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine), Hangzhou, China.

The management of ground glass nodules (GGNs) remains a distinctive challenge. This study is aimed at comparing the predictive growth trends of radiomic features against current clinical features for the evaluation of GGNs. A total of 110 GGNs in 85 patients were included in this retrospective study, in which follow up occurred over a span ≥2 years. A total of 396 radiomic features were manually segmented by radiologists and quantitatively analyzed using an Analysis Kit software. After feature selection, three models were developed to predict the growth of GGNs. The performance of all three models was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The best performing model was also assessed by calibration and clinical utility. After using a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis and dimensionality reduction, the diameter and five specific radiomic features were included in the clinical model and the radiomic model. The rad-score [odds ratio (OR) = 5.130; < 0.01] and diameter (OR = 1.087; < 0.05) were both considered as predictive indicators for the growth of GGNs. Meanwhile, the area under the ROC curve of the combined model reached 0.801. The high degree of fitting and favorable clinical utility was detected using the calibration curve with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and the decision curve analysis was utilized for the nomogram. A combined model using the current clinical features alongside the radiomic features can serve as a powerful tool to assist clinicians in guiding the management of GGNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.580809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606974PMC
October 2020

sp. Strain 273 Degrades Fluorinated Alkanes.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 12 16;54(23):14994-15003. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, United States.

Fluorinated organic compounds have emerged as environmental constituents of concern. We demonstrate that the alkane degrader sp. strain 273 utilizes terminally monofluorinated C-C alkanes and 1,10-difluorodecane (DFD) as the sole carbon and energy sources in the presence of oxygen. Strain 273 degraded 1-fluorodecane (FD) (5.97 ± 0.22 mM, nominal) and DFD (5.62 ± 0.13 mM, nominal) within 7 days of incubation, and 92.7 ± 3.8 and 90.1 ± 1.9% of the theoretical maximum amounts of fluorine were recovered as inorganic fluoride, respectively. With -decane, strain 273 attained (3.24 ± 0.14) × 10 cells per μmol of carbon consumed, while lower biomass yields of (2.48 ± 0.15) × 10 and (1.62 ± 0.23) × 10 cells were measured with FD or DFD as electron donors, respectively. The organism coupled decanol and decanoate oxidation to denitrification, but the utilization of (fluoro)alkanes was strictly oxygen-dependent, presumably because the initial attack on the terminal carbon requires oxygen. Fluorohexanoate was detected as an intermediate in cultures grown with FD or DFD, suggesting that the initial attack on the fluoroalkanes can occur on the terminal methyl or fluoromethyl groups. The findings indicate that specialized bacteria such as sp. strain 273 can break carbon-fluorine bonds most likely with oxygenolytic enzyme systems and that terminally monofluorinated alkanes are susceptible to microbial degradation. The findings have implications for the fate of components associated with aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) mixtures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c04029DOI Listing
December 2020

On Consensus of Second-Order Multiagent Systems With Actuator Saturations: A Generalized-Nyquist-Criterion-Based Approach.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2020 Oct 21;PP. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

In this article, a frequency-domain approach is developed to deal with the global consensus problem for a class of general second-order multiagent systems (MASs) subject to actuator saturations. By employing the describing function and the generalized Nyquist criterion, the global consensus problem is thoroughly investigated for both undirected and directed topologies. First, the describing function is introduced to characterize the actuator saturations in the s-plane, and the inherent representation error is quantitatively analyzed from a frequency-domain perspective. Then, by means of the Kronecker product, the addressed consensus problem of the MAS is transformed into a corresponding stability analysis problem for a certain multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system and, consequently, the generalized Nyquist criterion for MIMO systems is exploited to derive the condition for the global consensus of the MAS where the impact from the actuator saturation is explicitly reflected. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the validity of the proposed theoretical result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2020.3025824DOI Listing
October 2020

Clinical and Laboratory Features of Three Rare Chinese V210I gCJD Patients.

Pathogens 2020 Sep 28;9(10). Epub 2020 Sep 28.

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, , National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chang-Bai Rd 155, Beijing 102206, China.

Genetic human prion diseases are a group of inherited encephalopathies directly associated with different mutations in PrP-encoding gene , including more than 50 different mutations worldwide. Some genotypes of mutations show ethno-correlation, and among them, genetic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (gCJD) with V210I mutation is frequent in European countries but rare in East Asia. Here, we comparatively analyzed the clinical and laboratory features of three Chinese patients with V210I mutant identified via the Chinese National CJD Surveillance System (CNS-CJD) in 2019. Two cases were Han Chinese and one was Hui Chinese, without blood kinship. The onset ages of three cases were 69, 64, and 59 years old, respectively. The clinical features of V210I gCJD were similar to sporadic CJD (sCJD), displaying typical clinical symptoms and signs, except that Case 3 did not show myoclonic movement. All three cases displayed sCJD-associated abnormalities on MRI and positive CSF 14-3-3, while two cases recorded typical EEG abnormalities. Only one case was positive in CSF real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC). Appearances of mutism in three cases were relatively fast, with the intervals of 30 to 50 days after onset. Family history was not reported in all three cases. Those V210I gCJD cases are rare in China, and probably the first three in East Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9100800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601525PMC
September 2020

The Preferred Locations of Meningioma According to Different Biological Characteristics Based on Voxel-Wise Analysis.

Front Oncol 2020 21;10:1412. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Meningiomas presented preferred intracranial distribution, which may reflect potential biological natures. This study aimed to analyze the preferred locations of meningioma according to different biological characteristics. A total of 1,107 patients pathologically diagnosed with meningiomas between January 2012 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative MRI were normalized, and lesions were semiautomatically segmented. The stereospecific frequency and p value heatmaps were constructed to compare two biological phenotypes using two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Age, sex, WHO grades, extent of resection (EOR), recurrence, and immunohistochemical markers including p53, Ki67, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), progesterone receptor (PR), and CD34 were statistically analyzed. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Of 1,107 cases, convexity (20.8%), parasagittal (16.1%), and falx (11.4%) were the most predominant loci of meningiomas. The -value heatmap suggested lesion predominance in the left frontal and occipital convexity among older patients while in the left sphenoid wing, and right falx, parasellar/cavernous sinus, and middle fossa among younger patients. Lesions located at anterior fossa and frontal structures were more frequently seen in the male while left parietal falx and tentorial regions, and right cerebellopontine angle in the female. Grades II and III lesions presented predominance in the frontal structures compared with grade I ones. Meningiomas at the left parasagittal sinus and falx, tentorium, intraventricular regions, and skull-base structures were significantly to receive subtotal resection. Lesions with p53 positivity were statistically located at the left frontal regions and parasellar/cavernous sinus, higher Ki67 index at the left frontal and bilateral parietal convexity and right parasellar/cavernous sinus, EMA negativity at the right olfactory groove and left middle fossa, and CD34 positivity at the sellar regions and right sphenoid wing. Tumor recurrence rates for grades I, II, and III were 2.8, 7.9, and 53.8%, respectively. Inferior RFS, higher Ki67 index, grades II and III, and a larger preoperative volume were observed in older patients. Recurrent meningiomas were more frequently found at the occipital convexity, tentorium, sellar regions, parasagittal sinus, and left sphenoid wing. The preferred locations of meningioma could be observed according to different biological characteristics, which might be helpful for clinical decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472960PMC
August 2020

Brief review on the roles of neutrophils in cancer development.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 02 24;109(2):407-413. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Kidney Transplantation, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Neutrophils, which are traditionally regarded as a hallmark of inflammation, are also a member of the intratumoral immune cells. The roles of neutrophils in cancer development are diverse and undefined. So far, they are known to be involved in tumor initiation and tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. They show heterogeneity in both phenotypes and functions during early versus late stage of cancer development. Because they are also associated with the clinical outcomes of various types of solid tumors, cancer treatments that target neutrophils might be highly effective. In this review, we briefly cover the latest findings on the multiple roles of neutrophils in cancer development and point out the future directions as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.4MR0820-011RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7891660PMC
February 2021

Comprehensive landscape of STEAP family functions and prognostic prediction value in glioblastoma.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Apr 23;236(4):2988-3000. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common, malignant, and deadly primary glioma. Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate (STEAP) family is involved in tumorigenesis; here, we have explored the biological function and the prognostic value of the STEAP family in GBM. Differentially expressed STEAP genes in tumor and normal samples were screened by using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression identified the prognosis-related genes: STEAP2 and STEAP3, which were involved in the regulation of immune response and cell cycle. Finally, a prognostic nomogram combining age, gender, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, IDH1 status, and the risk score model based on STEAP2 and STEAP3 was built and further validated in TCGA and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) cohorts via concordance index and calibration plot, which suggested a favorable value for prognosis prediction. In conclusion, our results provided a comprehensive analysis of the STEAP family and a model for the prognosis prediction of GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30060DOI Listing
April 2021

Modeling urban encroachment on ecological land using cellular automata and cross-entropy optimization rules.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 18;744:140996. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

College of Surveying & Geo-Informatics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China; The Shanghai Key Laboratory of Space Mapping and Remote Sensing for Planetary Exploration, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

Rapid urban expansion often leads to substantial encroachment on ecological lands and destruction of natural environments. We developed a new cellular automata model (named CA) that uses cross-entropy optimization (CEO) to reproduce and project urban expansion into coastal areas and to assess urban encroachment on ecological lands. The CEO algorithm automatically searches for the near-optimal CA parameters and is capable of objectively parameterizing CA models to predict multi-objective scenarios. We calibrated CA by simulating urban expansion at Wenzhou from 1995 to 2005, validated the model from 2005 to 2015 using real data, and then predicted urban expansion for 2025 and 2035. End-state overall accuracies were 93.8% for 2005 and 94.4% for 2015, while figure-of-merit metrics were 27.9% for 2005 and 19.1% for 2015. We predicted four different scenarios to year 2025 and 2035: (1) a business-as-usual (BAU)-scenario using benchmark settings; (2) a District-scenario based on a district-oriented urban development strategy; (3) a Road-scenario based on a road network-oriented urban development strategy; and (4) a Coast-scenario based on a coast-oriented urban development strategy. Each scenario predicts a substantially different pattern of urban encroachment on ecological land and significant loss of farmland, forest, wetland and grassland. These scenarios should be useful in adjusting urban development strategies at Wenzhou and elsewhere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140996DOI Listing
November 2020