Publications by authors named "Chen Chen"

4,614 Publications

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Rapid detection of neutralising acid adulterants in raw milk using a milk component analyser and chemometrics.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2022 Jun 29:1-11. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai, China.

This study focused on the development of a method for the rapid detection of acid-neutralising adulterants in raw milk using a milk composition analyser. Qualitative analysis for the discrimination of different acid-neutralising acid adulterants in raw milk and quantification of NaSCN in adulterated raw milk were conducted, combined with chemometrics. The results showed that the milk component analyser combined with principal component analysis (PCA) could judge whether raw milk samples were adulterated but cannot identify the types of adulterated substances. Although partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) can distinguish some adulterated raw milk samples, the accuracy rate was only 56.3%; the random forest (RF) model could recognise most adulterated raw milk samples with an accuracy rate of 97.5% and the F1-score was 0.9638. In the prediction model of NaSCN adulteration concentration in raw milk constructed by RF, the coefficient of determination () was 0.9889, and the root means square error (RMSE) was 3.28 × 10, suggesting a high prediction performance of the model. The effectiveness of the method for the detection of real samples in practical production was also proved. Based on the above results, it could conclude that the milk component analyser, combined with chemometrics, effectively distinguished acid-neutralising adulterants in raw milk. These findings provide a reference for the rapid detection of adulterants and the quality control of raw milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2022.2093985DOI Listing
June 2022

Gut Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Welsh Onion-producing Areas of North China.

J Econ Entomol 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

College of Plant Protection, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110866, P.R. China.

Gut microbiota play an important role in digestion, development, nutritional metabolism, and detoxification in insects. However, scant information exists on the gut bacterial variation, composition, and community structure of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and how its gut microbiota has adapted to different geographical environments. Using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology, we detected 3,837,408 high-quality reads and 1,457 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in 47 gut samples of S. exigua collected from ten sites in northern China. Overall, we identified 697 bacterial genera from 30 phyla, among which Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most dominant phyla. Gut bacterial alpha-diversity metrics revealed significant differences among these populations. We detected the highest alpha bacterial diversity in Xinming, northern Liaoning Province, and the lowest bacterial diversity in Zhangwu, western Liaoning Province. Beta diversity indicated that the gut microbial community structure of S. exigua in Liaoning Province was significantly different from that of other populations. There was a similar microbial community structure among populations in the adjacent province, suggesting that the environment influences bacterial succession in this pest. Finally, PICRUSt analysis demonstrated that microbial functions closely associated with the gut microbiomes mainly included membrane transport, carbohydrate metabolism and replication, and amino acid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toac103DOI Listing
June 2022

Virus-Like Particle-Templated Silica-Adjuvanted Nanovaccines with Enhanced Humoral and Cellular Immunity.

ACS Nano 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, 2 Linggong Road, 116024, Dalian, China.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are self-assembled viral proteins that represent a superior form of antigens in vaccine formulations. To enhance immunogenicity, adjuvants, especially the aluminum salts (Alum), are essentially formulated in VLP vaccines. However, Alum only induce biased humoral immune responses that limits further applications of VLP-based vaccines. To stimulate more balanced immunity, we, herein, develop a one-step strategy of using VLPs as the biotemplates to synthesize raspberry-like silica-adjuvanted [email protected] nanovaccines. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) VLPs and human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV 18) VLPs are selected as model templates. Circular dichroism (CD) and affinity analyses demonstrate that HBsAg VLPs in the nanovaccines maintain their secondary structure and immunogenicity, respectively. [email protected] promote silica dissolution-induced lysosomal escape and cytosolic delivery of antigens, and enhance the secretion of both Th1 and Th2 type cytokines in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Additionally, they could improve antigen trafficking and mediate DC activation in draining lymph nodes (DLNs). Vaccination study demonstrate that both HBsAg [email protected] and HPV 18 [email protected] nanovaccines induce enhanced antigen-specific antibody productions and T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses. This design strategy can utilize VLPs derived from a diversity of viruses or their variants as templates to construct both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines with improved immunogenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c01283DOI Listing
June 2022

A Hybrid Expert System for Individualized Quantification of Electrical Status Epilepticus During Sleep using Biogeography-based Optimization.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2022 Jun 28;PP. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) is an epileptic encephalopathy in children with complex clinical manifestations. It is accompanied by specific electroencephalography (EEG) patterns of continuous spike and slow-waves. Quantifying such EEG patterns is critical to the diagnosis of ESES. While most of the existing automatic ESES quantification systems ignore the morphological variations of the signal as well as the individual variability among subjects. To address these issues, this paper presents a hybrid expert system that dedicates to mimicking the decision-making process of clinicians in ESES quantification by taking the morphological variations, individual variability, and medical knowledge into consideration. The proposed hybrid system not only offers a general scheme that could propel a semi-auto morphology analysis-based expert decision model to a fully automated ESES quantification with biogeography-based optimization (BBO), but also proposes a more precise individualized quantification system to involve the personalized characteristics by adopting an individualized parameters-selection framework. The feasibility and reliability of the proposed method are evaluated on a clinical dataset collected from twenty subjects at Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. The estimation error for the individualized quantitative descriptor ESES is 0-4.32% and the average estimation error is 0.95% for all subjects. Experimental results show the presented system outperforms existing works and the individualized system significantly improves the performance of ESES quantification. The favorable results indicate that the proposed hybrid expert system for automatic ESES quantification is promising to support the diagnosis of ESES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2022.3186942DOI Listing
June 2022

Novel and sustainable carboxylation of terminal alkynes and CO to alkynyl carboxylic acids using triazolium ionic liquid-modified PMO-supported transition metal acetylacetonate as effective cooperative catalysts.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anshun University, Anshun, 561000, People's Republic of China.

Efficient and sustainable chemical fixation of CO into value-added chemicals is one of the most promising objectives in environmental chemistry. In this work, transition metal acetylacetonate immobilized onto triazolium ionic liquid-modified periodic mesoporous organosilica PMO-IL-M(x) was successfully prepared and investigated as an effective and heterogeneous catalyst in the direct carboxylation of terminal alkynes and CO to the desired alkynyl carboxylic acids. It was found that the catalyst PMO-IL-Sn(0.3) exhibited extraordinary catalytic performance in terms of excellent activity, stability, productivity, and excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, the catalyst PMO-IL-Sn(0.3) could be easily recovered and reused at least six times without considerable loss in catalytic activity. This work provides a sustainable and efficient synergistic strategy for the chemical fixation of carbon dioxide into valuable alkynyl carboxylic acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21630-yDOI Listing
June 2022

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid: A potential therapeutic target of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Jun 24;153:113326. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiological Disorders, Wuhan 430030, China. Electronic address:

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) reduces the quality of life, costs substantial medical resources, and has a high mortality. However, we lack an effective therapy for HFpEF due to our limited knowledge of its mechanism. Therefore, it is crucial to explore novel therapeutics, such as those with endogenous protective roles, and seek new targeted therapies. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are endogenous bioactive metabolites of arachidonic acids produced by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases. EETs can function as endogenous cardioprotective factors with potent inhibitory roles in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, cardiac remodeling, and fibrosis, which are the fundamental mechanisms of HFpEF. This suggests that EETs have the potential function to protect against HFpEF. Therefore, we present an overview of the ever-expanding world of EETs and how they might help alleviate the pathophysiology underlying HFpEF to provide new insights for research in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113326DOI Listing
June 2022

GPHB5 Is a Biomarker in Women With Metabolic Syndrome: Results From Cross-Sectional and Intervention Studies.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 9;13:893142. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Endocrinology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Animal studies have found that GPHB5 has a similar effect on system metabolism as TSH. However, the relationship between GPHB5 and metabolic diseases remains unknown. This study investigates the relationship between GPHB5 and MetS in young women.

Methods: Bioinformatics analysis was undertaken to explore the relationship between GPHB5 and metabolic-related genes and signaling pathways. EHC and OGTT were performed on all individuals. Lipid-infusion, physical activity, and cold-exposure tests were performed on healthy individuals. Serum GPHB5 concentrations were measured by an ELISA kit.

Results: PPI network showed that 11 genes interacted with GPHB5, in which POMC and KISS1R were involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. GO analysis showed 56 pathways for BP and 16 pathways for MF, in which OPRM1 and MCR families were related to energy metabolism. KEGG analysis found that GPHB5 is associated with lipolysis and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways. The levels of circulating GPHB5 were significantly increased, while serum adiponectin levels were lower in MetS women compared with healthy women. Obese/overweight individuals had lower adiponectin levels and higher GPHB5 levels. Circulating GPHB5 levels were positively correlated with BMI, WHR, blood pressure, FBG, 2 h-BG, HbA1c, FIns, 2h-Ins, LDL-C, FFA, HOMA-IR, and AUCg, etc. but negatively correlated with HDL-C, adiponectin, and M-values. Serum GPHB5 levels did not change significantly during the OGTT, EHC, and lipid infusion. Physical activity and cold-exposure tests did not lead to changes in GPHB5 levels. GLP-1RA treatment resulted in a significant decrease in serum GPHB5 levels.

Conclusions: GPHB5 may be a biomarker for MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.893142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218212PMC
June 2022

Evaluation of apical root defects during canal instrumentation with two different nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems by optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan.

J Dent Sci 2022 Apr 23;17(2):763-770. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Cardiology and Endodontology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Background/purpose: Canal instrumentation with rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments might weaken the dentinal wall. This study aims to investigate the apical root defects during canal instrumentation with two NiTi rotary systems by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans.

Materials And Methods: Twenty mandibular incisors were selected and divided into two groups instrumented using HyFlex CM (HCM) and ProTaper Universal (PTU) systems. OCT scans were taken immediately after canal instrumentation with file #25, #30 and #40. Each cross-sectional reconstructed image of 1, 2 and 3 mm from the apex was examined, root cracks were scored, and dentin thickness was measured at 12 sites. The risk sites with dentin thickness less than 0.30 mm were recorded.

Results: In HCM group, no cracks were observed after instrumentation with file #30/.06, while in PTU group, root cracks were found in 6 teeth with a total score of 9 after using F3 (#30/.09) (P < 0.05). After file #40, 8 teeth with cracks had a score of 14 in PTU group, while one tooth was observed crack with a score of 1 in HCM group (P < 0.05). The number of risk sites in PTU group was 49 (13.16%), which was significantly more than the 28 (7.78%) in HCM group (P < 0.05) when canals were instrumented with file #30.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, when the canals of mandibular incisors were instrumented with size #30 and #40 files, OCT scans showed less root defects in HCM group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2021.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201542PMC
April 2022

A Meta-Analysis on the Efficacy and Safety of Bacterial Lysates in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 9;9:877124. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and frequently encountered disease of respiratory apparatus and is vulnerable to infection. Increasing studies reveal that bacterial lysates play an encouraging role in preventing exacerbations in these patients. We here investigated the efficacy and safety of bacterial lysates in COPD.

Methods: We performed systematic research on PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), and Web of Science by using the keywords and their synonyms for studies published before January 11, 2022. Two researchers screened the studies of literature independently according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and extracted data from the included studies. Another two researchers assessed the risk of bias of each included using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Meta-analysis was conducted using R (version 4.1.1, The R Foundation for Statistical Computing) and Review Manager (version 5.4.0, The Cochrane Collaboration).

Results: A total of 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis, and the pooled results showed that bacterial lysates were effective to reduce exacerbation rate (overall: relative risk [RR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.96; alkaline bacterial lysate subgroup [OM-85]: RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.98; mechanical bacterial lysate subgroup [Ismigen]: RR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.41-1.20) and mean number of exacerbations (overall: MD = -0.42, 95% CI -0.75 to -0.08; alkaline bacterial lysate subgroup [OM-85]: MD = -0.72, 95% CI -1.35 to -0.09; mechanical bacterial lysate subgroup [Ismigen]: MD = -0.02, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.17). Bacterial lysates were also found beneficial in alleviating symptoms. The side effects were acceptable and slight.

Conclusion: Bacterial lysates can benefit patients with COPD by reducing exacerbations and alleviating symptoms. OM-85 is the preferable product based on the existing evidence. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.

Systematic Review Registration: [www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/], identifier [CRD42022299420].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.877124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218542PMC
June 2022

A molecularly-imprinted SERS sensor based on a [email protected] substrate for the selective capture and sensitive detection of tryptamine in foods.

Food Chem 2022 Jun 21;394:133536. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Key Laboratory of Food Processing Technology and Quality Control in Shandong Province, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Herein, a molecularly imprinted surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor was developed for the selective capture and sensitive detection of tryptamine in foods. The SERS sensor exploited silver nanoparticle-decorated TiO ([email protected]) substrates for Raman signal enhancement via synergistic effect of electromagnetic enhancement and photoinduced charge-transfer, whilst surface functionalization with the molecularly imprinted polymer ensured selective tryptamine capture. The SERS spectrum of tryptamine on the sensor closely matched that predicted by density functional simulations. The SERS intensity for tryptamine on the developed [email protected]@MIP sensor increased linearly with the logarithm of the tryptamine concentration over the range of 10-10 mol L, with a LOD of 4.85 × 10 mol L. Tryptamine was detected in a spiked white vinegar sample, and its recoveries were in the range of 92.00%-111.40%. The SERS sensor could be used for the detection of tryptamine in actual samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133536DOI Listing
June 2022

Chemical regulation of the cGAS-STING pathway.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2022 Jun 23;69:102170. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

MOE Laboratory of Biosystems Homeostasis and Protection and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Cancer Molecular Cell Biology, Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Cancer Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Nucleic acids represent a major class of pathogen and damage signatures, recognized by a variety of host sensors to initiate signaling cascades and immune responses, such as mechanisms of RLR-MAVS, cGAS-STING, TLR-TRIF, and AIM2 inflammasome. Yet, an outstanding challenge is understanding how nucleic acid sensing initiates immune responses and its tethering in various infectious, cancerous, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases. However, the discovery and application of a plethora of small molecule compounds have substantially facilitated this process. This review provides an overview and recent development of the innate DNA-sensing pathway of cGAS-STING and highlights the multiple agonists and inhibitors in fine-tuning the pathway that can be exploited to improve disease treatment, focusing primarily on crucial pathway components and regulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2022.102170DOI Listing
June 2022

Ultra-sensitive detection of streptomycin in foods using a novel SERS switch sensor fabricated by AuNRs array and DNA hydrogel embedded with DNAzyme.

Food Chem 2022 Nov 7;393:133413. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Food Processing Technology and Quality Control in Shandong Province, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Detrimental health effects caused by the intake of food contaminated with streptomycin have drawn concerns on effective monitoring using sensitive and selective methods. In this work, a DNA hydrogel surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor was successfully developed for the ultrasensitive determination of streptomycin residues in foods. The sensor used a DNA hydrogel containing DNAzyme (Pb-DNAzyme), triggering release of the Raman reporter 4-mercaptobenzonitrile, which was detected using a gold nanorods (AuNRs) array. The linear range of the sensor was 0.01-150 nM and the limit of detection was 4.85 × 10 nM. Tests conducted with four streptomycin structural analogues confirmed the sensor was specific. Milk and honey samples spiked with streptomycin were analysed, resulting in standard recoveries in the range 98.2-117.3%. These findings demonstrated that such a sensor can be used for ultrasensitive detection of streptomycin in foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133413DOI Listing
November 2022

Construction of Rhodamine-based AIE Photosensitizer Hydrogel with Clinical Potential for Selective Ablation of Drug-Resistant Gram-Positive Bacteria In Vivo.

Adv Healthc Mater 2022 Jun 24:e2200837. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03760, Korea.

The emergence of powerful antibiotic-resistant bacteria caused by the abuse of antibiotics has become a public health problem. Photodynamic antibacterial therapy is regarded as an innovative and promising antibacterial approach due to its minor side effects and lack of drug resistance. Nevertheless, few photosensitizers have been reported to have near-infrared (NIR) emission, the ability to rapidly discriminate bacteria, and high photodynamic antibacterial efficiency. In this study, we report for the first time that a water-soluble NIR fluorescence emission rhodamine-based photosensitizer with aggregation-inducing effects, referred to as CS-2I, can efficiently identify and kill Gram-positive bacteria. In a fluorescence imaging experiment with blended bacteria, CS-2I can selectively target Gram-positive bacteria and specifically label Gram-positive bacteria with high efficiency after only 5 min of incubation. Furthermore, CS-2I achieves complete inhibition of methicillin-resistant S. aureus at an extremely low concentration (0.5 μM) and light dosage (6 J/cm ). Remarkably, CS-2I was mixed with Carbomer 940 to prepare an antibacterial hydrogel dressing ([email protected]), and in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that [email protected] provided extraordinary performance in photodynamic antibacterial therapy. Hence, our study provides a new strategy and blueprint for the future design of antibacterial materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202200837DOI Listing
June 2022

Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two imidocarb formulations in cattle after subcutaneous injection.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(6):e0270130. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

National Feed Drug Reference Laboratories, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Imidocarb (IMD) is commonly used for treatment of eperythrozoon, babesia, piroplasma and trypanosoma in animals, but there are few studies on its pharmacokinetics in cattle. The purpose of this study was to obtain pharmacokinetic parameters and assess the bioequivalence of subcutaneous injections of two IMD formulations in cattle. Forty-eight healthy cattle, 24 males and 24 females, were randomLy divided into two groups (test group and reference group) with 12 males and 12 females per group. The generic IMD was injected subcutaneously with a single dose of 3.0 mg/kg in the test group. Reference group animals were given one injection of the marketed IMD at the same dosage. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for IMD in cattle plasma were 0.05 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 88.50% to 92.42%, and the equation of this calibration curve was Y = 13672.1X+187.43. The pharmacokinetics parameters of the test group showed that the maximum concentration of 2257.5±273.62 ng/mL was obtained at 2.14±0.67 h, AUC0-t 14553.95±1946.85 ng·h/mL, AUC∞ 15077.88±1952.19 ng·h/mL, T1/2 31.77±25.75 h, CL/F 0.14±0.02 mL/h/g, and Vz/F 6.53±5.34 mL/g. There was no significant difference in AUC0-t, AUC∞ and Cmax between the test group and the reference group (P>0.05). The 90% confidence interval of AUC0-t, AUC0-∞ and Cmax in the test group was included in 80%-125% AUC0-t, AUC0-∞ and 70%-143% Cmax in the reference group, respectively. Based on these results, the two preparations were found to be bioequivalent.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0270130PLOS
June 2022

Oxygen Vacancy-Mediated Selective C-N Coupling toward Electrocatalytic Urea Synthesis.

J Am Chem Soc 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Advanced Catalytic Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, P. R. China.

The electrocatalytic C-N coupling for one-step urea synthesis under ambient conditions serves as the promising alternative to the traditional urea synthetic protocol. However, the hydrogenation of intermediate species hinders the efficient urea synthesis. Herein, the oxygen vacancy-enriched CeO was demonstrated as the efficient electrocatalyst with the stabilization of the crucial intermediate of *NO inserting into vacant sites, which is conducive to the subsequent C-N coupling process rather than protonation, whereas the poor selectivity of C-N coupling with protonation was observed on the vacancy-deficient catalyst. The oxygen vacancy-mediated selective C-N coupling was distinguished and validated by the sum frequency generation spectroscopy. The introduction of oxygen vacancies tailors the common catalyst carrier into an efficient electrocatalyst with a high urea yield rate of 943.6 mg h g, superior than that of partial noble-metal-based electrocatalysts. This work provides novel insights into the catalyst design and developments of coupling systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.2c03452DOI Listing
June 2022

Porphyrindiene-Based Tandem Diels-Alder Reaction for Preparing Low-Symmetry π-Extended Porphyrins with Push-Pull Skeletons.

J Org Chem 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, School of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

Tandem Diels-Alder reactions of masked porphyrindienes (i.e., sulfolenoporphyrins) with benzoquinones and stilbenes, followed by aromatization, have been developed to load porphyrin with mixed annulation units (i.e., terphenyl and naphthoquinone), furnishing the low-symmetry π-extended porphyrins () with push-pull skeletons. All low-symmetrical chromophores display panchromatic absorption spectra, which look like a spectral combination of symmetrical congeners (/) in a certain ratio. Among them, with trans-arrangement of push/pull units possesses the largest maximum centered at 766 nm with the onset around 900 nm. The fusion of the electron-deficient naphthoquinone moiety on the porphyrin core results in the approximately quantitative regulation of the and HOMOs (i.e., 0.10-0.13 V increase for the and 0.14-0.16 eV decrease for the HOMOs per naphthoquinone unit). In brief, this work provides a new way to construct low-symmetry π-extended porphyrins with tunable properties resorting to the ratios and locations of the annulated push-pull units.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.2c00699DOI Listing
June 2022

Spontaneous Construction of Nucleophilic Carbonyl-Containing Interphase towards Ultra-Stable Zinc Metal Anodes.

Adv Mater 2022 Jun 23:e2202733. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Electronic Packaging and Advanced Functional Materials, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, P. R. China.

Multifunctional interfacial engineering on Zn anode to conquer the dendrite growth, hydrogen evolution and sluggish kinetics associated with Zn deposition is highly desirable for boosting the commercialization of aqueous zinc-ion batteries. Herein, a spontaneous construction of carbonyl-containing layer on Zn anode ([email protected]) is rationally designed as an ion redistributor and functional protective interphase. It has strong zincphilicity and dendrite suppression ability due to the significant interaction of the high-electronegative and high-nucleophilic carbonyl oxygen, favoring ion transport and homogenizing Zn deposition effectively. On the other side, the hydrogen bond formed by the proton acceptor of oxygen atom in ZCO regulates Zn-ion desolvation process at interfaces, thus bounding water activity and then mitigating the water-induced parasitic reactions. Consequently, the [email protected] anode exhibits an extended cycling lifespan of 5000 h (more than 208 days) with a dendrite-free surface and negligible by-products. More encouragingly, the effectiveness is also convincing in NH V O -based full-cells with excellent rate performance and cyclic stability. The stabilized Zn anode enabled by spontaneous construction strategy of functional solid-electrolyte interphase brings forward a facile and instructive approach towards high-performance zinc-storage systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202202733DOI Listing
June 2022

Study on the Cutting Damage Mechanism of Aramid Honeycomb Based on the Progressive Damage Model.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 8;15(12). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China.

A progressive damage model for aramid honeycomb cutting was proposed to reveal its cutting damage mechanism. It established the relationship between the mesoscale failure modes and the macroscale cutting damage types of the aramid honeycomb. The proposed model addressed the material assignment problem of impregnated honeycomb by developing a material calculation method that simulates the real manufacturing process of the aramid honeycomb. Cutting experiment of aramid honeycomb specimen was conducted concerning on the cutting forces response and cutting damages, which validated that the proposed method was effective for investigating the cutting process and mechanism for the aramid honeycomb. Predicted cutting mechanism results show that: (a) cutting process of the aramid honeycomb can be divided into three stages with four characteristic states-initial state, cut-in state, cut-out state and final state; (b) cell wall bending in the cutting direction relieves the cutting force, and strong plasticity of the aramid fiber makes it hard to break, which lead to uncut fiber and burr damages; (c) using sharp tip cutting tool to reduce cutting force and bonding both top and bottom of the honeycomb to make it stiffer are beneficial to obtain good cutting quality with less damages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15124063DOI Listing
June 2022

Agronomic Traits, Fresh Food Processing Characteristics and Sensory Quality of 26 Mung Bean ( L.) Cultivars (Fabaceae) in China.

Foods 2022 Jun 8;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.

In recent years, with the expansion of mung bean ( L.) planting areas and the increase of consumer demand, it has become imperative to screen high-quality mung bean cultivars. In this study, the agronomic traits, fresh bean characteristics, and sensory evaluation of boiled beans were analyzed for 26 mung bean cultivars. The results showed that the variation coefficient and genetic diversity index of six agronomic traits of mung bean ranged from 9.04% to 44.98%, 1.68 to 1.96, respectively, with abundant genetic variation, and the highest was the grain yield. Mung bean cultivars with higher grain yield had more advantage in the number of branches, number of pods per plant, and 100-seed weight. The fresh bean traits were relatively stable, with an average coefficient variation of 8.48%. The trait with the highest genetic diversity index was the number of seeds per pod (2.03). The cultivar with the highest total sensory evaluation score of boiled beans was Zhanglv 3 (75.67), which had more advantages in taste and color. Through the comprehensive evaluation of grey relational analysis, the cultivars suitable for fresh food processing were Zhonglv 3 (0.960), Jilv 11 (0.942), Zhonglv 1 (0.915), CES-78 (0.899) and Kelv 2 (0.896). Generally, the high-quality cultivars with higher yield and fresh food processing characteristics were CES-78, Kelv 2, Zhonglv 16, and Zhonglv 2. This study provided a preference for the breeding of fresh mung bean cultivars, development of new products and improvement of mung bean resource utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11121687DOI Listing
June 2022

Whole-Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Gender Dimorphic Expressions of Mrnas and Non-Coding Rnas in Chinese Soft-Shell Turtle ().

Biology (Basel) 2022 May 29;11(6). Epub 2022 May 29.

Key Laboratory of Tropical & Subtropical Fishery Resource Application & Cultivation of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510380, China.

In aquaculture, the Chinese soft-shelled turtle () is an economically important species with remarkable gender dimorphism in its growth patterns. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon have not been elucidated well. Here, we conducted a whole-transcriptome analysis of the female and male gonads of . Overall, 7833 DE mRNAs, 619 DE lncRNAs, 231 DE circRNAs, and 520 DE miRNAs were identified. Some "star genes" associated with sex differentiation containing , , and were identified. Additionally, some potential genes linked to sex differentiation, such as , , and , were also isolated in . Functional analysis showed that the DE miRNAs and DE ncRNAs were enriched in the pathways related to sex differentiation, including ovarian steroidogenesis, the hippo signaling pathway, and the calcium signaling pathway. Remarkably, a lncRNA/circRNA-miRNA-mRNA interaction network was constructed, containing the key genes associated with sex differentiation, including , , and . Collectively, we constructed a gender dimorphism profile of the female and male gonads of , profoundly contributing to the exploration of the major genes and potential ncRNAs involved in the sex differentiation of . More importantly, we highlighted the potential functions of ncRNAs for gene regulation during sex differentiation in as well as in other turtles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology11060834DOI Listing
May 2022

Comprehensive Analysis of Expression and Prognostic Value of MS4As in Glioma.

Front Genet 2022 6;13:795844. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Glioma is the most common malignancy of the nervous system with high mortality rates. The MS4A family members have been reported as potential prognostic biomarkers in several cancers; however, the relationship between the MS4A family and glioma has not been clearly confirmed. In our study, we explored the prognostic value of MS4As as well as their potential pro-cancer mechanisms of glioma. Using bioinformatics analysis methods based on the data from public databases, we found that the expression of MS4A4A, MS4A4E, MS4A6A, MS4A7, TMEM176A, and TMEM176B was significantly overexpressed in glioma tissues compared with that of normal tissues. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models revealed that high levels of MS4As can be associated with a poorer prognosis; TMEM176A, TMEM176B, age, WHO grade, and IDH status were identified as independent prognostic factors. Enrichment analysis predicted that MS4As were related to tumor-related pathways and immune response, which might regulate the process of MS4As promoting tumorigenesis. Additionally, we analyzed the correlations of MS4A expression with immune cells and immune inhibitory molecules. Finally, data from the cell culture suggested that knockdown of the TMEM176B gene contributes to the decreased proliferation and migration of glioma cells. In conclusion, MS4A4A, MS4A4E, MS4A6A, MS4A7, TMEM176A, and TMEM176B may act as potential diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in glioma and play a role in forming the immune microenvironment in gliomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.795844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207330PMC
June 2022

Transcriptome Analysis of Endogenous Hormone Response Mechanism in Roots of Under Waterlogging.

Front Plant Sci 2022 6;13:896850. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Collaborative Innovation Centre of Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Forest Science, Nanjing Forestry University (NJFU), Nanjing, China.

As a promising oil species, has great potential as a biofuel due to an excellent fatty acid composition. However, frequent flooding caused by global warming and the low tolerance of the species to waterlogging largely halted its expansion in waterlogged areas. To explore endogenous hormones and phytohormone-related molecular response mechanism of under waterlogging, we determined 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and three phytohormone content (ABA, abscisic acid; SA, salicylic acid; IAA, indole-3-acetic acid) and analyzed the transcriptome of its seedlings under waterlogged condition of 3-5 cm. The sample collecting time was 0, 9, 24, and 72 h, respectively. It was concluded that ACC presented an upward trend, but other plant hormones showed a downward trend from 0 to 72 h under waterlogging stress. A total of 84,601 unigenes were assembled with a total length of 81,389,823 bp through transcriptome analysis. The GO enrichment analysis of total differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that 4,637 DEGs, 8,238 DEGs, and 7,146 DEGs were assigned into three main GO functional categories in 9 vs. 0 h, 24 vs. 0 h, and 72 vs. 0 h, respectively. We also discovered several DEGs involved in phytohormone synthesis pathway and plant hormone signaling pathway. It was concluded that the decreased transcription of PYL resulted in the weak ABA signal transduction pathway. Moreover, decreased SA content caused by the low-expressed PAL might impact the resistance of seedlings under waterlogging stress. Our research may provide a scientific basis for the understanding of the endogenous hormone response mechanism of to waterlogging and lay a foundation for further exploration of the waterlogging defect resistance genes of and improving its resistance to waterlogging stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.896850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9208659PMC
June 2022

The chromosome-level genome for provides crucial insights into Anacardiaceae evolution and urushiol biosynthesis.

iScience 2022 Jul 2;25(7):104512. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Xi'an Botanical Garden of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Province Qinling-Bashan Mountains Engineering Research Centre of Conservation and Utilization of Biological Resources, Xi'an 710061, China.

The lacquer tree ( (Stokes) F.A. Barkley) is an important tree with economic, industrial, and medicinal values. Here, we generated the reference genome of at the chromosome level with 491.93 Mb in size, in which 98.26% of the assembled contigs were anchored onto 15 pseudochromosomes with the scaffold N50 of 32.97 Mb. Comparative genomic analysis revealed the gene families related to urushiol biosynthesis were expanded, contributing to the ecological fitness and biological adaptability of the lacquer tree. We combined multi-omics data to identify genes that encode key enzymes in the urushiol and lignin biosynthetic pathways. Furthermore, the unique active metabolites, such as butin and fisetin, in cultivar lacquers were identified by metabolism profiling. Our work would provide crucial insights into metabolite synthesis such as urushiol and lignin, meanwhile offer a basis for further exploration of the cultivation and breeding of and other Anacardiaceae members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.104512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207680PMC
July 2022

Understanding the coevolution of mask wearing and epidemics: A network perspective.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jun 22;119(26):e2123355119. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Computer Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904.

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as mask wearing can be effective in mitigating the spread of infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the behavioral dynamics of NPIs is critical for characterizing the dynamics of disease spread. Nevertheless, standard infection models tend to focus only on disease states, overlooking the dynamics of "beneficial contagions," e.g., compliance with NPIs. In this work, we investigate the concurrent spread of disease and mask-wearing behavior over multiplex networks. Our proposed framework captures both the competing and complementary relationships between the dueling contagion processes. Further, the model accounts for various behavioral mechanisms that influence mask wearing, such as peer pressure and fear of infection. Our results reveal that under the coupled disease-behavior dynamics, the attack rate of a disease-as a function of transition probability-exhibits a critical transition. Specifically, as the transmission probability exceeds a critical threshold, the attack rate decreases abruptly due to sustained mask-wearing responses. We empirically explore the causes of the critical transition and demonstrate the robustness of the observed phenomena. Our results highlight that without proper enforcement of NPIs, reductions in the disease transmission probability via other interventions may not be sufficient to reduce the final epidemic size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2123355119DOI Listing
June 2022

Isolated diastolic hypertension in childhood and risk of adult subclinical target organ damage: a 30-year prospective cohort study.

J Hypertens 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi'an Jiaotong University.

Background: Data on the association of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) in childhood with adult cardiovascular risk are scarce. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of IDH in adolescents and to explore the impact of IDH in childhood on adult subclinical target organ damage (STOD).

Methods: This longitudinal study consisted of 1738 school children (55.4% boys) aged 6-15 years from rural areas of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, who were followed for 30 years. Their blood pressure was recorded to define the hypertension subtypes: normotension, IDH, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and mixed hypertension. Tracked STOD included arterial stiffness (n = 1738), albuminuria (n = 1652) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (n = 1429).

Results: Overall, the prevalence of IDH, ISH and mixed hypertension was 5.4, 2.2 and 3%, respectively, and there was no gender difference. Over 30 years, 366 (21.1%) of participants developed arterial stiffness, 170 (10.3%) developed albuminuria and 68 (4.8%) developed LVH. Compared with normotensive participants, IDH in childhood had higher risk ratio (RR) of experiencing arterial stiffness (RR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.76) and albuminuria (RR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.35-4.16) in adults after being fully adjusted but not LVH. However, if the elevated blood pressure in children was used as the reference standard, IDH in childhood was associated with adult LVH (RR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.28-4.84).

Conclusion: IDH accounts for a higher proportion of adolescent hypertension subtypes and can increase the risk of adult STOD. These results highlight the necessity of improving the prevention, detection and treatment of IDH in adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000003183DOI Listing
June 2022

A novel homozygous missense mutation in the FASTKD2 gene leads to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

J Hum Genet 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital Central South University, Changsha, 410008, China.

FASTKD2 encodes an RNA-binding protein, which is a key post-transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial gene expression. Mutations in FASTKD2 have recently been found in mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, which is characterized by a deficiency in mitochondrial function. To date, seven patients have been reported. Six patients were identified with nonsense or frameshift mutations in the FASTKD2 gene, and only one patient harbored a missense mutation and a nonsense mutation. Here, we identified a novel FASTKD2 homozygous mutation, c.911 T > C, in a patient diagnosed with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. We observed that the expression of FASTKD2 and the levels of mitochondrial 16 S rRNA were lower in the patient than in the unaffected controls. In conclusion, the missense mutation c.911 T > C caused loss of function in FASTKD2, which was associated with a new phenotype, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-022-01056-7DOI Listing
June 2022

Research on the function of the Cend1 regulatory mechanism on p75NTR signaling in spinal cord injury.

Neuropeptides 2022 Jun 8;95:102264. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Orthopedics, The Sixth People's Hospital of Nantong, Yonghe Road 500, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

How to use NSC repair mechanisms, minimize the loss of neurons, and recover the damaged spinal cord functions are hotspots and difficulties in spinal cord injury research. Studies have shown that Cend1 signaling is involved in regulating the NSC differentiation, that p75NTR signaling is involved in the regulation of mature neuronal apoptosis and that NSC differentiation decreases mature neuron apoptosis. Our research group found an interaction between Cend1 and p75NTR, and there was a correlation with spinal cord injury. Therefore, we speculate that Cend1 regulates p75NTR signals and promotes the differentiation of NSCs, and inhibits neuronal apoptosis. Therefore, this study first analyzed the expression of p75NTR and Cend1 in spinal cord injury and its relationship with NSCs and neurons and then analyzed the regulatory mechanism and the mechanism of survival on neuronal apoptosis and differentiation of NSCs. Finally, we analyzed the effect of p75NTR and the regulation of Cend1 damage on functional recovery of the spinal cord with overall intervention. The completion of the subject will minimize the loss of neurons, innovative use of NSC repair mechanisms, and open up a new perspective for the treatment of spinal cord injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.npep.2022.102264DOI Listing
June 2022

Population Attributable Risks of Potential Modifiable Factors for Atrial Fibrillation in China: A National Survey.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2022 14;15:1215-1224. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Background: There is an association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and overall mortality as well as mobility. It is not known, however, what the preventable burden of AF in China is. This study aims to identify what proportion of the burden of AF may be avoided by modifiable risk factors.

Methods: As part of the China National Stroke Screening and Prevention Project, 726,451 adults aged ≥40 years were enrolled in a representative cross-sectional study. The following seven factors have been categorized as modifiable risk factors for AF: body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. In order to calculate population-attributable risks (PARs), odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for selected risk factors.

Results: The crude ORs increased with age (ORs ranged from 1.92 to 4.02). A total of 18,736 cases of prevalent AF have been identified. The overall prevalence of AF was 2.6%. The crude ORs increased with age (ORs range 1.92-4.03). The adjusted ORs and the corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) for these seven modifiable factors were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.19), 1.56 (95% CI: 1.49-1.62), 2.15 (95% CI: 2.02-2.28), 2.07 (95% CI: 2.01-2.14), 2.71 (95% CI: 2.62-2.79), 2.10 (95% CI: 2.02-2.19), 2.52 (95% CI: 2.44-2.60), and 3.32 (95% CI: 3.18-3.48), respectively. Accordingly, 59.3% of all cases of AF could be explained by having these modifiable risk factors, among which hypertension accounted for the greatest share.

Conclusion: In China, hypertension is the leading preventable cause of AF, and more than half of these cases can be prevented through improving those modifiable risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S360285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9206524PMC
June 2022

Effects of Selenoprotein S Knockdown on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in ATDC5 Cells and Gene Expression Profiles in Hypertrophic Chondrocytes.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases in the Education Ministry and Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases in Ministry of Health, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Selenoprotein S (SelS), a member of the selenoprotein family, is mainly located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. SelS is involved in a variety of biological processes, including oxidative stress, inflammation, glucose metabolism regulation, and ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). This study was designed to explore the role of SelS in chondrocytes. It was confirmed that SelS is a Se-sensitive selenoprotein in low-selenium rat and cell models. ER stress was not induced in SelS knockdown ATDC5 cells. However, treatment of ATDC5 cells with tunicamycin (Tm), an ER stress inducer, increased the expression of SelS, and knockdown of SelS aggravated ER stress induced by Tm, suggesting that SelS is a regulatory molecule involved in ER stress in chondrocytes. Both osteoarthritis and Kashin-Beck disease are osteochondral diseases associated with hypertrophic chondrocyte abnormalities. Therefore, ATDC5 cells were induced to hypertrophic chondrocytes. SelS was knocked down and RNA sequencing was performed. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that SelS knockdown affected a variety of biological processes, including cell adhesion, osteoclast differentiation, and extracellular matrix homeostasis. Collectively, this study verified that SelS is sensitive to selenium levels and is an ER stress-responsive molecule. Knocking down SelS can cause abnormal expression of adhesion molecules and matrix homeostasis disorder in hypertrophic chondrocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03313-4DOI Listing
June 2022

In Ovo Intravascular Injection in Chicken Embryos.

J Vis Exp 2022 Jun 3(184). Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety of Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University; Key Laboratory of Animal Breeding Reproduction and Molecular Design for Jiangsu Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University; College of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology;

As a classical model system of embryo biology, the chicken embryo has been used to investigate embryonic development and differentiation. Delivering exogenous materials into chicken embryos has a great advantage for studying gene function, transgenic breeding, and chimera preparation during embryonic development. Here we show the method of in ovo intravascular injection whereby exogenous materials such as plasmid vectors or modified primordial germ cells (PGCs) can be transferred into donor chicken embryos at early developmental stages. The results show that the intravascular injection through the dorsal aorta and head allows injected materials to diffuse into the whole embryo through the blood circulatory system. In the presented protocol, the efficacy of exogenous plasmid and lentiviral vector introduction, and the colonization of injected exogenous PGCs in the recipient gonad, were determined by observing fluorescence in the embryos. This article describes detailed procedures of this method, thereby providing an excellent approach to studying gene function, embryo and developmental biology, and gonad-chimeric chicken production. In conclusion, this article will allow researchers to perform in ovo intravascular injection of exogenous materials into chicken embryos with great success and reproducibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/63458DOI Listing
June 2022
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