Publications by authors named "Chelsea Ridgway"

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Pediatric Vocal Fold Paresis and Paralysis: A Narrative Review.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Importance: Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) results from the disruption of neural motor outputs to laryngeal muscles. Children with VFP manifest various degrees of difficulties in phonation, breathing, and swallowing. Although the etiologic characteristics and symptoms of VFP are well established in adults, corresponding clinical profiles are notably different in children. Clinical management of VFP is particularly challenging in children because their larynges are still actively developing and the recovery of disrupted laryngeal nerves is often unpredictable. This review discusses the neurologic conditions and diagnostic and treatment considerations in pediatric VFP.

Observations: Injury to the peripheral laryngeal nerves and certain central nervous system diseases, such as Arnold-Chiari malformation type II, can result in VFP in infants and children. The incidence of unilateral vs bilateral VFP is variable across pediatric studies. Most reported VFP cases are associated with injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Laryngeal electromyography requires needle insertion that must be performed under anesthesia with special care in the pediatric setting. Neither normative values nor standardized procedures of laryngeal electromyography are currently established for the pediatric population. Laryngeal reinnervation, endoscopic arytenoid abduction lateropexy, and laryngeal pacing are plausible treatment options for pediatric VFP. Despite these new advances in the field, no corresponding efficacy data are available for clinicians to discern which type of patients would be the best candidates for these procedures.

Conclusions And Relevance: The neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of VFP remain more elusive for the pediatric population than for adults. Basic and clinical research is warranted to fully comprehend the complexity of this laryngeal movement disorder and to better inform and standardize clinical practice.
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June 2021