Publications by authors named "Chelsea Richard"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Unintended Consequence of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic on Racial Inequities Associated With Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs): Findings From a Population-Based Study.

Front Public Health 2021 26;9:701887. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Children's Trust of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

A rising concern is the COVID-19 pandemic effect on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) due to increased parental stress and social/physical isolation. These pandemic effects are likely to be higher in already marginalized communities. The objective of this ecological study was to examine the relationship between COVID-19 cases and deaths, race/ethnicity, and the estimated number of adults with ACEs using data from South Carolina (SC). COVID-19 reported cases and death data were obtained from the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control. ACE data was used from the 2014-2016 SC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Census data were used to obtain county population data. To measure the relationship between these variables, the Spearman rank-order correlation test was used because the data distribution was non-normal. There was a moderate relationship between the estimated number of adults with one or more ACEs and deaths (ρ = 0.89) and race/ethnicity-specific COVID-19 case counts by county (Black: ρ = 0.76; =White: ρ = 0.96; Hispanic: ρ = 0.89). Further, the Spearman correlation test showed the strongest relationship between COVID-19 deaths and race-ethnicity-specific county populations was with the Black adult population (ρ = 0.90). Given the known link between existing health inequities and exposure to COVID-19, these results demonstrate that the current pandemic could have unintended consequences on the well-being of children and caregivers. Response efforts should consider promoting protective factors for children and families and advocating for equitable policies and systems that serve children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.701887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8576168PMC
November 2021

Prescription opioid use among women of reproductive age in the United States: NHANES, 2003-2018.

Prev Med 2021 Dec 13;153:106846. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

University of South Carolina, Arnold School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Columbia, SC, United States.

Women are prescribed opioids more often than men. Prescription opioid use among women of reproductive age is a public health concern because opioid use during pregnancy is associated with decreased prenatal care and increased risk of adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes. Recent prevalence estimates and correlates of prescription opioid use and long-term use among women of reproductive age are limited. Using the 2003-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we estimated the national prevalence, trend, and correlates of prescription opioid use, long-term use (≥ 90 days of use), and use of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) among women aged 15-44 (n = 13,558). Prescription opioid use within the last 30 days and prescription duration were collected through interviews and identified using prescription codes. Trend analysis was conducted using the National Cancer Institute Joinpoint Trend Analysis Software. The prevalence of prescription opioid use significantly decreased from 5.2% in 2003-2004 to 3.0% in 2017-2018 (p < .05). MOUD use increased significantly from 0.1% in 2005-2006 to 0.4% in 2011-2012. Long-term opioid use did not significantly change over time. Correlates of prescription opioid use and long-term use included ages 35-44, non-Hispanic White, public insurance, and women with poor or fair health status. As policy makers and clinicians strive to reduce the negative impacts of the opioid epidemic, they should consider the demographic groups most likely to use prescription opioids long-term. Additionally, reductions in opioid prescribing should be balanced with increased availability of nonopioid therapies and monitoring for opioid use disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8595805PMC
December 2021

A population-based estimate of the health care burden of obstructive sleep apnea using a STOP-BAG questionnaire in South Carolina.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 03;17(3):367-374

Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Study Objectives: Population based estimates of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) frequency and health impact are incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risk factors for physician and sleep study diagnosed OSA among individuals in a state-based surveillance program.

Methods: Using questions inserted into the 2016 (n = 5,564) and 2017 (n = 10,884) South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we analyzed the prevalence of physician diagnosed OSA and associated comorbidities. The validated STOP-BANG questionnaire without neck circumference (STOP-BAG) defined populations at moderate risk (score 3-4) and high risk (score 5-7). Statistical analysis using weighted prevalence and means and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) thus reflect population estimates of disease burden.

Results: The population-based prevalence of physician diagnosed OSA in South Carolina was 9.7% (95% CI: 9.0-10.4). However, the populations with moderate risk (18.5%, 95% CI: 17.3-19.8) and high risk (25.5%, 95% CI: 23.9-27.1) for OSA, as determined by the STOP-BAG questionnaire, were much higher. Compared to those at low risk for OSA, those at high risk were more often diagnosed with coronary heart disease, stroke, asthma, skin cancer, other cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, depression, kidney disease, and diabetes (all P < .001).

Conclusions: OSA is common and strongly associated with major comorbidities. As such, this public health crisis warrants more diagnostic and therapeutic attention. The STOP-BAG questionnaire provides a public health platform to monitor this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.8860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927332PMC
March 2021

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health Care Access Are Associated with Adverse Childhood Experiences.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2020 12 14;7(6):1225-1233. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

There is a growing body of research documenting racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negative health outcomes in adulthood. However, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences in the association between ACEs and health care access. Cross-sectional data collected from South Carolina's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2014-2016; n = 15,436) was used to examine associations among ACEs, race/ethnicity, and health care access among South Carolina adults. Specifically, logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for three health care access outcomes: having a personal doctor, routine checkup in the last 2 years, and delay in seeking medical care due to cost. Without adjusting for any covariates, in the overall population, the odds of having no personal doctor, no checkup in the last 2 years, and delay in medical care due to cost was significantly higher among those with at least one ACE, compared with those with no ACEs; and health care access varied by race, with significant relationships detected among Whites and Blacks. Among White adults, the odds of having no checkup in the last 2 years and delay in medical care due to cost was significantly higher among those with at least one ACE, compared with those with no ACEs. Among Black adults, a delay in medical care due to cost was significantly higher among those who reported ACEs compared with their counterparts. The results from this study suggest that ACEs may be an underrecognized barrier to health care for adults. Investing in strategies to mitigate ACEs may help improve health care access among adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00747-1DOI Listing
December 2020

Moderating the Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences to Address Inequities in Tobacco-Related Risk Behaviors.

Health Promot Pract 2020 01;21(1_suppl):139S-147S

University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can increase the risk of engagement in unhealthy behaviors including tobacco use. Protective factors, such as safe, stable, and nurturing relationships (SSNRs) can potentially moderate the long-term impact of ACEs by helping children build resilience. However, there is limited research on whether the impact of these factors is stronger among Black children and families, who face disproportionately poorer health outcomes compared to their White counterparts. This study examined the relationships among protective factors in childhood, ACEs (one or more vs. none), and tobacco use (smoking tobacco, e-cigarette use) in adulthood, including whether these relationships differed by race. Data were obtained from the 2016 South Carolina administration of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System ( = 7,014). Using stratified, multivariate logistic regression, the presence of an SSNR in childhood (whether participants' basic needs were met and whether they felt safe and protected during childhood) was assessed as a potential moderator of the association between ACEs (one or more vs. none) and smoking tobacco or e-cigarettes stratified by race (Black and White). Control variables included sex, age, educational attainment, and income. Statistically significant moderating effects of an SSNR was present for White adults only: The relationship between ACEs and risk behaviors was weakened when an SSNR was present in childhood. Although SSNRs appear to prevent some risk behavior consequences from ACEs among some groups, additional research is needed to understand their potential utility across population subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524839919882383DOI Listing
January 2020

Use of a Cross-Sectional Survey in the Adult Population to Characterize Persons at High-Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Healthcare (Basel) 2019 Jan 18;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

Rationale/Objective: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) health survey has been used to describe the epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the US. Through addressing respiratory symptoms and tobacco use, it could also be used to characterize COPD risk.

Methods: Four US states added questions to the 2015 BRFSS regarding productive cough, shortness of breath, dyspnea on exertion, and tobacco duration. We determined COPD risk categories: provider-diagnosed COPD as self-report, high-risk for COPD as ≥10 years tobacco smoking and at least one significant respiratory symptom, and low risk was neither diagnosed COPD nor high risk. Disease burden was defined by respiratory symptoms and health impairments. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models with age as a covariate.

Results: Among 35,722 adults ≥18 years, the overall prevalence of COPD and high-risk for COPD were 6.6% and 5.1%. Differences among COPD risk groups were evident based on gender, race, age, geography, tobacco use, health impairments, and respiratory symptoms. Risk for disease was seen early where 3.75% of 25⁻34 years-old met high-risk criteria. Longer tobacco duration was associated with an increased prevalence of COPD, particularly >20 years. Seventy-nine percent of persons ≥45 years-old with frequent shortness of breath (SOB) reported having or being at risk of COPD, reflecting disease burden.

Conclusion: These data, representing nearly 18% of US adults, indicates those at high risk for COPD share many, but not all of the characteristics of persons diagnosed with the disease and demonstrates the value of the BRFSS as a tool to define lung health at a population level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7010012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6473439PMC
January 2019
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