Publications by authors named "Chelsea Martin"

23 Publications

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Step up your advocacy role.

J Pediatr Nurs 2020 Dec 22. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Harris College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas Christian University, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2020.12.007DOI Listing
December 2020

In Vivo Tumorigenesis, Osteolytic Sarcomas, and Tumorigenic Cell Lines from Transgenic Mice Expressing the Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax Viral Oncogene.

Am J Pathol 2021 02 9;191(2):335-352. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio. Electronic address:

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia, a disease commonly associated with hypercalcemia and osteolysis. There is no effective treatment for HTLV-1, and the osteolytic mechanisms are not fully understood. Mice expressing the HTLV-1 oncogene Tax, driven by the human granzyme B promoter (Tax), develop osteolytic tumors. To investigate the progression of the bone-invasive malignancies, wild-type, Tax, and Tax/interferon-γ mice were assessed using necropsy, histologic examination, IHC analysis, flow cytometry, and advanced imaging. Tax and Tax/interferon-γ malignancies of the ear, tail, and foot comprised poorly differentiated, round to spindle-shaped cells with prominent neutrophilic infiltrates. Tail tumors originated from muscle, nerve, and/or tendon sheaths, with frequent invasion into adjacent bone. F4/80 and anti-mouse CD11b (Mac-1) histiocytic cells predominated within the tumors. Three Tax/interferon-γ cell lines were generated for in vivo allografts, in vitro gene expression and bone resorption assays. Two cell lines were of monocyte/macrophage origin, and tumors formed in vivo in all three. Differences in Pthrp, Il6, Il1a, Il1b, and Csf3 expression in vitro were correlated with differences in in vivo plasma calcium levels, tumor growth, metastasis, and neutrophilic inflammation. Tax mouse tumors were classified as bone-invasive histiocytic sarcomas. The cell lines are ideal for further examination of the role of HTLV-1 Tax in osteolytic tumor formation and the development of hypercalcemia and tumor-associated inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2020.10.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863134PMC
February 2021

Diel and seasonal variations in the thermal biology of San Cristobal Lava Lizards (Microlophus bivittatus).

J Therm Biol 2020 Feb 10;88:102518. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales, Extensión Galápagos, Galapagos Science Center GSC, Casilla Postal 17-1200-841, Quito, 170901, Ecuador.

Thermal biology, and therefore energy acquisition and survival, of ectotherms can be affected by diel and seasonal patterns of environmental temperatures. Galápagos Lava Lizards live in seasonal environments that are characterized by a warm and wet period when reproductive activity is maximal, and cooler and drier period. With the use of radiotelemetric techniques to record lizard surface temperatures (T), we studied the thermal ecology of the San Cristóbal Lava Lizard (Microlophus bivittatus) during both the warm and cool seasons over two years. During the diel activity period and when operative temperatures exceeded T, at least on rock faces without canopy, 52% or less of the T observations fell within the laboratory-determined T range (36-40 °C). Therefore, lizards may have avoided very warm midday temperatures in shaded microhabitats and the lag times in changes in T values occurred as operative temperatures rose rapidly during late morning warming phase. Lizards effectively thermoregulated during a year with moderate warm season temperatures and during a cool season that was unseasonably warm. In contrast, lizards less effectively thermoregulated during the warmest and coolest years of the study. We did not detect intersexual differences in thermoregulation although males may thermoregulate less effectively than do females during the cool season although we were unable to detect significant differences using our nonparametric statistical techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2020.102518DOI Listing
February 2020

Cyclooxygenase and CD147 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma patient samples and cell lines.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2019 Oct 14;128(4):400-410.e3. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) contribute to inflammation, and cluster of differentiation factor 147 (CD147) contributes to invasiveness, but their relationship has not been previously examined within a cohort of patients with OSCC or OSCC cell lines.

Study Design: COX-2 and CD147 expression was determined by using immunohistochemistry on 39 surgical biopsy specimens of OSCC. Expression in tumor cells, stroma, and adjacent oral epithelium was characterized by using a visual grading system. COX-1, COX-2, and CD147 expression was determined in vitro by using OSCC cell lines (SCC25, BHY, and HN) and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Secretion of prostagladin E (PGE) from OSCC cell lines was determined by using PGE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Biopsy specimens showed higher COX-2 expression in tumor cells compared with stroma and adjacent epithelium (P < .05). There was no difference in CD147 expression among the tumor cells, stroma, and adjacent epithelium. In OSCC cell lines, there was a trend for COX-2 and CD147 gene expression to be coordinated. Interestingly, PGE secretion was more closely related to COX-1 expression than to COX-2 expression.

Conclusions: COX-1, COX-2, and CD147 appear to be independently regulated in OSCC, potentially representing 2 therapeutic targets for future investigation. COX-1 expression in OSCC deserves further study because it may be an important determinant of PGE secretion from OSCC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2019.06.005DOI Listing
October 2019

Role of COX-2/PGE2 Mediated Inflammation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Sep 22;10(10). Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada.

A significant amount of research indicates that the cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway of inflammation contributes to the development and progression of a variety of cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma, or the oral cavity and oropharynx (OSCC). Although there have been promising results from studies examining the utility of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of OSCC, this strategy has been met with only variable success and these drugs are also associated with toxicities that make them inappropriate for some OSCC patients. Improved inflammation-targeting therapies require continued study of the mechanisms linking inflammation and progression of OSCC. In this review, a synopsis of OSCC biology will be provided, and recent insights into inflammation related mechanisms of OSCC pathobiology will be discussed. The roles of prostaglandin E2 and cluster of differentiation factor 147 (CD147) will be presented, and evidence for their interactions in OSCC will be explored. Through continued investigation into the protumourigenic pathways of OSCC, more treatment modalities targeting inflammation-related pathways can be designed with the hope of slowing tumour progression and improving patient prognosis in patients with this aggressive form of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers10100348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6211032PMC
September 2018

CD147 and Cyclooxygenase Expression in Feline Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Vet Sci 2018 Aug 13;5(3). Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada.

Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a highly invasive form of cancer in cats. In human OSCC, cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) contributes to inflammation and tumor invasiveness. CD147 is a potential therapeutic target, but the expression of CD147 in feline OSCC has not been examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine if cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and CD147 expression in feline OSCC biopsies was coordinated. Tumor cells were more likely to express COX-2 (22/43 cases or 51%) compared to stroma (8/43 or 19%) and adjacent oral epithelium (9/31 cases or 29%) ( < 0.05). CD147 was also more likely to occur in tumor cells compared to stroma and adjacent mucosa, with 21/43 (49%) of cases having >50% tumor cells with mild or moderate CD147 expression, compared to 9/28 (32%) in adjacent epithelium and only 5/43 (12%) in adjacent stroma ( < 0.05). In feline OSCC cell lines (SCCF1, SCCF2, and SCCF3), CD147 gene expression was more consistently expressed compared to COX-2, which was 60-fold higher in SCCF2 cells compared to SCCF1 cells ( < 0.05). CD147 expression did not correlate with COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion, indicating that they may be independently regulated. CD147 potentially represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of feline OSCC and further study of CD147 is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5030072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163611PMC
August 2018

Dosage-dependent copy number gains in E2f1 and E2f3 drive hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Clin Invest 2017 Mar 30;127(3):830-842. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Disruption of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway, either through genetic mutation of upstream regulatory components or mutation of RB1 itself, is believed to be a required event in cancer. However, genetic alterations in the RB-regulated E2F family of transcription factors are infrequent, casting doubt on a direct role for E2Fs in driving cancer. In this work, a mutation analysis of human cancer revealed subtle but impactful copy number gains in E2F1 and E2F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using a series of loss- and gain-of-function alleles to dial E2F transcriptional output, we have shown that copy number gains in E2f1 or E2f3b resulted in dosage-dependent spontaneous HCC in mice without the involvement of additional organs. Conversely, germ-line loss of E2f1 or E2f3b, but not E2f3a, protected mice against HCC. Combinatorial mapping of chromatin occupancy and transcriptome profiling identified an E2F1- and E2F3B-driven transcriptional program that was associated with development and progression of HCC. These findings demonstrate a direct and cell-autonomous role for E2F activators in human cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI87583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5330731PMC
March 2017

E2f8 mediates tumor suppression in postnatal liver development.

J Clin Invest 2016 08 25;126(8):2955-69. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

E2F-mediated transcriptional repression of cell cycle-dependent gene expression is critical for the control of cellular proliferation, survival, and development. E2F signaling also interacts with transcriptional programs that are downstream of genetic predictors for cancer development, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we evaluated the function of the atypical repressor genes E2f7 and E2f8 in adult liver physiology. Using several loss-of-function alleles in mice, we determined that combined deletion of E2f7 and E2f8 in hepatocytes leads to HCC. Temporal-specific ablation strategies revealed that E2f8's tumor suppressor role is critical during the first 2 weeks of life, which correspond to a highly proliferative stage of postnatal liver development. Disruption of E2F8's DNA binding activity phenocopied the effects of an E2f8 null allele and led to HCC. Finally, a profile of chromatin occupancy and gene expression in young and tumor-bearing mice identified a set of shared targets for E2F7 and E2F8 whose increased expression during early postnatal liver development is associated with HCC progression in mice. Increased expression of E2F8-specific target genes was also observed in human liver biopsies from HCC patients compared to healthy patients. In summary, these studies suggest that E2F8-mediated transcriptional repression is a critical tumor suppressor mechanism during postnatal liver development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI85506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4966321PMC
August 2016

Animal models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Vet J 2016 Apr 24;210:7-16. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 1925 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common oral cancer worldwide. Local bone invasion into the maxilla or mandible and metastasis to regional lymph nodes often result in a poor prognosis, decreased quality of life and shortened survival time for HNSCC patients. Poor response to treatment and clinical outcomes are the major concerns in this aggressive cancer. Multiple animal models have been developed to replicate spontaneous HNSCC and investigate genetic alterations and novel therapeutic targets. This review provides an overview of HNSCC as well as the traditional animal models used in HNSCC preclinical research. The value and challenges of each in vivo model are discussed. Similarity between HNSCC in humans and cats and the possibility of using spontaneous feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) as a model for HNSCC in translational research are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.11.006DOI Listing
April 2016

Noncatalytic PTEN missense mutation predisposes to organ-selective cancer development in vivo.

Genes Dev 2015 Aug;29(16):1707-20

Solid Tumor Biology Program, James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Department of Molecular Genetics, College of Arts and Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA;

Inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is linked to increased PI3K-AKT signaling, enhanced organismal growth, and cancer development. Here we generated and analyzed Pten knock-in mice harboring a C2 domain missense mutation at phenylalanine 341 (Pten(FV)), found in human cancer. Despite having reduced levels of PTEN protein, homozygous Pten(FV/FV) embryos have intact AKT signaling, develop normally, and are carried to term. Heterozygous Pten(FV/+) mice develop carcinoma in the thymus, stomach, adrenal medulla, and mammary gland but not in other organs typically sensitive to Pten deficiency, including the thyroid, prostate, and uterus. Progression to carcinoma in sensitive organs ensues in the absence of overt AKT activation. Carcinoma in the uterus, a cancer-resistant organ, requires a second clonal event associated with the spontaneous activation of AKT and downstream signaling. In summary, this PTEN noncatalytic missense mutation exposes a core tumor suppressor function distinct from inhibition of canonical AKT signaling that predisposes to organ-selective cancer development in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.262568.115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561480PMC
August 2015

Erratum to: Cutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Exophiala attenuata in a Domestic Cat.

Mycopathologia 2015 Oct;180(3-4):289

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-015-9918-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608135PMC
October 2015

Cutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Exophiala attenuata in a Domestic Cat.

Mycopathologia 2015 Oct 19;180(3-4):281-7. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada,

A 7-year-old female-spayed, domestic short-haired cat was presented to her veterinarian with a mass on the hind paw. Histopathologic examination of a tissue biopsy revealed nodular pyogranulomatous panniculitis with intralesional pigmented fungal hyphae. A dematiaceous fungal isolate was isolated with a micromorphological phenotype consistent with the anamorphic genus Exophiala: budding cells, torulose mycelium and annellidic conidiogenesis from simple conidiophores consisting of terminal and lateral cells that tapered to a short beak at the apex. Sequence homology of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA gene confirmed the identification of the isolate as Exophiala attenuata. Reported here is the first confirmed case of feline phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. attenuata in North America. Similar to historical cases of feline phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spp., there was no history or postmortem evidence to suggest the patient was in an immunocompromised state (e.g., suffering from FeLV or FIV). Although aggressive surgical excision of local lesions is recommended prior to drug treatment when dealing with subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, surgery followed by itraconazole treatment did not resolve the E. attenuata infection in this cat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-015-9909-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7089347PMC
October 2015

Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts promotes angiogenesis in breast cancer.

PLoS One 2013 16;8(8):e71533. Epub 2013 Aug 16.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

Tumor fibroblasts are active partners in tumor progression, but the genes and pathways that mediate this collaboration are ill-defined. Previous work demonstrates that Ets2 function in stromal cells significantly contributes to breast tumor progression. Conditional mouse models were used to study the function of Ets2 in both mammary stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Conditional inactivation of Ets2 in stromal fibroblasts in PyMT and ErbB2 driven tumors significantly reduced tumor growth, however deletion of Ets2 in epithelial cells in the PyMT model had no significant effect. Analysis of gene expression in fibroblasts revealed a tumor- and Ets2-dependent gene signature that was enriched in genes important for ECM remodeling, cell migration, and angiogenesis in both PyMT and ErbB2 driven-tumors. Consistent with these results, PyMT and ErbB2 tumors lacking Ets2 in fibroblasts had fewer functional blood vessels, and Ets2 in fibroblasts elicited changes in gene expression in tumor endothelial cells consistent with this phenotype. An in vivo angiogenesis assay revealed the ability of Ets2 in fibroblasts to promote blood vessel formation in the absence of tumor cells. Importantly, the Ets2-dependent gene expression signatures from both mouse models were able to distinguish human breast tumor stroma from normal stroma, and correlated with patient outcomes in two whole tumor breast cancer data sets. The data reveals a key function for Ets2 in tumor fibroblasts in signaling to endothelial cells to promote tumor angiogenesis. The results highlight the collaborative networks that orchestrate communication between stromal cells and tumor cells, and suggest that targeting tumor fibroblasts may be an effective strategy for developing novel anti-angiogenic therapies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0071533PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3745457PMC
April 2014

Canonical and atypical E2Fs regulate the mammalian endocycle.

Nat Cell Biol 2012 Nov 14;14(11):1192-202. Epub 2012 Oct 14.

Solid Tumor Biology Program, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, Department of Molecular Genetics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

The endocycle is a variant cell cycle consisting of successive DNA synthesis and gap phases that yield highly polyploid cells. Although essential for metazoan development, relatively little is known about its control or physiologic role in mammals. Using lineage-specific cre mice we identified two opposing arms of the E2F program, one driven by canonical transcription activation (E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3) and the other by atypical repression (E2F7 and E2F8), that converge on the regulation of endocycles in vivo. Ablation of canonical activators in the two endocycling tissues of mammals, trophoblast giant cells in the placenta and hepatocytes in the liver, augmented genome ploidy, whereas ablation of atypical repressors diminished ploidy. These two antagonistic arms coordinate the expression of a unique G2/M transcriptional program that is critical for mitosis, karyokinesis and cytokinesis. These results provide in vivo evidence for a direct role of E2F family members in regulating non-traditional cell cycles in mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb2595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3616487PMC
November 2012

Evidence for a stepwise program of extrathymic T cell development within the human tonsil.

J Clin Invest 2012 Apr 1;122(4):1403-15. Epub 2012 Mar 1.

Medical Scientist Training Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

The development of a broad repertoire of T cells, which is essential for effective immune function, occurs in the thymus. Although some data suggest that T cell development can occur extrathymically, many researchers remain skeptical that extrathymic T cell development has an important role in generating the T cell repertoire in healthy individuals. However, it may be important in the setting of poor thymic function or congenital deficit and in the context of autoimmunity, cancer, or regenerative medicine. Here, we report evidence that a stepwise program of T cell development occurs within the human tonsil. We identified 5 tonsillar T cell developmental intermediates: (a) CD34⁺CD38dimLin⁻ cells, which resemble multipotent progenitors in the bone marrow and thymus; (b) more mature CD34⁺CD38brightLin⁻ cells; (c) CD34⁺CD1a⁺CD11c⁻ cells, which resemble committed T cell lineage precursors in the thymus; (d) CD34⁻CD1a⁺CD3⁻CD11c⁻ cells, which resemble CD4⁺CD8⁺ double-positive T cells in the thymus; and (e) CD34⁻CD1a⁺CD3⁺CD11c⁻ cells. The phenotype of each subset closely resembled that of its thymic counterpart. The last 4 populations expressed RAG1 and PTCRA, genes required for TCR rearrangement, and all 5 subsets were capable of ex vivo T cell differentiation. TdT⁺ cells found within the tonsillar fibrous scaffold expressed CD34 and/or CD1a, indicating that this distinct anatomic region contributes to pre-T cell development, as does the subcapsular region of the thymus. Thus, we provide evidence of a role for the human tonsil in a comprehensive program of extrathymic T cell development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI46125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3314444PMC
April 2012

Characterization of bone resorption in novel in vitro and in vivo models of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral Oncol 2012 Jun 21;48(6):491-9. Epub 2012 Jan 21.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most commonly diagnosed oral malignancy in humans and cats and frequently invades bone. The objective of this study was to determine if feline OSCC serves as a relevant model of human OSCC in terms of osteolytic behavior and expression of bone resorption agonists. Novel feline OSCC cell lines (SCCF2 and SCCF3) were derived from spontaneous carcinomas. Gene expression and osteolytic behavior were compared to an established feline OSCC cell line (SCCF1) and three human OSCC cell lines (UMSCC-12, A253 and SCC25). Interaction of OSCC with bone and murine pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3) was investigated using in vitro co-culture techniques. In vivo bioluminescent imaging, Faxitron radiography and microscopy were used to measure xenograft growth and bone invasion in nude mice. Human and feline OSCC expressing the highest levels of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) were associated with in vitro and in vivo bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. MC3T3 cells had increased receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) expression and reduced osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in conditioned medium from bone-invasive SCCF2 cells compared to minimally bone invasive SCCF3 cells, which was partially reversed with a neutralizing anti-PTHrP antibody. Human and feline OSCC cells cultured in bone-conditioned medium had increased PTHrP secretion and proliferation. Feline OSCC-induced bone resorption was associated with tumor cell secretion of PTHrP and with increased RANKL:OPG expression ratio in mouse preosteoblasts. Bone-CM increased OSCC proliferation and secretion of PTHrP. The preclinical models of feline OSCC recapitulated the bone-invasive phenotype characteristic of spontaneous OSCC and will be useful to future preclinical and mechanistic studies of bone invasive behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2011.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3350825PMC
June 2012

Effects of parathyroid hormone-related protein and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in Jurkat T-cells on tumor formation in vivo and expression of apoptosis regulatory genes in vitro.

Leuk Lymphoma 2012 Apr 3;53(4):688-98. Epub 2012 Jan 3.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA.

Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, but their effects on T-cells have not been well studied. Here we analyzed the functions of PTHrP and MIP-1α on T-cell growth and death both in vitro and in vivo by overexpressing either factor in human Jurkat T-cells. PTHrP or MIP-1α did not affect Jurkat cell growth in vitro, but PTHrP increased their sensitivity to apoptosis. Importantly, PTHrP and MIP-1α decreased both tumor incidence and growth in vivo. To investigate possible mechanisms, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assays were performed. Both PTHrP and MIP-1α increased the expression of several factors including signal transducer and activator of transcription 4, tumor necrosis factor α, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand and death-associated protein kinase 1, and decreased the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding 1, interferon γ and CD40 ligand in Jurkat cells. In addition, MIP-1α also increased the expression of transcription factor AP-2α and PTHrP increased expression of the vitamin D3 receptor. These data demonstrate that PTHrP and MIP-1α exert a profound antitumor effect presumably by increasing the sensitivity to apoptotic signals through modulation of transcription and apoptosis factors in T-cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2011.626883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3314295PMC
April 2012

Effect of zoledronic acid and amputation on bone invasion and lung metastasis of canine osteosarcoma in nude mice.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2011 Apr 4;28(4):377-89. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, USA.

Osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive, highly metastatic and lytic primary bone neoplasm commonly affecting the appendicular skeleton of dogs and children. Current treatment options include amputation of the afflicted limb, limb-sparing procedures, or palliative radiation with or without adjunct chemotherapy. Therapies that inhibit bone resorption, such as the bisphosphonates, may be an effective palliative therapy by limiting the local progression of OSA in those patients that are not viable candidates for amputation. We have developed a mouse model of canine skeletal OSA following intratibial inoculation of OSCA40 cells that spontaneously metastasized to the lungs. We demonstrated that therapy with a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (Zol), reduced OSA-induced bone lysis; however, Zol monotherapy or in combination with amputation was not effective at inhibiting pulmonary metastasis. While not reaching statistical significance, amputation of the tumor-bearing limb reduced the average incidence of lung metastases; however, this effect was nullified when Zol was added to the treatment protocol. In untreated mice, the magnitude of proximal tibial lysis was significantly correlated with the incidence of metastasis. The data support amputation alone for the management of appendicular OSA rather than combining amputation with Zol. However, in patients that are not viable candidates for amputation, Zol may be a useful palliative therapy for OSA by reducing the magnitude of lysis and therefore bone pain, despite the risk of increased pulmonary metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10585-011-9377-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4284437PMC
April 2011

Development of a brain metastatic canine prostate cancer cell line.

Prostate 2011 Sep 14;71(12):1251-63. Epub 2011 Feb 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: Prostate cancer in men has a high mortality and morbidity due to metastatic disease. The pathobiology of prostate cancer metastasis is not well understood and cell lines and animal models that recapitulate the complex nature of the disease are needed. Therefore, the goal of the study was to establish and characterize a new prostate cancer line derived from a dog with spontaneous prostate cancer.

Methods: A new cell line (Leo) was derived from a dog with spontaneous prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry and PCR were used to characterize the primary prostate cancer and xenografts in nude mice. Subcutaneous tumor growth and metastases in nude mice were evaluated by bioluminescent imaging, radiography and histopathology. In vitro chemosensitivity of Leo cells to therapeutic agents was measured.

Results: Leo cells expressed the secretory epithelial cytokeratins (CK)8, 18, and ductal cell marker, CK7. The cell line grew in vitro (over 75 passages) and was tumorigenic in the subcutis of nude mice. Following intracardiac injection, Leo cells metastasized to the brain, spinal cord, bone, and adrenal gland. The incidence of metastases was greatest to the central nervous system (80%) with a lower incidence to bone (20%) and the adrenal glands (16%). In vitro chemosensitivity assays demonstrated that Leo cells were sensitive to Velcade and an HDAC-42 inhibitor with IC(50) concentrations of 1.9 nm and 0.95 µm, respectively.

Conclusion: The new prostate cancer cell line (Leo) will be a valuable model to investigate the mechanisms of the brain and bone metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.21341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139788PMC
September 2011

Zoledronic acid reduces bone loss and tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of osteolytic oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Res 2010 Nov 19;70(21):8607-16. Epub 2010 Oct 19.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43214, USA.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common form of oral cancer. Destruction and invasion of mandibular and maxillary bone frequently occurs and contributes to morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that the bisphosphonate drug zoledronic acid (ZOL) would inhibit tumor-induced osteolysis and reduce tumor growth and invasion in a murine xenograft model of bone-invasive oral SCC (OSCC) derived from an osteolytic feline OSCC. Luciferase-expressing OSCC cells (SCCF2Luc) were injected into the perimaxillary subgingiva of nude mice, which were then treated with 100 μg/kg ZOL or vehicle. ZOL treatment reduced tumor growth and prevented loss of bone volume and surface area but had no effect on tumor invasion. Effects on bone were associated with reduced osteolysis and increased periosteal new bone formation. ZOL-mediated inhibition of tumor-induced osteolysis was characterized by reduced numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts at the tumor-bone interface, where it was associated with osteoclast vacuolar degeneration. The ratio of eroded to total bone surface was not affected by treatment, arguing that ZOL-mediated inhibition of osteolysis was independent of effects on osteoclast activation or initiation of bone resorption. In summary, our results establish that ZOL can reduce OSCC-induced osteolysis and may be valuable as an adjuvant therapy in OSCC to preserve mandibular and maxillary bone volume and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-0850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2970642PMC
November 2010

Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) stimulated prostate cancer growth and metastasis and inhibited bone formation in osteoblastic bone metastases.

Prostate 2011 May 18;71(6):615-25. Epub 2010 Oct 18.

M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Osteoblastic bone metastasis is the predominant phenotype observed in prostate cancer patients and is associated with high patient mortality and morbidity. However, the mechanisms determining the development of this phenotype are not well understood. Prostate cancer cells secrete several osteogenic factors including Wnt proteins, which are not only osteoinductive but also oncogenic. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the contribution of the Wnt signaling pathway in prostate cancer growth, incidence of bone metastases, and osteoblastic phenotype of bone metastases. The strategy involved overexpressing the Wnt antagonist, DKK-1, in the mixed osteoblastic and osteolytic Ace-1 prostate cancer cells.

Methods: Ace-1 prostate cancer cells stably expressing human DKK-1 or empty vector were established and transduced with lentiviral yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-luciferase (Luc). The Ace-1/vector(YFP-LUC) and Ace-1/DKK-1(YFP-LUC) cells were injected subcutaneously, intratibially, or in the left cardiac ventricle in athymic mice.

Results: Unexpectedly, DKK-1 significantly increased Ace-1 subcutaneous tumor mass and the incidence of bone metastases after intracardiac injection of Ace-1 cells. DKK-1 increased Ace-1 tumor growth associated with increased phospho46 c-Jun amino-terminal kinase by the Wnt noncanonical pathway. As expected, DKK-1 decreased the Ace-1 osteoblastic phenotype of bone metastases, as confirmed by radiographic, histopathologic, and microcomputed tomographic analysis. DKK-1 decreased osteoblastic activity via the Wnt canonical pathway evidenced by an inhibition of T-cell factor activity in murine osteoblast precursor ST2 cells.

Conclusion: The present study showed that DKK-1 is a potent inhibitor of bone growth in prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.21277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3025080PMC
May 2011

Osteolytic bone resorption in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2010 Apr;51(4):702-14

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is caused by human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Patients with ATLL frequently develop humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) resulting from increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Our goal was to investigate the mechanisms of ATLL-induced osteoclastic bone resorption. Murine calvaria co-cultured with HTLV-1-infected cells directly or conditioned media from cell cultures had increased osteoclast activity that was dependent on RANKL, indicating that factors secreted from ATLL cells had a stimulatory effect on bone resorption. Factors released from resorbing bone stimulated proliferation of HTLV-1-infected T-cells. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), both osteoclast stimulators, were expressed in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. Interestingly, when HTLV-1-infected T-cells were co-cultured with pre-osteoblasts, the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), an osteoclast inhibitory factor, was significantly down-regulated in the pre-osteoblasts. When OPG was added into the ex vivo osteoclastogenesis assay induced by HTLV-1-infected T-cells, osteoclastogenesis was strongly inhibited. In addition, HTLV-1-infected T-cells inhibited expression of early osteoblast genes and induced late genes. These regulators will serve as future therapeutic targets for the treatments of HHM in ATLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428191003646697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3057200PMC
April 2010

Zoledronic acid decreased osteolysis but not bone metastasis in a nude mouse model of canine prostate cancer with mixed bone lesions.

Prostate 2008 Jul;68(10):1116-25

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Background: Bone metastasis is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced prostate cancer and is manifested primarily as mixed osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions. However, the mechanisms responsible for bone metastases in prostate cancer are not clearly understood, in part due to the lack of relevant in vivo models that mimic the clinical presentation of the disease in humans. We previously established a nude mouse model with mixed bone metastases using intracardiac injection of canine prostate cancer cells (Ace-1). In this study, we hypothesized that tumor-induced osteolysis promoted the incidence of bone metastases and osteoblastic activity.

Methods: We studied the effect of inhibition of osteolysis with zoledronic acid (ZA) on the prevention and progression of Ace-1 bone metastases in nude mice using prophylactic and delayed treatment protocols. Bioluminescent imaging, radiography, and histopathological evaluation were performed to monitor the effect of ZA on the incidence, progression and nature of bone metastases.

Results: Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in tumor burden and the incidence of metastasis between control and treatment groups as detected by bioluminescent imaging and bone histomorphometry. However, radiographic and histopathological analysis showed a significant treatment-related decrease in osteolysis, but no effect on tumor-induced trabecular bone thickness in both treatment groups compared to controls.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the incidence of prostate cancer bone metastases in vivo was not reduced by zoledronic acid even though zoledronic acid inhibited bone resorption and bone loss associated with the mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic bone metastases in the Ace-1 model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.20776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2832740PMC
July 2008