Publications by authors named "Cheerag D Upadhyaya"

9 Publications

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Identifying patients at risk for nonroutine discharge after surgery for cervical myelopathy: an analysis from the Quality Outcomes Database.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 May 7:1-9. Epub 2021 May 7.

15Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Objective: Optimizing patient discharge after surgery has been shown to impact patient recovery and hospital/physician workflow and to reduce healthcare costs. In the current study, the authors sought to identify risk factors for nonroutine discharge after surgery for cervical myelopathy by using a national spine registry.

Methods: The Quality Outcomes Database cervical module was queried for patients who had undergone surgery for cervical myelopathy between 2016 and 2018. Nonroutine discharge was defined as discharge to postacute care (rehabilitation), nonacute care, or another acute care hospital. A multivariable logistic regression predictive model was created using an array of demographic, clinical, operative, and patient-reported outcome characteristics.

Results: Of the 1114 patients identified, 11.2% (n = 125) had a nonroutine discharge. On univariate analysis, patients with a nonroutine discharge were more likely to be older (age ≥ 65 years, 70.4% vs 35.8%, p < 0.001), African American (24.8% vs 13.9%, p = 0.007), and on Medicare (75.2% vs 35.1%, p < 0.001). Among the patients younger than 65 years of age, those who had a nonroutine discharge were more likely to be unemployed (70.3% vs 36.9%, p < 0.001). Overall, patients with a nonroutine discharge were more likely to present with a motor deficit (73.6% vs 58.7%, p = 0.001) and more likely to have nonindependent ambulation (50.4% vs 14.0%, p < 0.001) at presentation. On multivariable logistic regression, factors associated with higher odds of a nonroutine discharge included African American race (vs White, OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.38-5.51, p = 0.004), Medicare coverage (vs private insurance, OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.00-4.65, p = 0.04), nonindependent ambulation at presentation (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.17-4.02, p = 0.01), baseline modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association severe myelopathy score (0-11 vs moderate 12-14, OR 2, 95% CI 1.07-3.73, p = 0.01), and posterior surgical approach (OR 11.6, 95% CI 2.12-48, p = 0.004). Factors associated with lower odds of a nonroutine discharge included fewer operated levels (1 vs 2-3 levels, OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.96, p = 0.009) and a higher quality of life at baseline (EQ-5D score, OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.73, p = 0.001). On predictor importance analysis, baseline quality of life (EQ-5D score) was identified as the most important predictor (Wald χ2 = 9.8, p = 0.001) of a nonroutine discharge; however, after grouping variables into distinct categories, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (age, race, gender, insurance status, employment status) were identified as the most significant drivers of nonroutine discharge (28.4% of total predictor importance).

Conclusions: The study results indicate that socioeconomic and demographic characteristics including age, race, gender, insurance, and employment may be the most significant drivers of a nonroutine discharge after surgery for cervical myelopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.11.SPINE201442DOI Listing
May 2021

Intraoperative navigation assisted placement of percutaneous pedicle screws.

Neurosurg Focus 2013 Jul;35(2 Suppl):Video 16

Department of Neurological Surgery, Kadlec Neuroscience Center, Richland, Washington 99352, USA.

Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches are gaining popularity in many surgical fields. Potential advantages include reduced blood loss, shorter length of stay, and less soft-tissue trauma. Potential disadvantages include inadequate deformity correction, increased fluoroscopy, longer operative times, and decreased posterolateral fusion surface area exposure. This video demonstrates the key steps in our mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) using an expandable tubular retractor, placement of cannulated pedicle instrumentation, and subsequent deformity correction. The video demonstrates positioning, surgical opening through a midline incision, a bilateral Wiltse plane tubular approach for the TLIF, placement of bilateral cannulated pedicle screws, and deformity correction. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/Jj7w4i2DTMQ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2013.V2.FOCUS13220DOI Listing
July 2013

Analysis of the three United States Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption cervical arthroplasty trials.

J Neurosurg Spine 2012 Mar 23;16(3):216-28. Epub 2011 Dec 23.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Object: There are now 3 randomized, multicenter, US FDA investigational device exemption, industry-sponsored studies comparing arthroplasty with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for single-level cervical disease with 2 years of follow-up. These 3 studies evaluated the Prestige ST, Bryan, and ProDisc-C artificial discs. The authors analyzed the combined results of these trials.

Methods: A total of 1213 patients with symptomatic, single-level cervical disc disease were randomized into 2 treatment arms in the 3 randomized trials. Six hundred twenty-one patients received an artificial cervical disc, and 592 patients were treated with ACDF. In the three trials, 94% of the arthroplasty group and 87% of the ACDF group have completed 2 years of follow-up. The authors analyzed the 2-year data from these 3 trials including previously unpublished source data. Statistical analysis was performed with fixed and random effects models.

Results: The authors' analysis revealed that segmental sagittal motion was preserved with arthroplasty (preoperatively 7.26° and postoperatively 8.14°) at the 2-year time point. The fusion rate for ACDF at 2 years was 95%. The Neck Disability Index, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey Mental, and Physical Component Summaries, neck pain, and arm pain scores were not statistically different between the groups at the 24-month follow-up. The arthroplasty group demonstrated superior results at 24 months in neurological success (RR 0.595, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.006). The arthroplasty group had a lower rate of secondary surgeries at the 2-year time point (RR 0.44, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.004). At the 2-year time point, the reoperation rate for adjacent-level disease was lower for the arthroplasty group when the authors analyzed the combined data set using a fixed effects model (RR 0.460, I(2) = 2.9%, p = 0.030), but this finding was not significant using a random effects model. Adverse event reporting was too heterogeneous between the 3 trials to combine for analysis.

Conclusions: Both anterior cervical discectomy and fusion as well as arthroplasty demonstrate excellent 2-year surgical results for the treatment of 1-level cervical disc disease with radiculopathy. Arthroplasty is associated with a lower rate of secondary surgery and a higher rate of neurological success at 2 years. Arthroplasty may be associated with a lower rate of adjacent-level disease at 2 years, but further follow-up and analysis are needed to confirm this finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2011.6.SPINE10623DOI Listing
March 2012

Avoidance of wrong-level thoracic spine surgery: intraoperative localization with preoperative percutaneous fiducial screw placement.

J Neurosurg Spine 2012 Mar 4;16(3):280-4. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Object: The accurate intraoperative localization of the correct thoracic spine level remains a challenging problem in both open and minimally invasive spine surgery. The authors describe a technique of using preoperatively placed percutaneous fiducial screws to localize the area of interest in the thoracic spine, and they assess the safety and efficacy of the technique.

Methods: To avoid wrong-level surgery in the thoracic spine, the authors preoperatively placed a percutaneous 5-mm fiducial screw at the level of intended surgery using CT guidance. Plain radiographs and CT images with reconstructed views can then be referenced in the operating room to verify the surgical level, and the fiducial screw is easily identified on intraoperative fluoroscopy. The authors compared a group of 26 patients who underwent preoperative (often outpatient) fiducial screw placement prior to open or minimally invasive thoracic spine surgery to a historical group of 26 patients who had intraoperative localization with fluoroscopy alone.

Results: In the treatment group of 26 patients, no complications related to fiducial screw placement occurred, and there was no incidence of wrong-level surgery. In comparison, there were no wrong-level surgeries in the historical cohort of 26 patients who underwent mini-open or open thoracic spine surgery without placement of a fiducial screw. However, the authors found that the intraoperative localization fluoroscopy time was greatly reduced when a fiducial screw localization technique was employed.

Conclusions: The aforementioned technique for intraoperative localization is safe, efficient, and accurate for identifying the target level in thoracic spine exposures. The fiducial marker screw can be placed using CT guidance on an outpatient basis. There is a reduction in the amount of intraoperative fluoroscopy time needed for localization in the fiducial screw group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2011.3.SPINE10445DOI Listing
March 2012

Spinal deformity and Parkinson disease: a treatment algorithm.

Neurosurg Focus 2010 Mar;28(3):E5

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

Object: The authors review the literature on the treatment of spinal deformity in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and formulate a treatment algorithm.

Methods: The authors provide representative cases of patients with PD and spinal deformity who underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) or spinal surgery.

Results: In patients with PD and spinal deformity who undergo spinal surgery there is a high rate of acute and delayed complications. Patients who undergo DBS, while having significantly fewer complications, often do not regain sagittal balance.

Conclusions: Cases involving PD and camptocormia have a high rate of complications when spinal surgery is performed. The authors prefer to offer spinal surgery only to patients with coexisting spinal stenosis causing radiculopathy or myelopathy. Patients with PD and camptocormia without spinal stenosis may be considered for DBS, but the results are mixed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2010.1.FOCUS09288DOI Listing
March 2010

Spondylolisthesis following a pedicle subtraction osteotomy. Case report.

Neurosurg Focus 2010 Mar;28(3):E16

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is a powerful technique for correcting a fixed sagittal plane deformity. The authors report the case of a 51-year-old man with a history of multiple prior lumbar operations, flat-back syndrome, thoracic kyphosis, and radiculopathy, who underwent deformity correction surgery with T3-S1 pedicle screw fixation and L-3 PSO. Progressive spondylolisthesis of the PSO segment associated with rod fracture then developed. The patient subsequently underwent anterior and posterior revision surgery. This case is a rare instance of spondylolisthesis following PSO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2009.12.FOCUS09285DOI Listing
March 2010

Chyloretroperitoneum following anterior spinal deformity correction. Case report.

J Neurosurg Spine 2007 Nov;7(5):562-5

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0338, USA.

Chyloretroperitoneum is an uncommon complication following spinal surgery. The authors present the case of a patient in whom conservative treatment and initial surgical measures failed to relieve varied symptoms of postsurgical chyloretroperitoneum. Following attempts at conservative management, a peritoneal window was surgically created to divert lymphatic flow from the retroperitoneal space into the peritoneal space, where it was resorbed. This unique surgical technique provides yet another option in the treatment of refractory chyloretroperitoneum following anterior lumbar spinal surgery. The authors describe their technique and review retroperitoneal lymphatic anatomy along with similar case reports in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/SPI-07/11/562DOI Listing
November 2007

Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in a small rural community with a solo practice.

Am J Perinatol 2003 Feb;20(2):63-7

Highlands Regional Medical Center and Florida Hospital Heartland Division, Sebring, Florida, USA.

The objective of this study is to review the safety and success of a trial of labor after cesarean in a group of patients managed by a solo practitioner in a rural community. This was a retrospective review of all deliveries performed over an 11-year period by a single practitioner in a rural community. Standard contraindications for attempt at vaginal birth after cesarean were observed. Between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1999, there were 5015 total deliveries. Women with at least one previous cesarean delivery accounted for 11.8% (593) of all patients. Trial of labor was attempted in 413 (74.5%) of these patients, and resulted in vaginal delivery in 308 (75%). Maternal complications were similar between the groups. There was no incidence of uterine rupture, maternal deaths, or neonatal deaths. Vaginal birth after cesarean can be performed safely in isolated rural hospitals with a high success rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-38317DOI Listing
February 2003