Publications by authors named "Chaw Su Hlaing"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Childhood encephalitis in the Greater Mekong region (the SouthEast Asia Encephalitis Project): a multicentre prospective study.

Lancet Glob Health 2022 07;10(7):e989-e1002

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Encephalitis is a worldwide public health issue, with a substantially high burden among children in southeast Asia. We aimed to determine the causes of encephalitis in children admitted to hospitals across the Greater Mekong region by implementing a comprehensive state-of-the-art diagnostic procedure harmonised across all centres, and identifying clinical characteristics related to patients' conditions.

Methods: In this multicentre, observational, prospective study of childhood encephalitis, four referral hospitals in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar recruited children (aged 28 days to 16 years) who presented with altered mental status lasting more than 24 h and two of the following minor criteria: fever (within the 72 h before or after presentation), one or more generalised or partial seizures (excluding febrile seizures), a new-onset focal neurological deficit, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count of 5 per mL or higher, or brain imaging (CT or MRI) suggestive of lesions of encephalitis. Comprehensive diagnostic procedures were harmonised across all centres, with first-line testing was done on samples taken at inclusion and results delivered within 24 h of inclusion for main treatable causes of disease and second-line testing was done thereafter for mostly non-treatable causes. An independent expert medical panel reviewed the charts and attribution of causes of all the included children. Using multivariate analyses, we assessed risk factors associated with unfavourable outcomes (ie, severe neurological sequelae and death) at discharge using data from baseline and day 2 after inclusion. This study is registered with, NCT04089436, and is now complete.

Findings: Between July 28, 2014, and Dec 31, 2017, 664 children with encephalitis were enrolled. Median age was 4·3 years (1·8-8·8), 295 (44%) children were female, and 369 (56%) were male. A confirmed or probable cause of encephalitis was identified in 425 (64%) patients: 216 (33%) of 664 cases were due to Japanese encephalitis virus, 27 (4%) were due to dengue virus, 26 (4%) were due to influenza virus, 24 (4%) were due to herpes simplex virus 1, 18 (3%) were due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 17 (3%) were due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, 17 (3%) were due to enterovirus A71, 74 (9%) were due to other pathogens, and six (1%) were due to autoimmune encephalitis. Diagnosis was made within 24 h of admission to hospital for 83 (13%) of 664 children. 119 (18%) children had treatable conditions and 276 (42%) had conditions that could have been preventable by vaccination. At time of discharge, 153 (23%) of 664 children had severe neurological sequelae and 83 (13%) had died. In multivariate analyses, risk factors for unfavourable outcome were diagnosis of M tuberculosis infection upon admission (odds ratio 3·23 [95% CI 1·04-10·03]), coma on day 2 (2·90 [1·78-4·72]), supplementary oxygen requirement (1·89 [1·25-2·86]), and more than 1 week duration between symptom onset and admission to hospital (3·03 [1·68-5·48]). At 1 year after inclusion, of 432 children who were discharged alive from hospital with follow-up data, 24 (5%) had died, 129 (30%) had neurological sequelae, and 279 (65%) had completely recovered.

Interpretation: In southeast Asia, most causes of childhood encephalitis are either preventable or treatable, with Japanese encephalitis virus being the most common cause. We provide crucial information that could guide public health policy to improve diagnostic, vaccination, and early therapeutic guidelines on childhood encephalitis in the Greater Mekong region.

Funding: Institut Pasteur, Institut Pasteur International Network, Fondation Merieux, Aviesan Sud, INSERM, Wellcome Trust, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), and Fondation Total.
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July 2022

Longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis with cervical epidural haematoma following dengue virus infection.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2016 May 8;20(3):449-53. Epub 2016 Feb 8.

Division of Paediatric Neurology, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis associated with dengue infection is rare with no reported paediatric cases.

Methods: We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with flaccid quadriplegia 8 days after onset of acute dengue fever. MRI spine showed T2 hyperintensity associated with epidural hematoma at C3-C6 level of the spinal cord. Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation revealed absent motor evoked potentials bilaterally. We also summarise and compare the reported cases of transverse myelitis associated with dengue infection.

Results: Immunomodulatory treatment was given which included pulse methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapharesis. Six months post-admission, there was a good (near-complete) clinical recovery with the repeat MRI showing mild residual hyperintensity at C4 level and complete resolution of epidural haematoma.

Conclusion: This is the first reported paediatric case of longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis following dengue infection. It is also the first to illustrate that in patients with concomitant epidural haematoma a good outcome is possible despite not having surgical decompression. Clinicians should be aware of parainfectious dengue-related longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis in children and consider prompt immunomodulatory treatment.
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May 2016

Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome associated with dengue virus infection.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014 Nov 16;20(11):1309-10. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Division of Neurology and the Mah Pooi Soo & Tan Chin Nam Centre for Parkinson's & Related Disorders, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

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November 2014

Post-dengue encephalopathy and Parkinsonism.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2014 Oct;33(10):1092-4

From the *Division of Paediatric Neurology, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya; and †Paediatric and Child Health Research Group, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Parkinsonism as a neurologic manifestation of dengue infection is rare with only 1 reported case in an adult patient. We report a case of a 6-year-old child with self-limiting post-dengue encephalopathy and Parkinsonism. This is the first reported pediatric case of post-dengue Parkinsonism and expands the neurologic manifestations associated with dengue infection in children. Clinicians should consider the possibility of post-dengue Parkinsonism in children with a history of pyrexia from endemic areas of dengue.
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October 2014