Publications by authors named "Chathyan Pararasa"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reduced CD27IgD B Cells in Blood and Raised CD27IgD B Cells in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Front Immunol 2019 5;10:361. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University London, London, United Kingdom.

The intestinal mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) contains increased frequencies of lymphocytes and a disproportionate increase in plasma cells secreting immunoglobulin (Ig)G relative to other isotypes compared to healthy controls. Despite consistent evidence of B lineage cells in the mucosa in IBD, little is known of B cell recruitment to the gut in IBD. Here we analyzed B cells in blood of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) with a range of disease activities. We analyzed the frequencies of known B cell subsets in blood and observed a consistent reduction in the proportion of CD27IgD B cells expressing all Ig isotypes in the blood in IBD (independent of severity of disease and treatment) compared to healthy controls. Successful treatment of patients with biologic therapies did not change the profile of B cell subsets in blood. By mass cytometry we demonstrated that CD27IgD B cells were proportionately enriched in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in IBD. Since production of TNFα is a feature of IBD relevant to therapies, we sought to determine whether B cells in GALT or the CD27IgD subset in particular could contribute to pathology by secretion of TNFα or IL-10. We found that donor matched GALT and blood B cells are capable of producing TNFα as well as IL-10, but we saw no evidence that CD27IgD B cells from blood expressed more TNFα compared to other subsets. The reduced proportion of CD27IgD B cells in blood and the increased proportion in the gut implies that CD27IgD B cells are recruited from the blood to the gut in IBD. CD27IgD B cells have been implicated in immune responses to intestinal bacteria and recruitment to GALT, and may contribute to the intestinal inflammatory milieu in IBD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6411645PMC
June 2020

Plasma irisin is elevated in type 2 diabetes and is associated with increased E-selectin levels.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2017 11 9;16(1):147. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing and School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK.

Background: Irisin is a hormone released mainly from skeletal muscle after exercise which increases adipose tissue energy expenditure. Adipocytes can also release irisin after exercise, acting as a local adipokine to induce white adipose tissue to take on a brown adipose tissue-like phenotype, suggesting that irisin and its receptor may represent a novel molecular target for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diabetes. Previous reports provide conflicting evidence regarding circulating irisin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Methods: This study investigated plasma irisin concentrations in 79 T2DM individuals, assessing potential associations with measures of segmental body composition, markers of endothelial dysfunction and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length (TL).

Results: Resting, overnight-fasted plasma irisin levels were significantly higher in this group of T2DM patients compared with levels we previously reported in healthy volunteers (p < 0.001). Moreover, plasma irisin displayed a positive correlation with body mass index (p = 0.04), body fat percentage (p = 0.03), HbA1c (p = 0.03) and soluble E-selectin (p < 0.001). A significant negative association was observed between plasma irisin and visceral adiposity (p = 0.006) in T2DM patients. Multiple regression analysis revealed that circulating soluble E-selectin levels could be predicted by plasma irisin (p = 0.004). Additionally, cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to 200 ng/ml irisin for 4 h showed a significant fourfold increase in E-selectin and 2.5-fold increase in ICAM-1 gene expression (p = 0.001 and p = 0.015 respectively), and there was a 1.8-fold increase in soluble E-selectin in conditioned media (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: These data suggest that elevated plasma irisin in T2DM is associated with indices of adiposity, and that irisin may be involved in pro-atherogenic endothelial disturbances that accompany obesity and T2DM. Accordingly, irisin may constitute a potentially novel therapeutic opportunity in the field of obesity and cardiovascular diabetology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-017-0627-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5680831PMC
November 2017

Bardoxolone-methyl inhibits migration and metabolism in MCF7 cells.

Free Radic Res 2017 Feb;51(2):211-221

a Life & Health Sciences , Aston University , Birmingham , UK.

Bardoxolone-methyl (BAR) is reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-fibrotic effects. BAR activates Nrf2 and may ameliorate oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant genes. However, off-target effects, probably concentration and NFkB-dependent, have limited the clinical use of BAR. Nrf2 regulates expression of antioxidant and mitochondrial genes and has been proposed as a target for both obesity and breast cancer. Therefore, we explored whether BAR can alter migration and proliferation in the MCF7 cell line and whether metabolic function is affected by BAR. Incubation with BAR caused a time-dependent migratory inhibition and an associated decrease in mitochondrial respiration. Both migratory and mitochondrial inhibition by BAR were further enhanced in the presence of fatty acids. In addition to the activation of Nrf2, BAR altered the expression of target mRNA GCLC and UCP1. After 24 h, BAR inhibited both glycolytic capacity, reserve (p < 0.05) and oxidative phosphorylation (p < 0.001) with an associated increase in mitochondrial ROS and loss of intracellular glutathione in MCF7 cells; however, impairment of mitochondrial activity was prevented by N-acetyl cysteine. The fatty acid, palmitate, increased mitochondrial ROS, impaired migration and oxidative phosphorylation but palmitate toxicity towards MCF7 could not be inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine suggesting that they exert effects through different pathways. BAR-activated AKT, induced DNA damage and inhibited cell proliferation. When the proteasome was inhibited, there was loss of BAR-mediated changes in p65 phosphorylation and SOD2 expression suggesting non-canonical NFkB signaling effects. These data suggest that BAR-induced ROS are important in inhibiting MCF7 migration and metabolism by negatively affecting glycolytic capacity and mitochondrial function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715762.2017.1295452DOI Listing
February 2017

Redox regulation in metabolic programming and inflammation.

Redox Biol 2017 08 12;12:50-57. Epub 2017 Feb 12.

Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom.

Energy metabolism and redox state are intrinsically linked. In order to mount an adequate immune response, cells must have an adequate and rapidly available energy resource to migrate to the inflammatory site, to generate reactive oxygen species using NADPH as a cofactor and to engulf bacteria or damaged tissue. The first responder cells of the innate immune response, neutrophils, are largely dependent on glycolysis. Neutrophils are relatively short-lived, dying via apoptosis in the process of bacterial killing through production of hypochlorous acid and release of extracellular NETs. Later on, the most prevalent recruited innate immune cells are monocytes. Their role is to complete a damage limitation exercise initiated by neutrophils and then, as re-programmed M2 macrophages, to resolve the inflammatory event. Almost twenty five years ago, it was noted that macrophages lose their glycolytic capacity and become anti-inflammatory after treatment with corticosteroids. In support of this we now understand that, in contrast to early responders, M2 macrophages are predominantly dependent on oxidative phosphorylation for energy. During early inflammation, polarisation towards M1 macrophages is dependent on NOX2 activation which, via protein tyrosine phosphatase oxidation and AKT activation, increases trafficking of glucose transporters to the membrane and consequently increases glucose uptake for glycolysis. In parallel, mitochondrial efficiency is likely to be compromised via nitrosylation of the electron transport chain. Resolution of inflammation is triggered by encounter with apoptotic membranes exposing oxidised phosphatidylserine that interact with the scavenger receptor, CD36. Downstream of CD36, activation of AMPK and PPARγ elicits mitochondrial biogenesis, arginase expression and a switch towards oxidative phosphorylation in the M2 macrophage. Proinflammatory cytokine production by M2 cells decreases, but anti-inflammatory and wound healing growth factor production is maintained to support restoration of normal function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2017.01.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5312548PMC
August 2017

Age-associated changes in long-chain fatty acid profile during healthy aging promote pro-inflammatory monocyte polarization via PPARγ.

Aging Cell 2016 Feb 2;15(1):128-39. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK.

Differences in lipid metabolism associate with age-related disease development and lifespan. Inflammation is a common link between metabolic dysregulation and aging. Saturated fatty acids (FAs) initiate pro-inflammatory signalling from many cells including monocytes; however, no existing studies have quantified age-associated changes in individual FAs in relation to inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, we have determined the plasma concentrations of distinct FAs by gas chromatography in 26 healthy younger individuals (age < 30 years) and 21 healthy FA individuals (age > 50 years). Linear mixed models were used to explore the association between circulating FAs, age and cytokines. We showed that plasma saturated, poly- and mono-unsaturated FAs increase with age. Circulating TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations increased with age, whereas IL-10 and TGF-β1 concentrations decreased. Oxidation of MitoSOX Red was higher in leucocytes from FA adults, and plasma oxidized glutathione concentrations were higher. There was significant colinearity between plasma saturated FAs, indicative of their metabolic relationships. Higher levels of the saturated FAs C18:0 and C24:0 were associated with lower TGF-β1 concentrations, and higher C16:0 were associated with higher TNF-α concentrations. We further examined effects of the aging FA profile on monocyte polarization and metabolism in THP1 monocytes. Monocytes preincubated with C16:0 increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to phorbol myristate acetate-induced differentiation through ceramide-dependent inhibition of PPARγ activity. Conversely, C18:1 primed a pro-resolving macrophage which was PPARγ dependent and ceramide dependent and which required oxidative phosphorylation. These data suggest that a midlife adult FA profile impairs the switch from proinflammatory to lower energy, requiring anti-inflammatory macrophages through metabolic reprogramming.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4717269PMC
February 2016

CD4(+) T cell surface alpha enolase is lower in older adults.

Mech Ageing Dev 2015 Dec 1;152:56-62. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Life and Health Sciences, Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK. Electronic address:

To identify novel cell ageing markers in order to gain insight into ageing mechanisms, we adopted membrane enrichment and comparison of the CD4(+) T cell membrane proteome (purified by cell surface labelling using Sulfo-NHS-SS-Biotin reagent) between healthy young (n=9, 20-25 years) and older (n=10; 50-70 years) male adults. Following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to separate pooled membrane proteins in triplicates, the identity of protein spots with age-dependent differences (p<0.05 and >1.4 fold difference) was determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Seventeen protein spot density differences (ten increased and seven decreased in the older adult group) were observed between young and older adults. From spot intensity analysis, CD4(+) T cell surface α-enolase was decreased in expression by 1.5 fold in the older age group; this was verified by flow cytometry (n=22) and qPCR with significantly lower expression of cellular α-enolase mRNA and protein compared to young adult CD4(+) T cells (p<0.05). In an independent age-matched case-control study, lower CD4(+) T cell surface α-enolase expression was observed in age-matched patients with cardiovascular disease (p<0.05). An immune-modulatory role has been proposed for surface α-enolase and our findings of decreased expression suggest that deficits in surface α-enolase merit investigation in the context of immune dysfunction during ageing and vascular disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2015.09.005DOI Listing
December 2015

Evaluating the evidence for targeting FOXO3a in breast cancer: a systematic review.

Cancer Cell Int 2015 24;15(1). Epub 2015 Jan 24.

Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET UK.

Background: Tumour cells show greater dependency on glycolysis so providing a sufficient and rapid energy supply for fast growth. In many breast cancers, estrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factor receptor-positive cells proliferate in response to growth factors and growth factor antagonists are a mainstay of treatment. However, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells lack receptor expression, are frequently more aggressive and are resistant to growth factor inhibition. Downstream of growth factor receptors, signal transduction proceeds via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k), Akt and FOXO3a inhibition, the latter being partly responsible for coordinated increases in glycolysis and apoptosis resistance. FOXO3a may be an attractive therapeutic target for TNBC. Therefore we have undertaken a systematic review of FOXO3a as a target for breast cancer therapeutics.

Methods: Articles from NCBI were retrieved systematically when reporting primary data about FOXO3a expression in breast cancer cells after cytotoxic drug treatment.

Results: Increased FOXO3a expression is common following cytotoxic drug treatment and is associated with apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. There is some evidence that metabolic enzyme expression is also altered and that this effect is also elicited in TNBC cells. FOXO3a expression serves as a positive prognostic marker, especially in estrogen (ER) receptor positive cells.

Discussion: FOXO3a is upregulated by a number of receptor-dependent and -independent anti-cancer drugs and associates with apoptosis. The identification of microRNA that regulate FOXO3a directly suggest that it offers a tangible therapeutic target that merits wider evaluation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-015-0156-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4325954PMC
February 2015

Ageing, adipose tissue, fatty acids and inflammation.

Biogerontology 2015 Apr 4;16(2):235-48. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

School of Life and Health Science and Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK,

A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10522-014-9536-xDOI Listing
April 2015

Palmitate promotes monocyte atherogenicity via de novo ceramide synthesis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2012 Aug 26;53(4):796-806. Epub 2012 May 26.

School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Elevated plasma free fatty acids (FAs) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and unsaturated FA oleate on monocyte phenotype and function. Incubation of human U937 and THP-1 monocytes with palmitate for 24h increased cell surface expression of integrin CD11b and scavenger receptor CD36 in a concentration-dependent manner with some decrease in mitochondrial reducing capacity at high concentration (300 μM). Monocytes incubated with palmitate, but not oleate, showed increased uptake of oxidized LDL and increased adhesion to rat aortic endothelium, particularly at bifurcations. The palmitate-induced increase in CD11b and CD36 expression was associated with increased cellular C16 ceramide and sphingomyelin, loss of reduced glutathione, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased monocyte surface CD11b and CD36 was inhibited by fumonisin B1, an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, but not by the superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTBap. In contrast, MnTBap prevented the mitochondrial ROS increase and metabolic inhibition due to 300μM palmitate. This study demonstrates that in viable monocytes, palmitate but not oleate increases expression of surface CD11b and CD36. Palmitate increases monocyte adhesion to the aortic wall and promotes uptake of oxidized LDL and this involves de novo ceramide synthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.05.026DOI Listing
August 2012