Publications by authors named "Charlotte Indeck"

2 Publications

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Spinal cord injury below-level neuropathic pain relief with dorsal root entry zone microcoagulation performed caudal to level of complete spinal cord transection.

J Neurosurg Spine 2018 06 2;28(6):612-620. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

2Medsurant, LLC, Englewood, Colorado.

OBJECTIVE Surgically created lesions of the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) to relieve central pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have historically been performed at and cephalad to, but not below, the level of SCI. This study was initiated to investigate the validity of 3 proposed concepts regarding the DREZ in SCI central pain: 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through sympathetic nervous system (SNS) pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique somatotopic map of DREZ pain-generators. METHODS Three unique patients with both intractable SCI below-level central pain and complete spinal cord transection at the level of SCI were identified. All 3 patients had previously undergone surgical intervention to their spinal cords-only cephalad to the level of spinal cord transection-with either DREZ microcoagulation or cyst shunting, in failed attempts to relieve their SCI below-level central pain. Subsequent to these surgeries, DREZ lesioning of the spinal cord solely caudal to the level of complete spinal cord transection was performed using electrical intramedullary guidance. The follow-up period ranged from 1 1/2 to 11 years. RESULTS All 3 patients in this study had complete or near-complete relief of all below-level neuropathic pain. The analyzed electrical data confirmed and enhanced a previously proposed somatotopic map of SCI below-level DREZ pain generators. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study support the following hypotheses. 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through SNS pathways. 3) Perceived SCI below-level central pain follows a unique somatotopic map of DREZ pain generators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2017.9.SPINE17373DOI Listing
June 2018

Posttraumatic spinal cord tethering and syringomyelia: surgical treatment and long-term outcome.

J Neurosurg Spine 2009 Oct;11(4):445-60

Department of Neurosurgery, Craig Hospital, Englewood, Colorado 80113, USA.

Object: Permanent neurological loss after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a well-known phenomenon. There has also been a growing recognition and improved understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of late progressive neurological loss, which may occur after SCI as a result of posttraumatic spinal cord tethering (SCT), myelomalacia, and syringomyelia. A clinical study of 404 patients sustaining traumatic SCIs and undergoing surgery to arrest a progressive myelopathy caused by SCT, with or without progressive myelomalacia and cystic cavitation (syringomyelia) was undertaken. Both objective and subjective long-term outcomes were evaluated. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first series of this size correlating long-term patient perception of outcome with long-term objective outcome analyses.

Methods: During the period from January 1993 to November 2003, 404 patients who had previously sustained traumatic SCIs underwent 468 surgeries for progressive myelopathies attributed to tethering of the spinal cord to the surrounding spinal canal, with or without myelomalacia and syrinx formation. Forty-two patients were excluded because of additional pathological entities that were known to contribute to a progressive myelopathy. All surgeries were performed by the same neurosurgeon at a single SCI treatment center and by using a consistent surgical technique of spinal cord detethering, expansion duraplasty, and when indicated, cyst shunting.

Results: Outcome data were collected up to 12 years postoperatively. Comparisons of pre- and postoperative American Spinal Injury Association sensory and motor index scores showed no significant change when only a single surgery was required (86% of patients). An outcome questionnaire and phone interview resulted in > 90% of patients self-assessing arrest of functional loss; > 50% of patients self-assessing improvement of function; 17 and 18% self-assessing improvement of motor and sensory functions to a point greater than that achieved at any time postinjury, respectively; 59% reporting improvement of spasticity; and 77% reporting improvement of hyperhidrosis.

Conclusions: Surgery for spinal cord detethering, expansion duraplasty, and when indicated, cyst shunting, is a successful treatment strategy for arresting a progressive myelopathy related to posttraumatic SCT and syringomyelia. Results suggest that surgery leads to functional return in ~ 50% of patients, and that in some patients posttraumatic SCT limits maximal recovery of spinal cord function postinjury. A patient's perception of surgery's failure to arrest the progressive myelopathy corresponds closely with the need for repeat surgery because of retethering, cyst reexpansion, and pseudomeningocele formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2009.4.SPINE09333DOI Listing
October 2009