Publications by authors named "Charlotte Forsell"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Confirmation of high frequency of C9orf72 mutations in patients with frontotemporal dementia from Sweden.

Neurobiol Aging 2019 12 27;84:241.e21-241.e25. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Division for Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Theme Aging, Unit for Hereditary Dementias QA12, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common early-onset dementia. Up to half of the cases are familial, and several mutations have been identified as pathogenic. Repeat expansion mutations in C9orf72 are the most common genetic cause of FTD and are particularly frequent in Sweden and Finland. We aimed to determine the mutation frequency in patients with FTD ascertained at a memory clinic in Sweden and assess the inheritance pattern in the families. We screened 132 patients with FTD for mutations in C9orf72, GRN, and MAPT, and the frequency was 34.1%. Two novel variations, not previously published, were found; a pathogenic GRN mutation and a MAPT variation in intron 9 that we report as VUS. The likelihood of finding a mutation was highest in patients with a clear family history of dementia or motor neuron disease (76%), but mutations were also found in apparent sporadic cases. This confirms that FTD cohorts from Sweden have a relatively higher risk of an underlying mutation in all risk categories compared with other reported cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.03.009DOI Listing
December 2019

Phenotypic variability and neuropsychological findings associated with C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208383. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Karolinska Institutet, Dept NVS, Division for Neurogeriatrics, Bioclinicum, Akademiska stråket, Solna, Sweden.

Background: The GGGGCC repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene was recently identified as a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in several European populations. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort and to delineate the associated clinical features.

Methods And Findings: PCR-based assessments of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in all study samples (including 82 FTD, 37 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 16 other neurodegenerative/dementia disorder cases) were performed. We report the clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging findings obtained for the C9orf72 repeat expansion carriers. Of the 135 cases screened, 3/82 (3.7%) of all FTD cases and 1/37 (2.7%) of all clinical AD cases had a C9orf72 repeat expansion. In this cohort, the C9orf72 pathological expansion was found in clinical diagnoses bridging the FTD, parkinsonism, ALS and AD spectrum. Interestingly, we showed early writing errors without aphasia in two subjects with C9orf72 expansions.

Conclusions: This study represents the first genetic screening for C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort. The C9orf72 repeat expansion does not appear to be a common cause of FTD and related disorders. This report confirms the notion that C9orf72 repeat expansions underlie a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative phenotypes. Relatively isolated agraphia in two cases with C9orf72 repeat expansions is a strong motivation to provide detailed and sophisticated oral and written language assessments that can be used to more precisely characterize early cognitive deficits in these heterogeneous conditions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208383PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294384PMC
May 2019

Differences in proliferation rate between CADASIL and control vascular smooth muscle cells are related to increased TGFβ expression.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 06 13;22(6):3016-3024. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Karolinska Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Neurogeriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Huddinge, Sweden.

Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familial fatal progressive degenerative disorder. One of the pathological hallmarks of CADASIL is a dramatic reduction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in cerebral arteries. Using VSMCs from the vasculature of the human umbilical cord, placenta and cerebrum of CADASIL patients, we found that CADASIL VSMCs had a lower proliferation rate compared to control VSMCs. Exposure of control VSMCs and endothelial cells (ECs) to media derived from CADASIL VSMCs lowered the proliferation rate of all cells examined. By quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we observed increased Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) gene expression in CADASIL VSMCs. Adding TGFβ-neutralizing antibody restored the proliferation rate of CADASIL VSMCs. We assessed proliferation differences in the presence or absence of TGFβ-neutralizing antibody in ECs co-cultured with VSMCs. ECs co-cultured with CADASIL VSMCs exhibited a lower proliferation rate than those co-cultured with control VSMCs, and neutralization of TGFβ normalized the proliferation rate of ECs co-cultured with CADASIL VSMCs. We suggest that increased TGFβ expression in CADASIL VSMCs is involved in the reduced VSMC proliferation in CADASIL and may play a role in situ in altered proliferation of neighbouring cells in the vasculature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.13534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5980144PMC
June 2018

Rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3, and TREM2 implicate microglial-mediated innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease.

Authors:
Rebecca Sims Sven J van der Lee Adam C Naj Céline Bellenguez Nandini Badarinarayan Johanna Jakobsdottir Brian W Kunkle Anne Boland Rachel Raybould Joshua C Bis Eden R Martin Benjamin Grenier-Boley Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach Vincent Chouraki Amanda B Kuzma Kristel Sleegers Maria Vronskaya Agustin Ruiz Robert R Graham Robert Olaso Per Hoffmann Megan L Grove Badri N Vardarajan Mikko Hiltunen Markus M Nöthen Charles C White Kara L Hamilton-Nelson Jacques Epelbaum Wolfgang Maier Seung-Hoan Choi Gary W Beecham Cécile Dulary Stefan Herms Albert V Smith Cory C Funk Céline Derbois Andreas J Forstner Shahzad Ahmad Hongdong Li Delphine Bacq Denise Harold Claudia L Satizabal Otto Valladares Alessio Squassina Rhodri Thomas Jennifer A Brody Liming Qu Pascual Sánchez-Juan Taniesha Morgan Frank J Wolters Yi Zhao Florentino Sanchez Garcia Nicola Denning Myriam Fornage John Malamon Maria Candida Deniz Naranjo Elisa Majounie Thomas H Mosley Beth Dombroski David Wallon Michelle K Lupton Josée Dupuis Patrice Whitehead Laura Fratiglioni Christopher Medway Xueqiu Jian Shubhabrata Mukherjee Lina Keller Kristelle Brown Honghuang Lin Laura B Cantwell Francesco Panza Bernadette McGuinness Sonia Moreno-Grau Jeremy D Burgess Vincenzo Solfrizzi Petra Proitsi Hieab H Adams Mariet Allen Davide Seripa Pau Pastor L Adrienne Cupples Nathan D Price Didier Hannequin Ana Frank-García Daniel Levy Paramita Chakrabarty Paolo Caffarra Ina Giegling Alexa S Beiser Vilmantas Giedraitis Harald Hampel Melissa E Garcia Xue Wang Lars Lannfelt Patrizia Mecocci Gudny Eiriksdottir Paul K Crane Florence Pasquier Virginia Boccardi Isabel Henández Robert C Barber Martin Scherer Lluis Tarraga Perrie M Adams Markus Leber Yuning Chen Marilyn S Albert Steffi Riedel-Heller Valur Emilsson Duane Beekly Anne Braae Reinhold Schmidt Deborah Blacker Carlo Masullo Helena Schmidt Rachelle S Doody Gianfranco Spalletta W T Longstreth Thomas J Fairchild Paola Bossù Oscar L Lopez Matthew P Frosch Eleonora Sacchinelli Bernardino Ghetti Qiong Yang Ryan M Huebinger Frank Jessen Shuo Li M Ilyas Kamboh John Morris Oscar Sotolongo-Grau Mindy J Katz Chris Corcoran Melanie Dunstan Amy Braddel Charlene Thomas Alun Meggy Rachel Marshall Amy Gerrish Jade Chapman Miquel Aguilar Sarah Taylor Matt Hill Mònica Díez Fairén Angela Hodges Bruno Vellas Hilkka Soininen Iwona Kloszewska Makrina Daniilidou James Uphill Yogen Patel Joseph T Hughes Jenny Lord James Turton Annette M Hartmann Roberta Cecchetti Chiara Fenoglio Maria Serpente Marina Arcaro Carlo Caltagirone Maria Donata Orfei Antonio Ciaramella Sabrina Pichler Manuel Mayhaus Wei Gu Alberto Lleó Juan Fortea Rafael Blesa Imelda S Barber Keeley Brookes Chiara Cupidi Raffaele Giovanni Maletta David Carrell Sandro Sorbi Susanne Moebus Maria Urbano Alberto Pilotto Johannes Kornhuber Paolo Bosco Stephen Todd David Craig Janet Johnston Michael Gill Brian Lawlor Aoibhinn Lynch Nick C Fox John Hardy Roger L Albin Liana G Apostolova Steven E Arnold Sanjay Asthana Craig S Atwood 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Wright Chang-En Yu Lei Yu Fabienne Garzia Feroze Golamaully Gislain Septier Sebastien Engelborghs Rik Vandenberghe Peter P De Deyn Carmen Muñoz Fernadez Yoland Aladro Benito Hakan Thonberg Charlotte Forsell Lena Lilius Anne Kinhult-Stählbom Lena Kilander RoseMarie Brundin Letizia Concari Seppo Helisalmi Anne Maria Koivisto Annakaisa Haapasalo Vincent Dermecourt Nathalie Fievet Olivier Hanon Carole Dufouil Alexis Brice Karen Ritchie Bruno Dubois Jayanadra J Himali C Dirk Keene JoAnn Tschanz Annette L Fitzpatrick Walter A Kukull Maria Norton Thor Aspelund Eric B Larson Ron Munger Jerome I Rotter Richard B Lipton María J Bullido Albert Hofman Thomas J Montine Eliecer Coto Eric Boerwinkle Ronald C Petersen Victoria Alvarez Fernando Rivadeneira Eric M Reiman Maura Gallo Christopher J O'Donnell Joan S Reisch Amalia Cecilia Bruni Donald R Royall Martin Dichgans Mary Sano Daniela Galimberti Peter St George-Hyslop Elio Scarpini Debby W Tsuang Michelangelo Mancuso Ubaldo Bonuccelli Ashley R Winslow Antonio Daniele Chuang-Kuo Wu Oliver Peters Benedetta Nacmias Matthias Riemenschneider Reinhard Heun Carol Brayne David C Rubinsztein Jose Bras Rita Guerreiro Ammar Al-Chalabi Christopher E Shaw John Collinge David Mann Magda Tsolaki Jordi Clarimón Rebecca Sussams Simon Lovestone Michael C O'Donovan Michael J Owen Timothy W Behrens Simon Mead Alison M Goate Andre G Uitterlinden Clive Holmes Carlos Cruchaga Martin Ingelsson David A Bennett John Powell Todd E Golde Caroline Graff Philip L De Jager Kevin Morgan Nilufer Ertekin-Taner Onofre Combarros Bruce M Psaty Peter Passmore Steven G Younkin Claudine Berr Vilmundur Gudnason Dan Rujescu Dennis W Dickson Jean-François Dartigues Anita L DeStefano Sara Ortega-Cubero Hakon Hakonarson Dominique Campion Merce Boada John Keoni Kauwe Lindsay A Farrer Christine Van Broeckhoven M Arfan Ikram Lesley Jones Jonathan L Haines Christophe Tzourio Lenore J Launer Valentina Escott-Price Richard Mayeux Jean-François Deleuze Najaf Amin Peter A Holmans Margaret A Pericak-Vance Philippe Amouyel Cornelia M van Duijn Alfredo Ramirez Li-San Wang Jean-Charles Lambert Sudha Seshadri Julie Williams Gerard D Schellenberg

Nat Genet 2017 09 17;49(9):1373-1384. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Penn Neurodegeneration Genomics Center, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

We identified rare coding variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in a three-stage case-control study of 85,133 subjects. In stage 1, we genotyped 34,174 samples using a whole-exome microarray. In stage 2, we tested associated variants (P < 1 × 10) in 35,962 independent samples using de novo genotyping and imputed genotypes. In stage 3, we used an additional 14,997 samples to test the most significant stage 2 associations (P < 5 × 10) using imputed genotypes. We observed three new genome-wide significant nonsynonymous variants associated with Alzheimer's disease: a protective variant in PLCG2 (rs72824905: p.Pro522Arg, P = 5.38 × 10, odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.0059, MAF = 0.0093), a risk variant in ABI3 (rs616338: p.Ser209Phe, P = 4.56 × 10, OR = 1.43, MAF = 0.011, MAF = 0.008), and a new genome-wide significant variant in TREM2 (rs143332484: p.Arg62His, P = 1.55 × 10, OR = 1.67, MAF = 0.0143, MAF = 0.0089), a known susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease. These protein-altering changes are in genes highly expressed in microglia and highlight an immune-related protein-protein interaction network enriched for previously identified risk genes in Alzheimer's disease. These genetic findings provide additional evidence that the microglia-mediated innate immune response contributes directly to the development of Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669039PMC
September 2017

Identification and description of three families with familial Alzheimer disease that segregate variants in the SORL1 gene.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2017 06 9;5(1):43. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Department NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division for Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. The majority of AD cases are sporadic, while up to 5% are families with an early onset AD (EOAD). Mutations in one of the three genes: amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) or presenilin 2 (PSEN2) can be disease causing. However, most EOAD families do not carry mutations in any of these three genes, and candidate genes, such as the sortilin-related receptor 1 (SORL1), have been suggested to be potentially causative. To identify AD causative variants, we performed whole-exome sequencing on five individuals from a family with EOAD and a missense variant, p.Arg1303Cys (c.3907C > T) was identified in SORL1 which segregated with disease and was further characterized with immunohistochemistry on two post mortem autopsy cases from the same family. In a targeted re-sequencing effort on independent index patients from 35 EOAD-families, a second SORL1 variant, c.3050-2A > G, was found which segregated with the disease in 3 affected and was absent in one unaffected family member. The c.3050-2A > G variant is located two nucleotides upstream of exon 22 and was shown to cause exon 22 skipping, resulting in a deletion of amino acids Gly1017- Glu1074 of SORL1. Furthermore, a third SORL1 variant, c.5195G > C, recently identified in a Swedish case control cohort included in the European Early-Onset Dementia (EU EOD) consortium study, was detected in two affected siblings in a third family with familial EOAD. The finding of three SORL1-variants that segregate with disease in three separate families with EOAD supports the involvement of SORL1 in AD pathology. The cause of these rare monogenic forms of EOAD has proven difficult to find and the use of exome and genome sequencing may be a successful route to target them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-017-0441-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5465543PMC
June 2017

No common founder for C9orf72 expansion mutation in Sweden.

J Hum Genet 2017 Feb 25;62(2):321-324. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Department of NVS, Division for Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Center for Alzheimer Research, Huddinge, Sweden.

Hexanucleotide expansion mutations in the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) gene is the most common genetic cause for frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). SNP haplotype analyses have suggested that all C9orf72 expansion mutations originate from a common founder. However, not all C9orf72 expansion mutation carriers have the same haplotype. To investigate if the C9orf72 expansion mutation carriers in Sweden share a common founder, we have genotyped SNPs flanking the C9orf72 expansion mutation in cases with FTD, FTD-ALS or ALS to perform haplotype analysis. We have genotyped 57 SNPs in 232 cases of which 45 carried the C9orf72 expansion mutation. Two risk haplotypes consisting of 31 SNPs, spanning 131 kbp, were found to be significantly associated with the mutation. In summary, haplotype analysis on Swedish C9orf72 expansion mutation carriers indicates that the C9orf72 expansion mutation arose on at least two risk haplotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2016.108DOI Listing
February 2017

Novel progranulin mutations with reduced serum-progranulin levels in frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

Eur J Hum Genet 2013 Nov 6;21(11):1260-5. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Department of NVS, Karolinska Institutet, KI-Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with an age at onset generally below 65 years. Mutations in progranulin (GRN) have been reported to be able to cause FTLD through haploinsufficiency. We have sequenced GRN in 121 patients with FTLD and detected six different mutations in eight patients: p.Gly35Glufs*19, p.Asn118Phefs*4, p.Val200Glyfs*18, p.Tyr294*, p.Cys404* and p.Cys416Leufs*30. Serum was available for five of the mutations, where the serum-GRN levels were found to be >50% reduced compared with FTLD patients without GRN mutations. Moreover, the p.Cys416Leufs*30 mutation segregated in an affected family with different dementia diagnoses. The mutation frequency of GRN mutation was 6.6% in our FTLD cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2013.37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3798842PMC
November 2013

Linkage analysis of autopsy-confirmed familial Alzheimer disease supports an Alzheimer disease locus in 8q24.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2011 27;31(2):109-18. Epub 2011 Jan 27.

Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, KI-ADRC, KASPAC, Novum, Sweden.

Background/aims: We have previously reported the results of an extended genome-wide scan of Swedish Alzheimer disease (AD)-affected families; in this paper, we analyzed a subset of these families with autopsy-confirmed AD.

Methods: We report the fine-mapping, using both microsatellite markers and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in the observed maximum logarithm of the odds (LOD)-2 unit (LOD(max)-2) region under the identified linkage peak, linkage analysis of the fine-mapping data with additionally analyzed pedigrees, and association analysis of SNPs selected from candidate genes in the linked interval. The subset was made on the criterion of at least one autopsy-confirmed AD case per family, resulting in 24 families.

Results: Linkage analysis of a family subset having at least one autopsy-confirmed AD case showed a significant nonparametric single-point LOD score of 4.4 in 8q24. Fine-mapping under the linkage peak with 10 microsatellite markers yielded an increase in the multipoint (mpt) LOD score from 2.1 to 3.0. SNP genotyping was performed on 21 selected candidate transcripts of the LOD(max)-2 region. Both family-based association and linkage analysis were performed on extended material from 30 families, resulting in a suggestive linkage at peak marker rs6577853 (mpt LOD score = 2.4).

Conclusion: The 8q24 region has been implicated to be involved in AD etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000323808DOI Listing
July 2011

Altered enzymatic activity and allele frequency of OMI/HTRA2 in Alzheimer's disease.

FASEB J 2011 Apr 16;25(4):1345-52. Epub 2010 Dec 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

The serine-protease OMI/HTRA2, required for several cellular processes, including mitochondrial function, autophagy, chaperone activity, and apoptosis, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blot quantification of OMI/HTRA2 in frontal cortex of patients with AD (n=10) and control subjects (n=10) in two separate materials indicated reduced processed (active, 35 kDa) OMI/HTRA2 levels, whereas unprocessed (50 kDa) enzyme levels were not significantly different between the groups. Interestingly, the specific protease activity of OMI/HTRA2 was found to be significantly increased in patients with AD (n=10) compared to matched control subjects (n=10) in frontal cortex in two separate materials. Comparison of OMI/HTRA2 mRNA levels in frontal cortex and hippocampus, two brain areas particularly affected by AD, indicated similar levels in patients with AD (n=10) and matched control subjects (n=10). In addition, we analyzed the occurrence of the OMI/HTRA2 variants A141S and G399S in Swedish case-control materials for AD and PD and found a weak association of A141S with AD, but not with PD. In conclusion, our genetic, histological, and biochemical findings give further support to an involvement of OMI/HTRA2 in the pathology of AD; however, further studies are needed to clarify the role of this gene in neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.10-163402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3228343PMC
April 2011

Linkage to the 8p21.1 region Including the CLU gene in age at onset stratified alzheimer's disease families.

J Alzheimers Dis 2011 ;23(1):13-20

Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, KASPAC, Novum, Huddinge, Sweden.

Two powerful genome-wide association studies have recently reported significant association between sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and markers at the CLU locus in chromosome 8p. In this study, we have stratified our previously analyzed 109 Swedish AD families according to range in age at onset and performed whole-genome linkage analysis and subsequent fine-mapping in 8p21. The subgroup analyzed in the fine-mapping consisted of 28 families with AD, having a within-family onset-range not exceeding 8 years and an age at onset between 49 ≤ 70 years. A maximum non-parametric linkage peak (LOD = 3.5) was found between markers D8S1809 and 236c6-1. Intriguingly this linked 9.5cM region contains clusterin (CLU), which is one of the two top susceptibility genes for AD. Our finding may be a reflection of linkage to the CLU susceptibility gene, in the same way as familial AD has previously been linked to the APOE locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2010-101359DOI Listing
May 2011

Linkage to 20p13 including the ANGPT4 gene in families with mixed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

J Hum Genet 2010 Oct 1;55(10):649-55. Epub 2010 Jul 1.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet Alzheimer Disease Research Center, KASPAC, Huddinge, Sweden.

This study aimed at identifying novel susceptibility genes for a mixed phenotype of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Results from a genome scan showed strongest linkage to 20p13 in 18 families, and subsequent fine mapping was performed with both microsatellites and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 18 selected candidate transcripts in an extended sample set of 30 families. The multipoint linkage peak was located at marker rs2144151 in the ANGPT4 gene, which is a strong candidate gene for vascular disease because of its involvement in angiogenesis. Although the significance of the linkage decreased, we find this result intriguing, considering that we included additional families, and thus the reduced linkage signal may be caused by genetic heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2010.79DOI Listing
October 2010

Genetic association to the amyloid plaque associated protein gene COL25A1 in Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2010 Mar 22;31(3):409-15. Epub 2008 May 22.

Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, KASPAC, Novum, S-141 57 Huddinge, Sweden.

The COL25A1 gene, located in 4q25, encodes the CLAC protein, which has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. CLAC was originally identified in amyloid preparations from AD brain and has been shown to be associated with amyloid plaques, inhibition of Abeta-fibril elongation and increased protease resistance of Abeta-fibrils through direct binding to Abeta. These biochemical data as well as the genomic location of the COL25A1 gene in chromosome 4q25 where we previously have reported a weak linkage-signal in Swedish AD families encouraged us to perform a case-control association study of two LD blocks in COL25A1 using 817 AD cases and 364 controls. The LD blocks cover a putative Abeta-binding motif and the variable 3' end of the gene. The analyses indicated association to three of eight analysed SNPs. We found further support for the association by replication in a Swedish population-based longitudinal sample set (n=926). Thus, in addition to the biochemical data, there is now genetic evidence of association between COL25A1 and risk for Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.04.009DOI Listing
March 2010

Genotyping of apolipoprotein E: comparative evaluation of different protocols.

Curr Protoc Hum Genet 2003 Nov;Chapter 9:Unit9.14

Harvard Medical School/Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA.

Disease-associated gene polymorphisms provide both scientific insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical information regarding risk and progression. Of special interest is the epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene, which has emerged as a substantial risk factor for late-onset forms of Alzheimer disease and also influences the risk of cardiovascular disease. Genotyping of apolipoprotein E can be performed by several methods; presented here are a quality and cost-benefit analysis of four different protocols on a cohort of 42 clinical samples is included in the unit. Each method resulted in genotyping with a high sensitivity and specificity. The newer microtiter-plate-based high-throughput techniques, fluorescence polarization and SNaPshot analysis, were as reliable as the traditional techniques of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and reverse hybridization. The reverse hybridization method tends to be more cost- and time-effective when the number of analyses is limited, although economy of scale favors fluorescence polarization or SNaPshot analysis in larger studies. The latter approaches also provide the flexibility to investigate other polymorphic disease markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0471142905.hg0914s38DOI Listing
November 2003

Expanded high-resolution genetic study of 109 Swedish families with Alzheimer's disease.

Eur J Hum Genet 2008 Feb 24;16(2):202-8. Epub 2007 Oct 24.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Alzheimer Center (KASPAC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects approximately 20 million persons all over the world. There are both sporadic and familial forms of AD. We have previously reported a genome-wide linkage analysis on 71 Swedish AD families using 365 genotyped microsatellite markers. In this study, we increased the number of individuals included in the original 71 analysed families besides adding 38 new families. These 109 families were genotyped for 1100 novel microsatellite markers. The present study reports on the linkage data generated from the non-overlapping genotypes from the first genome scan and the genotypes of the present scan, which results in a total of 1289 successfully genotyped markers at an average density of 2.85 cM on 468 individuals from 109 AD families. Non-parametric linkage analysis yielded a significant multipoint LOD score in chromosome 19q13, the region harbouring the major susceptibility gene APOE, both for the whole set of families (LOD=5.0) and the APOE varepsilon4-positive subgroup made up of 63 families (LOD=5.3). Other suggestive linkage peaks that were observed in the original genome scan of 71 Swedish AD families were not detected in this extended analysis, and the previously reported linkage signals in chromosomes 9, 10 and 12 were not replicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201946DOI Listing
February 2008

A unique gene expression signature discriminates familial Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers from their wild-type siblings.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005 Oct 30;102(41):14854-9. Epub 2005 Sep 30.

Research Division, Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugade-naka, Konohana, Osaka 554-0022, Japan.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with an insidious onset and progressive course that inevitably leads to death. The current diagnostic tools do not allow for diagnosis until the disease has lead to irreversible brain damage. Genetic studies of autosomal dominant early onset familial AD has identified three causative genes: amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 and 2 (PSEN1 and PSEN2). We performed a global gene expression analysis on fibroblasts from 33 individuals (both healthy and demented mutation carriers as well as wild-type siblings) from three families segregating the APP(SWE), APP(ARC) and PSEN1 H163Y mutations, respectively. The mutations cause hereditary progressive cognitive disorder, including typical autosomal dominant AD. Our data show that the mutation carriers share a common gene expression profile significantly different from that of their wild-type siblings. The results indicate that the disease process starts several decades before the onset of cognitive decline, suggesting that presymptomatic diagnosis of AD and other progressive cognitive disorders may be feasible in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0504178102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1253556PMC
October 2005

No association between polymorphisms in the neprilysin promoter region and Swedish Alzheimer's disease patients.

Neurosci Lett 2003 Feb;337(2):111-3

Karolinska Institutet Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals Alzheimer Center, S-141 57 Huddinge, Sweden.

Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) deposition in brain is important in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neprilysin (NEP) appears to be the major Abeta degrading enzyme in vivo and reduced mRNA levels of NEP correlates with increased plaque density. We hypothesized that alterations in the NEP promoter region may alter NEP expression and thus be involved in the AD process. We investigated three putative important regions in the NEP promoter region; two dinucleotide-repeats (CA and GT) and a 480 base pair fragment. With fragment analysis and sequencing, 164 early-onset and 152 late-onset Swedish AD cases and 109 non-demented controls were investigated. No significant difference in the distribution of promoter polymorphisms between AD cases and controls were found in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3940(02)01300-9DOI Listing
February 2003