Publications by authors named "Charlotte C Gupta"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Relationship Between Diet and Sleep in Older Adults: a Narrative Review.

Curr Nutr Rep 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Physical Activity Research Group, Central Queensland University, 160 Ann St, Brisbane, QLD, 4000, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Older adults more frequently experience reduced sleep quality and quantity compared to younger adults. Diet is one modifiable lifestyle factor that may influence sleep outcomes in older adults. The purpose of this review is to synthesise the current literature investigating the impact of diet, including foods and nutrients, on the sleep quality and quantity of older adults.

Recent Findings: Overall, the observational and intervention studies suggest that following a Mediterranean diet, and the consumption of certain food items (e.g. milk), and nutrients (e.g. vitamin D and vitamin E) may influence (improve or reduce) sleep quality and quantity. This review describes the potential efficacy for dietary factors to improve sleep outcomes in older adults. However, given the heterogeneity of included studies in this review (i.e. aims, methodologies, and outcomes assessed), it is difficult to consolidate the available evidence to make specific recommendations. More targeted research exploring the relationship between diet and sleep in older adults is needed to strengthen the current evidence base.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13668-021-00362-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Sleep and physical activity in university students: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Mar 20;58:101482. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, Australia.

University students have low levels of physical activity and report disturbances to sleep, which are independently associated with poor health outcomes. Some research suggests that there is a bi-directional relationship between sleep and physical activity in adults. However, the relationship between sleep and physical activity in university students has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to qualitatively synthesise and quantitatively evaluate the evidence for the association between sleep and physical activity in university students. Twenty-nine eligible studies were included, with a total of 141,035 participants (43% men and 57% women). Only four studies used device-based measures of sleep and/or physical activity, with the remainder including self-report measures. Qualitative synthesis found that the majority of studies did not find any association between sleep and physical activity in university students. However, random-effects meta-analysis showed that moderate-to-high intensity physical activity was associated with lower PSQI scores (e.g., better sleep quality) [r = -0.18, 95% CI (-0.37, 0.03), p = 0.100]. Further, a weak negative association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity level and sleep duration was also found [r = -0.02, 95% CI (-0.16, 0.12), p = 0.760]. As the findings of this review are predominantly derived from cross-sectional investigations, with limited use of device-based measurement tools, further research is needed to investigate the relationship between sleep and physical activity in university students. Future studies should employ longitudinal designs, with self-report and device-based measures, and consider the intensity and time of physical activity as well as records of napping behaviour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101482DOI Listing
March 2021

The Discrepancy between Knowledge of Sleep Recommendations and the Actual Sleep Behaviour of Australian Adults.

Behav Sleep Med 2021 Jan 25:1-12. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Appleton Institute, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, Australia.

: Inadequate sleep is a major public health concern, with large economic, health, and operational costs to Australia. Despite the implementation of public sleep health campaigns, approximately 40% of Australian adults do not obtain the recommended 7-9 hours of sleep. Thus, while people may know how much sleep is required, this knowledge may not be adequately translated to actual sleep behavior. Consequently, this study aims to examine the discrepancy between knowledge of sleep recommendations and self-reported sleep behaviors.: A sample of 1265 Australian adults (54% female, aged 18-65) completed a phone interview as part of the 2017 National Social Survey and were asked questions about their knowledge of sleep guidelines and their actual sleep behavior. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with awareness of sleep recommendations and whether this corresponded with reported sleep duration.: The final sample size was 998. Although 94% of the sample were aware of current sleep recommendations, 23% of participants did not self-report regularly obtaining 7-9 h sleep per night. These participants were less likely to want to obtain more sleep, less likely to view sleep as a priority before stressful events, and less likely to self-report good health.: Although a majority of the sample were aware of sleep recommendations, almost a quarter of the participants' behavior did not align with their knowledge. Future sleep health campaigns should consider options beyond education, including emphasis on practical strategies and modifiable lifestyle factors to assist individuals to obtain the recommended amount of sleep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2021.1876693DOI Listing
January 2021

The impact of a meal, snack, or not eating during the night shift on simulated driving performance post-shift.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2021 Jan 15;47(1):78-84. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University, 44 Greenhill Road, Wayville 5034, Adelaide, Australia.

Objective The commute home following a night shift is associated with an increased risk for accidents. This study investigated the relationship between food intake during the night shift and simulated driving performance post-shift. Methods Healthy non-shift working males (N=23) and females (N=16), aged 18-39 years (mean 24.5, standard deviation 5.0, years) participated in a seven-day laboratory study and underwent four simulated night shifts. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: meal at night (N=12; 7 males), snack at night (N=13; 7 males) or no eating at night (N=14; 9 males). During the night shift at 00:30 hours, participants either ate a large meal (meal at night condition), a snack (snack at night condition), or did not eat during the night shift (no eating at night condition). During the second simulated night shift, participants performed a 40-minute York driving simulation at 20:00, 22:30, 01:30, 04:00, and 07:30 hours (similar time to a commute from work). Results The effects of eating condition, drive time, and time-on-task, on driving performance were examined using mixed model analyses. Significant condition×time interactions were found, where at 07:30 hours, those in the meal at night condition displayed significant increases in time spent outside of the safe zone (percentage of time spent outside 10 km/hour of the speed limit and 0.8 meters of the lane center; P<0.05), and greater lane and speed variability (both P<0.01) compared to the snack and no eating conditions. There were no differences between the snack and no eating conditions. Conclusion Driver safety during the simulated commute home is greater following the night shift if a snack, rather than a meal, is consumed during the shift.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801136PMC
January 2021

The impact of dayshifts and sleepover nightshifts on the eating and driving behaviours of residential support workers: An exploratory workplace study.

Work 2020 ;66(4):827-839

Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Behaviour Brain Body Research Centre, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Residential support workers (RSWs) provide 24-hour care to clients and many work overnight sleepover nightshifts. Although RSWs perform safety-critical tasks and are at high-risk of work stress and exhaustion, the health and safety of RSWs has not been investigated.

Objective: This explorative workplace case study explored the impact of support work on the eating and driving behaviours of RSWs.

Methods: Thirteen RSWs who had worked a dayshift (n = 6) or a sleepover nightshift (n = 7) completed questions on the timing of food intake during their shift, motivations for eating during the shift, subjective work performance, alertness and sleepiness post-shift, and driving performance post-shift.

Results: RSWs reported snacking during the night on a sleepover nightshift. Time available was the biggest determinant for when RSWs ate during a day and sleepover nightshift. Ratings of subjective alertness and sleepiness after eating were not different between shift types, however participants reported an increase in work performance after eating during a dayshift. Driving events were more frequently reported post-sleepover nightshift, compared to post-dayshift.

Conclusions: Findings demonstrate an impact of shift type on eating and driving behaviours of RSWs and highlight the importance of further investigation of this under-researched group to identify appropriate strategies for improving health and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-203228DOI Listing
June 2021

Are prolonged sitting and sleep restriction a dual curse for the modern workforce? a randomised controlled trial protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 07 27;10(7):e040613. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University - Adelaide Campus, Wayville, South Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Prolonged sitting and inadequate sleep are a growing concern in society and are associated with impairments to cardiometabolic health and cognitive performance. However, the combined effect of prolonged sitting and inadequate sleep on measures of health and cognitive performance are unknown. In addition, the circadian disruption caused by shiftwork may further impact workers' cardiometabolic health and cognitive performance. This protocol paper outlines the methodology for exploring the impact of simultaneous exposure to prolonged sitting, sleep restriction and circadian disruption on cardiometabolic and cognitive performance outcomes.

Methods And Analysis: This between-subjects study will recruit 208 males and females to complete a 7-day in-laboratory experimental protocol (1 Adaptation Day, 5 Experimental Days and 1 Recovery Day). Participants will be allocated to one of eight conditions that include all possible combinations of the following: dayshift or nightshift, sitting or breaking up sitting and 5 hour or 9 hour sleep opportunity. On arrival to the laboratory, participants will be provided with a 9 hour baseline sleep opportunity (22:00 to 07:00) and complete five simulated work shifts (09:00 to 17:30 in the dayshift condition and 22:00 to 06:30 in the nightshift condition) followed by a 9 hour recovery sleep opportunity (22:00 to 07:00). During the work shifts participants in the sitting condition will remain seated, while participants in the breaking up sitting condition will complete 3-min bouts of light-intensity walking every 30 mins on a motorised treadmill. Sleep opportunities will be 9 hour or 5 hour. Primary outcome measures include continuously measured interstitial blood glucose, heart rate and blood pressure, and a cognitive performance and self-perceived capacity testing battery completed five times per shift. Analyses will be conducted using linear mixed models.

Ethics And Dissemination: The CQUniversity Human Ethics Committee has approved this study (0000021914). All participants who have already completed the protocol have provided informed consent. Study findings will be disseminated via scientific publications and conference presentations.

Trial Registration Details: This study has been registered on Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (12619001516178) and is currently in the pre-results stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7389768PMC
July 2020

Hot, Tired and Hungry: The Snacking Behaviour and Food Cravings of Firefighters During Multi-Day Simulated Wildfire Suppression.

Nutrients 2020 Apr 21;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 21.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Adelaide 5034, Australia.

Firefighters are exposed to numerous stressors during wildfire suppression, including working in hot temperatures and sleep restricted conditions. Research has shown that when sleep restricted, individuals choose foods higher in carbohydrates, fat, and sugar, and have increased cravings for calorie dense foods. However, there is currently no research on the combined effect of heat and sleep restriction on snacking behaviour. Conducting secondary analyses from a larger study, the current study aimed to investigate the impact of heat and sleep restriction on snacking behaviour and food cravings. Sixty-six firefighters completed three days of simulated physically demanding firefighting work and were randomly allocated to either the control ( = 18, CON; 19 °C, 8h sleep opportunity), sleep restricted ( = 16, SR; 19 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity), hot ( = 18, HOT; 33 °C, 8h sleep opportunity), or hot and sleep restricted ( = 14 HOT + SR; 33 °C, 4-h sleep opportunity) condition. During rest periods firefighters were able to self-select sweet, savoury, or healthy snacks from a ration pack and were asked to rate their hunger, fullness, and cravings every two hours (eating block). Mixed model analyses revealed no difference in total energy intake between conditions, however there was a significant interaction between eating block and condition, with those in the CON, HOT, and HOT + SR condition consuming significantly more energy between 1230 and 1430 compared to the SR condition ( = 0.002). Sleep restriction and heat did not impact feelings of hunger and fullness across the day, and did not lead to greater cravings for snacks, with no differences between conditions. These findings suggest that under various simulated firefighting conditions, it is not the amount of food that differs but the timing of food intake, with those that are required to work in hot conditions while sleep restricted more likely to consume food between 1230 and 1430. This has potential implications for the time of day in which a greater amount of food should be available for firefighters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12041160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230571PMC
April 2020

Altering meal timing to improve cognitive performance during simulated nightshifts.

Chronobiol Int 2019 12 10;36(12):1691-1713. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Behaviour-Brain-Body Research Centre, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

Altering meal timing could improve cognition, alertness, and thus safety during the nightshift. This study investigated the differential impact of consuming a meal, snack, or not eating during the nightshift on cognitive performance (ANZCTR12615001107516). 39 healthy participants (59% male, age mean±SD: 24.5 ± 5.0y) completed a 7-day laboratory study and underwent four simulated nightshifts. Participants were randomly allocated to: Meal at Night (MN; 12), Snack at Night (SN; = 13) or No Eating at Night (NE; = 14). At 00:30 h, MN consumed a meal and SN consumed a snack (30% and 10% of 24 h energy intake respectively). NE did not eat during the nightshift. Macronutrient intake was constant across conditions. At 20:00 h, 22:30 h, 01:30 h, and 04:00 h, participants completed the 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT-B), 40-min driving simulator, post-drive PVT-B, subjective sleepiness scale, 2-choice Reaction Time task, and Running Memory task. Objective sleep was recorded for each of the day sleeps using Actigraphy and for the third day sleep, Polysomnography was used. Performance was compared between conditions using mixed model analyses. Significant two-way interactions were found. At 04:00 h, SN displayed increased time spent in the safe zone ( < .001; percentage of time spent within 10 km/h of the speed limit and 0.8 m of lane center), and decreases in speed variability ( < .001), lane variability ( < .001), post-drive PVT-B lapses (defined as RT > 355 ms; < .001), and reaction time on the 2-choice reaction time task ( < .001) and running memory task ( < .001) compared to MN and NE. MN reported greater subjective sleepiness at 04:00 h ( < .001) compared to SN and NE. There was no difference in objective sleep between eating conditions. Eating a large meal during the nightshift impairs cognitive performance and sleepiness above the effects of time of night alone. For improved performance, shiftworkers should opt for a snack at night.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2019.1676256DOI Listing
December 2019

Subjective Hunger, Gastric Upset, and Sleepiness in Response to Altered Meal Timing during Simulated Shiftwork.

Nutrients 2019 Jun 15;11(6). Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Behaviour-Brain-Body Research Centre, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, 5072 Adelaide, Australia.

Shiftworkers report eating during the night when the body is primed to sleep. This study investigated the impact of altering food timing on subjective responses. Healthy participants ( = 44, 26 male, age Mean ± SD = 25.0 ± 2.9 years, BMI = 23.82 ± 2.59kg/m) participated in a 7-day simulated shiftwork protocol. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three eating conditions. At 00:30, participants consumed a meal comprising 30% of 24 h energy intake (Meal condition; = 14, 8 males), a snack comprising 10% of 24 h energy intake (Snack condition; = 14; 8 males) or did not eat during the night (No Eating condition; = 16, 10 males). Total 24 h individual energy intake and macronutrient content was constant across conditions. During the night, participants reported hunger, gut reaction, and sleepiness levels at 21:00, 23:30, 2:30, and 5:00. Mixed model analyses revealed that the snack condition reported significantly more hunger than the meal group ( < 0.001) with the no eating at night group reporting the greatest hunger ( < 0.001). There was no difference in desire to eat between meal and snack groups. Participants reported less sleepiness after the snack compared to after the meal ( < 0.001) or when not eating during the night ( 0.001). Gastric upset did not differ between conditions. A snack during the nightshift could alleviate hunger during the nightshift without causing fullness or increased sleepiness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11061352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6628383PMC
June 2019

The factors influencing the eating behaviour of shiftworkers: what, when, where and why.

Ind Health 2019 Aug 8;57(4):419-453. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Behaviour Brain Body Research Centre, University of South Australia, Australia.

Shiftwork leads to altered eating patterns, with workers often eating foods at all times across the 24 h period. Strategies to reduce the burden of shiftwork on the workers should be prioritised and altering these eating patterns is an important area for change. This narrative review examines the current evidence on the individual and environmental factors influencing the eating behaviours of shiftworkers. A systematic search was conducted and yielded 62 articles. These were split into four themes that influence eating patterns; When shiftworkers eat, What type of foods shiftworkers eat, Where the food is sourced from, and Why shiftworkers choose to eat on shift. Irregular working hours was the biggest influence on when workers ate on shift, shift-type was the biggest influence on what workers ate, the majority of food was sourced from canteens and cafeterias, and socialising with colleagues was the biggest reason why workers chose to eat. While more research is needed to explore multiple industries and shift-types, and to investigate the ideal size, type and timing of food on shift, this review has highlighted that future research into shiftworker eating needs to adopt an integrative approach and consider the different individual and social contexts that influence eating patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2018-0147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6685801PMC
August 2019

Timing of food intake during simulated night shift impacts glucose metabolism: A controlled study.

Chronobiol Int 2017 21;34(8):1003-1013. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

a Centre for Sleep Research , University of South Australia , Adelaide , SA , Australia.

Eating during the night may increase the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes in shift workers. This study examined the impact of either eating or not eating a meal at night on glucose metabolism. Participants underwent four nights of simulated night work (SW1-4, 16:00-10:00 h, <50 lux) with a daytime sleep opportunity each day (10:00-16:00 h, <3 lux). Healthy males were assigned to an eating at night (NE; n = 4, meals; 07:00, 19:00 and 01:30 h) or not eating at night (NEN; n = 7, meals; 07:00 h, 09:30, 16:10 and 19:00 h) condition. Meal tolerance tests were conducted post breakfast on pre-night shift (PRE), SW4 and following return to day shift (RTDS), and glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. Mixed-effects ANOVAs were used with fixed effects of condition and day, and their interactions, and a random effect of subject identifier on the intercept. Fasting glucose and insulin were not altered by day or condition. There were significant effects of day and condition × day (both p < 0.001) for glucose AUC, with increased glucose AUC observed solely in the NE condition from PRE to SW4 (p = 0.05) and PRE to RTDS (p < 0.001). There was also a significant effect of day (p = 0.007) but not condition × day (p = 0.825) for insulin AUC, with increased insulin from PRE to RTDS in both eating at night (p = 0.040) and not eating at night (p = 0.006) conditions. Results in this small, healthy sample suggest that not eating at night may limit the metabolic consequences of simulated night work. Further study is needed to explore whether matching food intake to the biological clock could reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes in shift workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2017.1335318DOI Listing
July 2018

It's not just what you eat but when: The impact of eating a meal during simulated shift work on driving performance.

Chronobiol Int 2017 13;34(1):66-77. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

a Centre for Sleep Research, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of Australia , Australia.

Shiftworkers have impaired performance when driving at night and they also alter their eating patterns during nightshifts. However, it is unknown whether driving at night is influenced by the timing of eating. This study aims to explore the effects of timing of eating on simulated driving performance across four simulated nightshifts. Healthy, non-shiftworking males aged 18-35 years (n = 10) were allocated to either an eating at night (n = 5) or no eating at night (n = 5) condition. During the simulated nightshifts at 1730, 2030 and 0300 h, participants performed a 40-min driving simulation, 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT-B), and recorded their ratings of sleepiness on a subjective scale. Participants had a 6-h sleep opportunity during the day (1000-1600 h). Total 24-h food intake was consistent across groups; however, those in the eating at night condition ate a large meal (30% of 24-h intake) during the nightshift at 0130 h. It was found that participants in both conditions experienced increased sleepiness and PVT-B impairments at 0300 h compared to 1730 and 2030 h (p < 0.001). Further, at 0300 h, those in the eating condition displayed a significant decrease in time spent in the safe zone (p < 0.05; percentage of time within 10 km/h of the speed limit and 0.8 m of the centre of the lane) and significant increases in speed variability (p < 0.001), subjective sleepiness (p < 0.01) and number of crashes (p < 0.01) compared to those in the no eating condition. Results suggest that, for optimal performance, shiftworkers should consider restricting food intake during the night.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2016.1237520DOI Listing
January 2018
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