Publications by authors named "Charlotte A Schoenborn"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Examining the high rate of cigarette smoking among adults with a GED.

Addict Behav 2018 Feb 19;77:275-286. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD, United States.

Objectives: We seek to identify characteristics of GED holders that explain their very high smoking rates compared with high school (HS) graduates.

Methods: We pooled data from the 2006-2014 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) for adults aged 25 and older (n=235,031) to describe cigarette smoking behaviors and smoking history for adults in six education categories, with a focus on comparing GED holders to HS graduates. Logistic regression was used to predict the odds of current cigarette smoking and successful quitting, accounting for demographic, employment, family/sociocultural, mental health, and other potential confounders.

Results: The smoking rate among adults with a GED (44.1%) was more than five times the rate for those with a college degree (8.3%) and almost twice the rate of adults whose highest level of education was a high school diploma (23.6%). GED holders were also more likely to have started smoking before the age of 15 (32.2%) compared with HS graduates (12.2%) (p<0.001). Even after controlling for 23 socio-demographic and health characteristics, GED holders retained significantly higher odds of current smoking compared to HS graduates (OR=1.73; 95% CI: 1.56, 1.93) and significantly lower odds of successful quitting (OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.94).

Conclusions: GED holders had greater odds of being a current cigarette smoker, regardless of other characteristics that usually explain smoking. Earlier smoking initiation among GED holders, in combination with lower odds of quitting, contributed to their higher current smoking rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5648617PMC
February 2018

Excess mortality among people who report lifetime use of illegal drugs in the United States: A 20-year follow-up of a nationally representative survey.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2017 Feb 24;171:31-38. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30322, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality risks, over 20 years of follow-up in a nationally representative sample, associated with illegal drug use and to describe risk factors for mortality.

Methods: We analyzed data from the 1991 National Health Interview Survey, which is a nationally representative household survey in the United States, linked to the National Death Index through 2011. This study included 20,498 adults, aged 18-44 years in 1991, with 1047 subsequent deaths. A composite variable of self-reported lifetime illegal drug use was created (hierarchical categories of heroin, cocaine, hallucinogens/inhalants, and marijuana use).

Results: Mortality risk was significantly elevated among individuals who reported lifetime use of heroin (HR=2.40, 95% CI: 1.65-3.48) and cocaine (HR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.04-1.55), but not for those who used hallucinogens/inhalants or marijuana, when adjusting for demographic characteristics. Baseline health risk factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and BMI) explained the greatest amount of this mortality risk. After adjusting for all baseline covariates, the association between heroin or cocaine use and mortality approached significance. In models adjusted for demographics, people who reported lifetime use of heroin or cocaine had an elevated mortality risk due to external causes (poisoning, suicide, homicide, and unintentional injury). People who had used heroin, cocaine, or hallucinogens/inhalants had an elevated mortality risk due to infectious diseases.

Conclusions: Heroin and cocaine are associated with considerable excess mortality, particularly due to external causes and infectious diseases. This association can be explained mainly by health risk behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.11.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5263065PMC
February 2017

Electronic Cigarette Use Among Adults: United States, 2014.

NCHS Data Brief 2015 Oct(217):1-8

The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) first began collecting data about e-cigarette use in 2014. The estimates presented in this report provide a foundation for understanding who is using e-cigarettes and for monitoring changes in e-cigarette use among U.S. adults over time. In 2014, men were more likely than women to have ever tried e-cigarettes but were not more likely to be current users. Younger adults were more likely than older adults to have tried e-cigarettes and to currently use e-cigarettes. Both non-Hispanic AIAN and non-Hispanic white adults were more likely than non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic Asian, and Hispanic adults to have ever tried e-cigarettes and to be current e-cigarette users. When examined in the context of conventional cigarette smoking, use of e-cigarettes was highest among current and recent former cigarette smokers, and among current smokers who had made a quit attempt in the past year. Although fewer than 4% of adults who had never smoked conventional cigarettes had ever tried an e-cigarette, nearly 1 in 10 never-smokers aged 18–24 had tried an e-cigarette at least once.
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October 2015

Discussions between health care providers and their patients who smoke cigarettes.

NCHS Data Brief 2014 Dec(174):1-8

Increasing tobacco screening in health care settings is a Healthy People 2020 objective. This report looks at adult cigarette smokers in the general household population and whether a doctor or other health professional had talked to them about their smoking in the past 12 months. About one-half of all adult cigarette smokers (51.2%) had a doctor or other health professional talk to them about their smoking. Cigarette smokers who were male, younger, Hispanic, or non-Hispanic Asian were less likely than those who were female, older, non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, or non-Hispanic other races/multiple races to have had a doctor or other health professional talk to them about their smoking. Despite the public health significance of reducing smoking among women who either are or may become pregnant, women of childbearing age (18-44 years) were no more likely than the population overall to have been talked to about their smoking. Nondaily smokers, smokers in good or better general health, and those without selected health conditions linked to smoking, were less likely than those who smoked daily, were in fair or poor health, or had selected health conditions linked to smoking to have had a doctor or other health professional talk to them about their smoking. Overall, results reveal that cigarette smokers are not all treated the same when it comes to health professionals talking to them about their smoking. Clinical practice guidelines suggest that tobacco interventions delivered in a timely manner can greatly reduce the risk that smokers will suffer from smoking-related diseases. The present results identify apparent gaps in the application of recommendations for the screening of cigarette smokers by health care professionals.
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December 2014

Mortality risks associated with average drinking level and episodic heavy drinking.

Subst Use Misuse 2014 Aug 12;49(10):1250-8. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

1Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics , CDC, Hyattsville, Maryland , USA.

Data from the 1997 to 2004 National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult questionnaires were linked to the National Death Index (N = 242,397) to examine mortality risks associated with average and episodic heavy drinking. Cox proportional hazard models (Stata 12.0) revealed that (average) heavier drinkers and episodic heavy drinkers (5+ in a day) had increased mortality risks but when examined together, episodic heavy drinking added only modestly to the mortality risks of light and moderate drinkers. Limitations and implications of results for survey measurement of potentially harmful levels of alcohol use are noted. This was a Federal study that received no outside funding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2014.891620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4677481PMC
August 2014

Health behaviors of adults: United States, 2008-2010.

Vital Health Stat 10 2013 May(257):1-184

Objective-This report presents selected prevalence estimates for key health behaviors-alcohol use, cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, body mass index, and sleep-among U.S. adults, using data from the 2008-2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). NHIS is a continuous survey conducted annually by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Estimates are shown for several sociodemographic subgroups for both sexes combined and for men and women separately. Methods-Data representing the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population were collected using computer-assisted personal interviews. NHIS is a general purpose in-person household survey, collecting basic health, health care utilization, and demographic information on all household members with the Family questionnaire. Health behavior questions are asked in the Sample Adult survey component. This report is based on a total of 76,669 completed interviews with sample adults aged 18 and over. Statistics shown in this report were age adjusted to the projected 2000 U.S. population. Results-About 6 in 10 (64.9%) U.S. adults were current drinkers in 2008-2010; about 1 in 5 adults (20.9%) were lifetime abstainers. About one in five adults (20.2%) were current smokers and over one-half of adults (58.6%) had never smoked cigarettes. Less than one-half of current smokers (45.8%) attempted to quit smoking in the past year. Nearly one-half (46.1%) of adults met the federal guidelines for aerobic physical activity, about one-quarter (23.0%) of adults met the federal guidelines for muscle-strengthening physical activity, and about one in five adults (19.4%) met both guidelines. About 6 in 10 adults (62.1%) were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25), with about 4 in 10 (36.1%) adults being of healthy weight (18.5 ≤ BMI less than 25). About 7 in 10 adults (69.7%) met the Healthy People 2020 objective for sufficient sleep.
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May 2013

Trends in adults receiving a recommendation for exercise or other physical activity from a physician or other health professional.

NCHS Data Brief 2012 Feb(86):1-8

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics 3311 Toledo Road, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA.

The Healthy People 2020 objectives for physical activity include two objectives for increasing the proportion of physician office visits that include counseling or education related to exercise (see http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx). Physician counseling for exercise has not previously been tracked by the Healthy People initiative. The present report looks at this emerging health issue from the vantage point of adults in the general population who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past 12 months and had been advised to begin or continue to do exercise or other physical activity. About 8 in 10 adults had seen a health professional in the past 12 months during 2000 (80.6%), 2005 (81.2%), and 2010 (79.8%), although estimates varied by demographic subgroups (10–12). Over time, estimates of the percentage of adults being advised to exercise could be influenced by major changes in the characteristics of adults seeing a health professional. In 2010, about one in three adults (32.4%) who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past year had been advised to exercise or do other physical activity, which reflects an upward trend since 2000, moving in the direction of meeting Healthy People 2020 goals. In relative terms, there has been more than a 40% increase—from 22.6% of adults in 2000 to 32.4% in 2010. Although increases were noted for every population and health condition group studied, these increases were larger for some groups than others. The increase in the percentage of adults receiving exercise advice is particularly noteworthy for the oldest age group. In 2000, 15.3% of adults aged 85 and over had been advised to exercise; by 2010, the percentage had increased to 28.9%. Across the chronic health conditions studied, adults with diabetes were the most likely, and those with cancer were the least likely, to have been advised by their physician to exercise. An upward trend of 8–10 percentage points, however, was seen among adults with each of the chronic diseases examined. Adults who were overweight or obese saw among the largest increases over the decade in the percentage receiving a physician’s advice to exercise. The percentage of healthy weight adults receiving exercise advice also increased over the decade, but to a lesser extent. Trends over the past 10 years suggest that the medical community is increasing its efforts to recommend participation in exercise and other physical activity that research has shown to be associated with substantial health benefits. Still, the prevalence of receiving this advice remains well below one-half of U.S. adults and varies substantially across population subgroups.
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February 2012

Adherence to the 2008 adult physical activity guidelines and mortality risk.

Am J Prev Med 2011 May;40(5):514-21

Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics/CDC, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA.

Background: Mortality differentials by level and intensity of physical activity have been widely documented. A comprehensive review of scientific evidence of the health benefits of physical activity led the USDHHS to issue new Federal Guidelines for physical activity in 2008. Reductions in mortality risk associated with adherence to these Guidelines among the general U.S. adult population have not yet been studied.

Purpose: This study compared the relative mortality risks of U.S. adults who met the 2008 Guidelines with adults who did not meet the recommendations.

Methods: Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relative mortality risks of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, using data from the 1997-2004 National Health Interview Survey and linked mortality records for deaths occurring in 1997-2006 (analyzed in 2010). Risks for adults with and without chronic health conditions were examined separately.

Results: Meeting the recommendations for aerobic activity was associated with substantial survival benefits, especially among the population having chronic conditions, with estimated hazard ratios ranging from 0.65 to 0.75 (p<0.05). While strengthening activities by themselves did not appear to reduce mortality risks, they may provide added survival benefits to those already engaged in aerobic activities. The relative benefits of physical activity were greatest among adults who had at least one chronic condition.

Conclusions: Adherence to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines was associated with reduced all-cause mortality risks among U.S. adults, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, BMI, smoking, and alcohol use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2010.12.029DOI Listing
May 2011

Trend and prevalence estimates based on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

Am J Prev Med 2010 Oct;39(4):305-13

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA.

Background: According to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, adults need to engage in at least 150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity activity or its equivalent (defined as aerobically active) to obtain substantial health benefits and more than 300 minutes/week (defined as highly active) to obtain more extensive health benefits. In addition to aerobic activity, the 2008 Guidelines recommend that adults participate in muscle-strengthening activities on 2 or more days/week.

Purpose: This study examined the prevalence and trends of meeting the activity criteria defined by the 2008 Guidelines among U.S. adults.

Methods: Prevalence and trends of participation in leisure-time physical activity were estimated from the 1998-2008 National Health Interview Survey (analyzed in 2010).

Results: In 2008, 43.5% of U.S. adults were aerobically active, 28.4% were highly active, 21.9% met the muscle-strengthening guideline, and 18.2% both met the muscle-strengthening guideline and were aerobically active. The likelihood of meeting each of these four activity criteria was similar and were associated with being male, being younger, being non-Hispanic white, having higher levels of education, and having a lower BMI. Trends over time were also similar for each part of the 2008 Guidelines, with the prevalence of participation exhibiting a small but significant increase when comparing 1998 to 2008 (difference ranging from 2.4 to 4.2 percentage points).

Conclusions: Little progress has been made during the past 10 years in increasing physical activity levels in the U.S. There is much room for improvement in achieving recommended levels of physical activity among Americans, particularly among relatively inactive subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2010.06.006DOI Listing
October 2010

Health behaviors of adults: United States, 2005-2007.

Vital Health Stat 10 2010 Mar(245):1-132

Division of Health Interview Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

Objective: This report presents selected prevalence estimates for key indicators of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, body weight status, and sleep among U.S. adults, using data from the 2005-2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is conducted annually by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Estimates are shown for several sociodemographic subgroups for both sexes combined and for men and women separately. The subgroups are compared in terms of their prevalence of "healthy" and "unhealthy" behaviors.

Methods: Data for the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population were collected by the NHIS using computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI). Questions on health behaviors were asked of one randomly selected adult per family in the Sample Adult component of the basic core questionnaire. This report is based on a total of 79,096 completed interviews with sample adults aged 18 years and over, representing an overall sample adult response rate of 69.2% for the 3 years combined. Statistics shown in this report were age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

Results: Overall, 6 in 10 (61.2%) U.S. adults were current drinkers in 2005-2007; about 1 in 4 adults (24.6%) were lifetime abstainers. About 1 in 5 adults (20.4%) were current smokers and over one-half of adults (58.5%) had never smoked cigarettes. About 4 in 10 (42.5%) current smokers tried to quit smoking in the past year. About 6 in 10 adults engaged in at least some leisure-time physical activity with about 3 in 10 regularly engaging in such activities. About 6 in 10 adults were overweight or obese (BMI > 25), with about 4 in 10 adults being of healthy weight. About 6 in 10 adults usually slept 7 to 8 hours in a 24-hour period.
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March 2010

Variations in BMI and prevalence of health risks in diverse racial and ethnic populations.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010 Sep 14;18(9):1821-6. Epub 2010 Jan 14.

National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland, USA.

When examining health risks associated with the BMI, investigators often rely on the customary BMI thresholds of the 1995 World Health Organization report. However, within-interval variations in morbidity and mortality can be substantial, and the thresholds do not necessarily correspond to identifiable risk increases. Comparing the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), asthma, and arthritis among non-Hispanic whites, blacks, East Asians and Hispanics, we examine differences in the BMI-health-risk relationships for small BMI increments. The analysis is based on 11 years of data of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), with a sample size of 337,375 for the combined 1997-2007 Sample Adult. The analysis uses multivariate logistic regression models, employing a nonparametric approach to modeling the BMI-health-risk relationship, while relying on narrowly defined BMI categories. Rising BMI levels are associated with higher levels of chronic disease burdens in four major racial and ethnic groups, even after adjusting for many socio-demographic characteristics and three important health-related behaviors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption). For all population groups, except East Asians, a modestly higher disease risk was noted for persons with a BMI <20 compared with persons with BMI in the range of 20-21. Using five chronic conditions as risk criteria, a categorization of the BMI into normal weight, overweight, or obesity appears arbitrary. Although the prevalence of disease risks differs among racial and ethnic groups regardless of BMI levels, the evidence presented here does not support the notion that the BMI-health-risk profile of East Asians and others warrants race-specific BMI cutoff points.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2009.472DOI Listing
September 2010

Accuracy and usefulness of BMI measures based on self-reported weight and height: findings from the NHANES & NHIS 2001-2006.

BMC Public Health 2009 Nov 19;9:421. Epub 2009 Nov 19.

College of Nursing, Michigan State University, W-149 Owen Graduate Center, East Lansing, MI 48825-1109, USA.

Background: The Body Mass Index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight ("self-reported BMI") in epidemiologic studies is subject to measurement error. However, because of the ease and efficiency in gathering height and weight information through interviews, it remains important to assess the extent of error present in self-reported BMI measures and to explore possible adjustment factors as well as valid uses of such self-reported measures.

Methods: Using the combined 2001-2006 data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, discrepancies between BMI measures based on self-reported and physical height and weight measures are estimated and socio-demographic predictors of such discrepancies are identified. Employing adjustments derived from the socio-demographic predictors, the self-reported measures of height and weight in the 2001-2006 National Health Interview Survey are used for population estimates of overweight & obesity as well as the prediction of health risks associated with large BMI values. The analysis relies on two-way frequency tables as well as linear and logistic regression models. All point and variance estimates take into account the complex survey design of the studies involved.

Results: Self-reported BMI values tend to overestimate measured BMI values at the low end of the BMI scale (< 22) and underestimate BMI values at the high end, particularly at values > 28. The discrepancies also vary systematically with age (younger and older respondents underestimate their BMI more than respondents aged 42-55), gender and the ethnic/racial background of the respondents. BMI scores, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, tend to narrow, but do not eliminate misclassification of obese people as merely overweight, but health risk estimates associated with variations in BMI values are virtually the same, whether based on self-report or measured BMI values.

Conclusion: BMI values based on self-reported height and weight, if corrected for biases associated with socio-demographic characteristics of the survey respondents, can be used to estimate health risks associated with variations in BMI, particularly when using parametric prediction models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2784464PMC
November 2009

Health characteristics of adults aged 55 years and over: United States, 2004-2007.

Natl Health Stat Report 2009 Jul(16):1-31

Division of Health Interview Statistics, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

Objectives: This report highlights selected health characteristics of four age groups of older adults-55-64 years, 65-74 years, 75-84 years, and 85 years and over-using data from the 2004 through 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Data are presented for each of these age groups by sex, race and Hispanic origin, and by poverty, health insurance, and marital status.

Methods: The estimates were derived from the family and sample adult components of the 2004-2007 NHIS. Estimates are based on interviews with 36,984 sample adults aged 55 years and over, weighted to be nationally representative of adults in this age group.

Results: Prevalence rates for fair or poor health status, selected chronic health conditions, difficulties with physical or social impairments, health care access and utilization, and health behaviors such as healthy weight, never having smoked, and currently being a nonsmoker, generally increased with advancing age. Prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and sleeping seven to eight hours decreased with age. Variations in health were noted for each age group, with the most consistent and striking results found for poverty status and health insurance coverage. Poor adults, near poor adults, and adults with Medicaid were the most disadvantaged in terms of health status, physical and social functioning, health care utilization, and health behaviors.

Conclusion: Health disparities exist across subgroups of older adults and vary by age.
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July 2009

Health behaviors of adults: United States, 2002-04.

Vital Health Stat 10 2006 Sep(230):1-140

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

Objective: This report presents selected prevalence estimates of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, body weight status, and sleep habits among U.S. adults, using data from the 2002-04 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). NHIS is conducted annually by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Estimates are shown for several sociodemographic subgroups for both sexes combined and for men and women separately. The subgroups are compared in terms of their prevalence of "healthy" and "unhealthy" behaviors.

Methods: Data for the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population were collected by NHIS using computer-assisted personal interviews. Questions on health behaviors were asked of one randomly selected adult per family in the Sample Adult component of the basic core questionnaire. This report is based on a total of 93,222 completed interviews with sample adults aged 18 years and over, representing an overall sample adult response rate of 73.6% for the 3 years combined. Statistics shown in this report were age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

Results: Six in 10 U.S. adults were current drinkers in 2002-04; about 1 in 4 adults were lifetime abstainers. About 1 in 5 adults (21.5%) were current smokers, and over one-half of adults (56.6%) had never smoked cigarettes. About 4 in 10 (42.4%) current smokers tried to quit smoking in the past year. About 6 in 10 adults engaged in at least some leisure-time physical activity, with about 3 in 10 regularly engaging in such activities. About 6 in 10 adults were overweight or obese (BMI is equal to or more than 25), with 4 in 10 adults being of healthy weight. About 6 in 10 adults usually slept 7-8 hours in a 24-hour period.
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September 2006

Health characteristics of adults 55 years of age and over: United States, 2000-2003.

Adv Data 2006 Apr(370):1-31

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA.

Objective: This report highlights the health characteristics of four age groups of older adults-55-64 years, 65-74 years, 75-84 years, and 85 years and over-providing estimates by sex, race and Hispanic origin, poverty status, health insurance status, and marital status.

Methods: The estimates in this report were derived from the 2000-2003--National Health Interview Surveys' Family and Sample Adult questionnaires. Estimates are based on interviews with 39,990 sample adults aged 55 years and over.

Results: Overall, prevalence rates for fair or poor health, chronic health conditions (with the exception of diabetes), sensory impairments, and difficulties with physical and social activities increased with advancing age, doubling or even tripling between the age groups 55-64 and 85 years and over. About one in five adults aged 55-64 years were in fair or poor health, rising to about one-third of adults aged 85 years and over. Men and women were about equally likely to be in fair or poor health across the age groups studied, but women were more likely to have difficulty in physical or social activities. Sociodemographic variations in health were noted across the age groups studied, with the most consistent and striking results found for poverty status and health insurance coverage. Poor and near poor adults and those with public health insurance were, by far, the most disadvantaged groups of older adults in terms of health status, health care utilization, and health behaviors.

Conclusions: Health status, health care utilization, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 55 and over vary considerably by age and other sociodemographic characteristics. Identifying these variations can help government and private agencies pinpoint areas of greatest need and greatest opportunity for extending years of healthy life among the Nation's seniors.
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April 2006

Health behaviors of adults: United States, 1999-2001.

Vital Health Stat 10 2004 Feb(219):1-79

US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

This report presents prevalence estimates for key indicators of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, and body weight status among U.S. adults, using data from the 1999-2001 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). The NHIS is conducted annually by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Estimates are shown for several sociodemographic subgroups for both sexes combined and for men and women separately. Subgroups are compared in terms of prevalence of healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Methods Data for the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population were collected using computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI). Questions on health behaviors were asked in the Sample Adult component of the basic core questionnaire. All data were self-reported. This report is based on a total of 96,501 completed interviews with sample adults aged 18 years and over, representing an overall sample adult response rate of 71.8% for the 3 years combined. Statistics were age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Results Overall, 6 in 10 U.S. adults were current drinkers in 1999-2001; about 1 in 4 adults (23.1%) were lifetime abstainers. About 1 in 4 adults (23.1%) were current smokers and over one-half of adults (54.3%) had never smoked cigarettes. About 6 in 10 adults engaged in at least some leisure-time physical activity with about 3 in 10 regularly engaging in such activities. About 6 in 10 adults were overweight or obese (BMI > or = 25), with 4 in 10 adults having a healthy weight.
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February 2004

Summary health statistics for the U.S. population: National Health Interview Survey, 2000.

Vital Health Stat 10 2003 Nov(214):1-83

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA.

Objectives: This report presents health statistics from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey for the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States, classified by age, sex, race and Hispanic or Latino origin, family income, poverty status, education, place of residence, region of residence, and, where appropriate, health insurance coverage. The topics covered are health status and limitations in activities, special education or early intervention services, injuries and poisonings, health care access and utilization, and health insurance coverage.

Source Of Data: The NHIS is a household, multistage probability sample survey conducted annually by interviewers of the U.S. Census Bureau for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Household interviews were completed for 100,618 persons living in 38,633 households, reflecting a household response rate of 89%.

Selected Highlights: Nearly 7 in 10 persons were in excellent or very good health in 2000, and fewer than 1 in 10 were in fair or poor health. About 31 million people (11%) were limited in their usual activities due to one or more chronic health conditions, and about 3 million people (2%) required the help of another person with activities of daily living such as bathing and dressing. Persons with the least education and the lowest incomes were the most likely to be limited in their ability to work. About 5% of children received special education or early intervention services. The three leading causes of medically attended injury and poisoning episodes were falls, being struck by a person or an object, and transportation. Among people under age 65 years, about 40 million (17%) did not have any health insurance coverage.
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November 2003

Marital status and health: United States, 1999-2002.

Adv Data 2004 Dec(351):1-32

Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.

Objective: This report presents prevalence estimates by marital status for selected health status and limitations, health conditions, and health risk behaviors among U.S. adults, using data from the 1999-2002 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS).

Methods: Data for the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population were collected using computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI). The household response rate for the NHIS was 88.7%. This report is based on a total of 127,545 interviews with sample adults aged 18 years and over, representing an overall response rate of 72.4% for the 4 years combined. Statistics were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Marital status categories shown in this report are: married, widowed, divorced or separated, never married, and living with a partner.

Results: Regardless of population subgroup (age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, education, income, or nativity) or health indictor (fair or poor health, limitations in activities, low back pain, headaches, serious psychological distress, smoking, or leisure-time physical inactivity), married adults were generally found to be healthier than adults in other marital status categories. Marital status differences in health were found in each of the three age groups studied (18-44 years, 45-64 years, and 65 years and over), but were most striking among adults aged 18-44 years. The one negative health indicator for which married adults had a higher prevalence was overweight or obesity. Married adults, particularly men, had high rates of overweight or obesity relative to adults in other marital status groups across most population subgroups studied. Never married adults were among the least likely to be overweight or obese.
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December 2004

Body weight status of adults: United States, 1997-98.

Adv Data 2002 Sep(330):1-15

Division of Health Interview Statistics, Department of Health And Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center For Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782-2003, USA.

Objective: This report presents estimates for underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obesity for U.S. adults aged 18 years and over. Based on self-reported height and weight, data are shown for selected population subgroups for both sexes and for men and women separately.

Methods: Body weight status of U.S. adults was estimated using data from the 1997-98 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for 68,556 adults aged 18 years and over and Body Mass Index (BMI) (weight/height2) criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO). The NHIS is administered in households throughout the United States using computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI). The combined overall response rate in 1997-98 was 77.2%. Statistics shown in this report were age adjusted to the 2000 projected U.S. population.

Findings: Over one-half of adults (54.7%) were overweight and 1 in 5 (19.5%) were obese in 1997-98. Women (49.5%) were more likely than men (36.3%) to be of healthy weight although men and women were equally likely to be obese. Obesity was most prevalent among middle-aged adults, among black non-Hispanic adults and Hispanic adults, and among adults with less education and lower income. Rates of obesity by marital status differed by gender: married men (20.4%) had higher rates of obesity than separated and divorced men (16.8%), and married women (18.4%) had lower rates of obesity than separated and divorced women (23.2%). Obesity was lowest among adults living in the West and those living in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), but outside the central city (i.e., the suburbs).

Conclusions: Overweight and obesity were widespread in the United States in 1997-98 and prevalence varied significantly by population subgroup.
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September 2002