Publications by authors named "Charlotta Rylander"

50 Publications

Heterogeneity of Associations between Total and Types of Fish Intake and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Federated Meta-Analysis of 28 Prospective Studies Including 956,122 Participants.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 7;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 90040-060, Brazil.

The association between fish consumption and new-onset type 2 diabetes is inconsistent and differs according to geographical location. We examined the association between the total and types of fish consumption and type 2 diabetes using individual participant data from 28 prospective cohort studies from the Americas (6), Europe (15), the Western Pacific (6), and the Eastern Mediterranean (1) comprising 956,122 participants and 48,084 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for associations of total fish, shellfish, fatty, lean, fried, freshwater, and saltwater fish intake and type 2 diabetes were derived for each study, adjusting for a consistent set of confounders and combined across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. We stratified all analyses by sex due to observed interaction ( = 0.002) on the association between fish and type 2 diabetes. In women, for each 100 g/week higher intake the IRRs (95% CIs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.02 (1.01-1.03, = 61%) for total fish, 1.04 (1.01-1.07, = 46%) for fatty fish, and 1.02 (1.00-1.04, = 33%) for lean fish. In men, all associations were null. In women, we observed variation by geographical location: IRRs for total fish were 1.03 (1.02-1.04, = 0%) in the Americas and null in other regions. In conclusion, we found evidence of a neutral association between total fish intake and type 2 diabetes in men, but there was a modest positive association among women with heterogeneity across studies, which was partly explained by geographical location and types of fish intake. Future research should investigate the role of cooking methods, accompanying foods and environmental pollutants, but meanwhile, existing dietary regional, national, or international guidelines should continue to guide fish consumption within overall healthy dietary patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068031PMC
April 2021

Time trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in blood in 30-year old Norwegian men and women in the period 1986-2007.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Biomonitoring studies are helpful tools and can increase our knowledge on time trends in human blood concentrations of PFASs: how they relate to emission trends and the potential prenatal exposure for future generations. In this study, serum was sampled in cross-sections of men and women who were 30 years old in each of the years 1986, 1994, 2001, and 2007 in Northern Norway and analyzed for 23 PFASs. Differences in serum concentrations across sampling years were investigated graphically and with significance testing and compared with those observed in our previous longitudinal study using repeated individual measurements in older men in the same years. The results demonstrate overall increasing blood burdens of PFASs in men and women in reproductively active ages during 1986-2001 and decreases until 2007. However, longer chained PFASs were still increasing in 2007 indicating divergent time trends between the different PFASs, underlining the importance of continued biomonitoring. Comparisons between 30-year-old men and older men within the same population demonstrated variation in time trends in the exact same years, underlining that biomonitoring studies must regard historic exposures and birth cohort effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13809-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Transcriptomic signals in blood prior to lung cancer focusing on time to diagnosis and metastasis.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 1;11(1):7406. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Community Medicine, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Langnes, P.O. Box 6050, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Recent studies have indicated that there are functional genomic signals that can be detected in blood years before cancer diagnosis. This study aimed to assess gene expression in prospective blood samples from the Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort focusing on time to lung cancer diagnosis and metastatic cancer using a nested case-control design. We employed several approaches to statistically analyze the data and the methods indicated that the case-control differences were subtle but most distinguishable in metastatic case-control pairs in the period 0-3 years prior to diagnosis. The genes of interest along with estimated blood cell populations could indicate disruption of immunological processes in blood. The genes identified from approaches focusing on alterations with time to diagnosis were distinct from those focusing on the case-control differences. Our results support that explorative analyses of prospective blood samples could indicate circulating signals of disease-related processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86879-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017014PMC
April 2021

Preventable fractions of cancer incidence attributable to 7-years weight gain in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 15;11(1):3800. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, P.O. Box 6050 Langnes, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

There is a lack of tangible measures for directed public health action to halt the increase in weight and cancer. We estimated the fraction and preventable cases of all and major body fatness-related cancers attributable to 7-years weight gain (≥ 2 kg). We assessed validated self-reported anthropometrics from 44,114 women aged 34-49 years at the enrolment in 1991-1992 and from a second questionnaire in 1998, with follow-up through December 31, 2015. Over 18 years, 3216 body fatness-related cancers and 2041 deaths were reported. Nearly 70% of women experienced weight gain and the average weight change was 4 kg. We observed a substantial proportional impact of weight gain on pancreatic cancer with a population attributable fraction (PAF) of 41.8% (95% CI 8.1-63.1) and a high absolute impact on postmenopausal breast cancer with 4403 preventable cases (95% CI 1064-7299) and a PAF of 16.8% (95% CI 4.1-27.8), and colorectal cancer with 3857 preventable cases (95% CI 1313-5990) and a PAF of 22.6% (95% CI 7.7-35.1). Avoiding weight gain over seven years in middle adulthood could have prevented a considerable proportion of the cancer burden and thousands of cancer cases in women in Norway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83027-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884841PMC
February 2021

Pre- and post-diagnostic blood profiles of chlorinated persistent organic pollutants and metabolic markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus cases and controls; a pilot study.

Environ Res 2021 04 9;195:110846. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT-The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Objective: Several risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are also associated with blood concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and factors related to the disease may affect POP concentrations, and subsequent associations between POPs and T2DM. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the change in concentrations of lipids, hormones and POPs pre- and post-diagnosis in T2DM cases compared to healthy controls and their associations with T2DM.

Methods: We measured POPs, lipids, and thyroid and steroid hormones in plasma from 44 female cases collected prior to (pre-diagnostic) and following (post-diagnostic) T2DM diagnosis, and in 44 healthy female age-matched controls. We compared cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes within and between matched cases and controls with t-tests and multivariable linear regression models. Associations between POP concentrations and T2DM were investigated using conditional logistic regression.

Results: Between the pre- and post-diagnostic measurement, cases developed more favorable lipid profiles and the longitudinal changes in lipid-normalized concentrations of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like PCBs, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), HCB, and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDE) differed significantly between cases and controls. The longitudinal changes in POPs were mainly driven by changes in bodyweight, total lipids and T2DM status. Cases had significantly higher pre-diagnostic concentrations of POPs and triglycerides, and lower concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and free thyroxin than controls. Pre-diagnostic POP concentrations were not significantly associated with incident T2DM, whereas several post-diagnostic POP concentrations were significantly positively associated with prevalent T2DM.

Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that factors related to T2DM affect blood concentrations of POPs and may partly explain the positive associations between POPs and T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110846DOI Listing
April 2021

Reproductive Factors, Use of Exogenous Hormones, and Pancreatic Cancer Incidence: The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

Clin Epidemiol 2021 5;13:67-80. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Introduction: The incidence of pancreatic cancer is increasing worldwide and characterized by a particularly low survival rate. Studies have reported weak and inconsistent evidence for associations among reproductive factors, use of exogenous hormones, and pancreatic cancer incidence in women.

Purpose: To investigate relationships between reproductive factors, exogenous hormones, and the rate of pancreatic cancer incidence in a large population-based prospective cohort of women in Norway.

Methods: We used data from the Norwegian Women and Cancer study on 588 incident cases of pancreatic cancer diagnosed among 165,419 women, with mean follow-up of 18.7 years. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for associations of interest.

Results: Cumulative breastfeeding duration >24 months was associated with 63% decreased incidence of pancreatic cancer compared to no breastfeeding. We observed an inverse linear dose-response trend between cumulative breastfeeding duration and pancreatic cancer incidence, which was confirmed in parous women and ever-smokers. Higher age at first birth and menopause were inversely associated with pancreatic cancer incidence, though with less precise effect estimates. Current use of oral contraceptives was associated with a doubling of pancreatic cancer incidence, but the analysis was hampered by a small number of cases. There was no evidence of any associations between age at menarche, parity or use of menopausal hormone therapy, and incidence of pancreatic cancer.

Conclusion: Our results suggest a potential protective effect of breastfeeding duration against pancreatic cancer incidence. Inconsistent results for the other reproductive factors suggested no important role of estrogens in pancreatic cancer etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S268556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872864PMC
February 2021

The impact of antenatal care utilization on admissions to neonatal intensive care units and perinatal mortality in Georgia.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(12):e0242991. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø -The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Introduction: Appropriate antenatal care (ANC) utilization has direct, significant effects on perinatal mortality (PM). Georgia has one of the highest PM rates (11.7 per 1000 births) in Europe and launched a more intensive ANC programme in 2018.

Aim: To evaluate the associations between the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization (APNCU) index and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and PM in Georgia.

Methods: The Georgian Birth Registry (GBR), with linkage to the Vital Registration System, was used as the main data source; 148,407 eligible mothers and singleton newborns were identified during the observation period (2017-2019). The main exposure was ANC utilization, measured by the APNCU index, and the hospitalization registry was used to validate NICU admissions. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations between the exposure and outcomes while controlling for potential confounders.

Results: The overall PM rate was 11.6/1000 births, and the proportion of newborns with a NICU admission was 7.8%. 85% of women initiated ANC before gestational age week 12. According to the APNCU index, 16% of women received inadequate, 10% intermediate, 38% adequate, and 36% intensive care. Women who received intermediate care had the lowest odds of PM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-0.70), and newborns of women who received inadequate care had the highest odds of NICU admission (AOR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.23) and PM (AOR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.36).

Conclusion: ANC utilization is significantly associated with newborn asmissions to NICU and PM in Georgia. Women received inadequate care experienced the highest odds of newborn admissions to NICU and PM.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242991PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710101PMC
January 2021

Association between anthropometry and lifestyle factors and risk of B-cell lymphoma: An exposome-wide analysis.

Int J Cancer 2021 May 12;148(9):2115-2128. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Oncology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

To better understand the role of individual and lifestyle factors in human disease, an exposome-wide association study was performed to investigate within a single-study anthropometry measures and lifestyle factors previously associated with B-cell lymphoma (BCL). Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study, 2402 incident BCL cases were diagnosed from 475 426 participants that were followed-up on average 14 years. Standard and penalized Cox regression models as well as principal component analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate 84 exposures in relation to BCL risk. Standard and penalized Cox regression models showed a positive association between anthropometric measures and BCL and multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm (MM). The penalized Cox models additionally showed the association between several exposures from categories of physical activity, smoking status, medical history, socioeconomic position, diet and BCL and/or the subtypes. PCAs confirmed the individual associations but also showed additional observations. The PC5 including anthropometry, was positively associated with BCL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and MM. There was a significant positive association between consumption of sugar and confectionary (PC11) and follicular lymphoma risk, and an inverse association between fish and shellfish and Vitamin D (PC15) and DLBCL risk. The PC1 including features of the Mediterranean diet and diet with lower inflammatory score showed an inverse association with BCL risk, while the PC7, including dairy, was positively associated with BCL and DLBCL risk. Physical activity (PC10) was positively associated with DLBCL risk among women. This study provided informative insights on the etiology of BCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048490PMC
May 2021

Weight change in middle adulthood and risk of cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 9;148(7):1637-1651. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, Città della Salute e della Scienza University-Hospital and Center for Cancer Prevention (CPO), Turin, Italy.

Obesity is a risk factor for several major cancers. Associations of weight change in middle adulthood with cancer risk, however, are less clear. We examined the association of change in weight and body mass index (BMI) category during middle adulthood with 42 cancers, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Of 241 323 participants (31% men), 20% lost and 32% gained weight (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) during 6.9 years (average). During 8.0 years of follow-up after the second weight assessment, 20 960 incident cancers were ascertained. Independent of baseline BMI, weight gain (per one kg/year increment) was positively associated with cancer of the corpus uteri (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.23). Compared to stable weight (±0.4 kg/year), weight gain (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) was positively associated with cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts (HR = 1.41; 1.01-1.96), postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.08; 1.00-1.16) and thyroid (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.90). Compared to maintaining normal weight, maintaining overweight or obese BMI (World Health Organisation categories) was positively associated with most obesity-related cancers. Compared to maintaining the baseline BMI category, weight gain to a higher BMI category was positively associated with cancers of the postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.19; 1.06-1.33), ovary (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.91), corpus uteri (HR = 1.42; 1.06-1.91), kidney (HR = 1.80; 1.20-2.68) and pancreas in men (HR = 1.81; 1.11-2.95). Losing weight to a lower BMI category, however, was inversely associated with cancers of the corpus uteri (HR = 0.40; 0.23-0.69) and colon (HR = 0.69; 0.52-0.92). Our findings support avoiding weight gain and encouraging weight loss in middle adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33339DOI Listing
April 2021

Factors Associated with Cesarean Section among Primiparous Women in Georgia: A Registry-based Study.

J Epidemiol Glob Health 2020 12 21;10(4):337-343. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Cesarean section rates remain high in Georgia. As a cesarean section in the first pregnancy generally lead to a cesarean section in subsequent pregnancies, primiparous women should be targeted for prevention strategies. The aim of the study was to assess factors associated with cesarean section among primiparous women. The study comprised 17,065 primiparous women with singleton, cephalic deliveries at 37-43 weeks of gestation registered in the Georgian Birth Registry in 2017. The main outcome was cesarean section. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors associated with cesarean section. The proportion of cesarean section was 37.1% with regional variations from 14.2% to 57.4%. Increased maternal age, obesity and having a baby weighing ≥4000 g were all associated with higher odds of cesarean section. Of serious concern for newborn well-being is the high proportion of cesarean section at 37-38 weeks of gestation. Further research should focus on organizational and economical aspects of maternity care to uncover the underlying causes of the high cesarean section rate in Georgia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.200813.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758855PMC
December 2020

Pre- and post-diagnostic blood profiles of perfluoroalkyl acids in type 2 diabetes mellitus cases and controls.

Environ Int 2020 12 9;145:106095. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT-The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Studies exploring the associations between perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are rather limited and have reported conflicting results. All studies to date, including prospective ones, have relied on a single blood sample to study this association. Similarly, studies investigating how T2DM status may influence the longitudinal changes in PFAA concentrations have not been previously performed. As PFAA concentrations in humans have changed considerably over the last two decades, and as individuals diagnosed with T2DM usually undergo lifestyle changes that could influence these concentrations, a single blood sample may not necessarily reflect the life-time exposure to PFAA concentrations. Hence, repeated measurements from the same individuals will extend our understanding of how PFAAs are associated with T2DM. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore associations between pre- and post-diagnostic PFAA blood profiles and T2DM and assess factors associated with longitudinal changes in PFAAs in T2DM cases and controls.

Methods: Questionnaire data and blood samples from women participating in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study were used to conduct a nested case-control study among 46 T2DM cases matched to 85 non-diabetic controls. PFAAs were measured in blood samples collected prior to (2001/02) and after (2005/6) T2DM diagnosis. We investigated the association between PFAAs and incident and prevalent T2DM using conditional logistic regression. We assessed the longitudinal changes in PFAA concentrations within and between matched cases and controls using t-tests and linear regression models.

Results: We observed no significant associations between pre-diagnostic PFAA concentrations and T2DM incidence. Similar results were observed for the post-diagnostic PFAA concentrations and T2DM prevalence. Decrease over time in PFAA concentrations were observed for PFOA and ∑PFOS concentrations, whereas increase over time were observed for PFNA, PFDA and PFUnDA concentrations. Longitudinal trends in PFAA concentrations among T2DM cases were similar to the changes observed in controls.

Conclusions: The study did not find evidence of association between PFAAs and incident or prevalent T2DM. The longitudinal changes in PFAAs concentrations were not influenced by T2DM status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106095DOI Listing
December 2020

Excess Body Weight and Incidence of Type 1 and Type 2 Endometrial Cancer: The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

Clin Epidemiol 2020 31;12:815-824. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Community Medicine, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Purpose: Excess body weight has been associated with increased risk of 13 cancer types and is a particularly strong risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC). Only a few previous studies have assessed the relationship between excess body weight and EC subtypes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the associations between excess weight and incidence of type 1 and type 2 EC.

Patients And Methods: We used data from 151,537 participants in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) cohort of which 935 were diagnosed with type 1 and 263 with type 2 EC during follow-up. Height and body weight were self-reported. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the associations between body mass index (BMI) and type 1 and type 2 EC.

Results: For every 2 kg/m increase in BMI, the risk of type 1 EC increased by 21% (HR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.24) and the risk of type 2 EC by 10% (HR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16) (p = 0.009). During the period 1991 to 2016, 24.0% (95% CI: 20.0% to 27.8%) of type 1 EC cases was attributable to excess body weight. Avoiding obesity could have prevented 6.6% (95% CI: 3.4% to 9.7%) of type 2 EC cases.

Conclusion: Excess body weight was associated with both type 1 and type 2 EC in a dose-dependent manner and the association was significantly stronger in type 1 EC. These findings could support the hypothesis that estrogen plays a more important role in the development of type 1 ECs than in type 2 EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S253866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402855PMC
July 2020

Unattended Pregnancies and Perinatal Mortality in Georgia.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2020 15;13:313-321. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø 9037, Norway.

Introduction: The majority of pregnant women in Georgia attend the free-of-charge, national antenatal care (ANC) programme, but over 5% of pregnancies in the country are unattended. Moreover, Georgia has one of the highest perinatal mortality (PM) rates in Europe (11.7/1000 births).

Purpose: To assess the association between unattended pregnancies and the risk of PM.

Methods: Data were extracted from the Georgian Birth Registry (GBR) and the national vital registration system. All mothers who had singleton births and delivered in medical facilities in Georgia in 2017-2018 were included in the study and categorised into attended pregnancies (at least one ANC visit during pregnancy) and unattended pregnancies (no ANC visits during pregnancy). After exclusions, the study sample included 101,663 women and their newborns, of which 1186 were either stillborn or died within 7 days. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of unattended pregnancies on PM.

Results: During the study period, the PM rate was 12.9/1000 births. In total, 5.6% of women had unattended pregnancies. The odds of PM among women with unattended pregnancies were more than double those among women with attended pregnancies (odds ratio=2.21, [95% confidence interval: 1.81-2.70]). Multiparous women with higher education and who resided/delivered outside of Tbilisi were significantly less likely to experience PM.

Conclusion: The risk of PM doubled among women with unattended pregnancies. Six percent of PM cases were attributable to unattended pregnancies. Targeting women with previous unattended pregnancies will likely reduce the PM rate in Georgia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S243207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169472PMC
April 2020

Dietary patterns of adults and their associations with Sami ethnicity, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle factors in a rural multiethnic population of northern Norway - the SAMINOR 2 clinical survey.

BMC Public Health 2019 Dec 4;19(1):1632. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø The Arctic University of Norway, Postboks 6050 Langnes, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Few population-based studies have assessed dietary behaviors in the rural multiethnic population of Northern Norway. The present study determined dietary patterns and investigated their association with Sami ethnicity, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle factors in a multiethnic population in rural Northern Norway.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 4504 participants of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey (2012-2014) aged 40-69 years. All participants completed a lifestyle and food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis. Associations between food patterns and ethnicity, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle factors were examined by multiple linear regression.

Results: Six dietary patterns were identified that accounted for 28% of the variability in food intake in the study sample: 'processed meat/westernized', 'fish/traditional', 'fruit/vegetables', 'reindeer/traditional', 'bread and sandwich spreads', and 'sweets and bakery goods'. The 'reindeer/traditional' pattern was most common among the inland Sami population. The 'fish/traditional' pattern was most common among costal multiethnic Sami and least common among inland Sami and among women independent of ethnicity. The 'fish/traditional' pattern was also positively associated with older age, high education level, small household size, and smoking. Adherence to the 'processed meat/westernized' pattern was lower among inland Sami than inland/coastal non-Sami; no ethnic differences in adherence to this pattern were found between costal multiethnic Sami and inland/coastal non-Sami. Unhealthy lifestyle factors, like low physical activity level and smoking, and younger age were mainly associated with the 'processed meat/westernized' pattern, whereas socioeconomic factors like low education, low gross annual household income, and large household size were related to the 'sweets and bakery goods' pattern. Male gender, low education level, and smoking were associated with the 'bread and sandwich spreads' pattern. The 'fruit/vegetables' pattern was characterized by healthy dietary choices and a health-conscious lifestyle, and was more common in women with a high education level and income.

Conclusions: Adherence to the six identified dietary patterns was characterized by different sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Ethnicity, in combination with geographical region of residence, was associated with dietary behaviors. This study provides knowledge that will be useful in future studies on dietary patterns related to chronic diseases in the rural population of Northern Norway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7776-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6894324PMC
December 2019

Use of skincare products and risk of cancer of the breast and endometrium: a prospective cohort study.

Environ Health 2019 12 3;18(1):105. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Concerns have been raised that extensive use of personal care products that contain endocrine disrupting compounds increase the risk of hormone sensitive cancers.

Objective: To assess the effect of skincare product use on the risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer, estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and negative (ER-) breast cancer and cancer of the endometrium.

Methods: We used data from 106,978 participants in the population-based Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort. Participants were categorized into non-, light, moderate, frequent and heavy users of skincare products based on self-reported use of hand and facial cream and body lotion. Cancer incidence information from the Cancer Registry of Norway was linked to individual data through the unique identity number of Norwegian citizens. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the effect of skincare product use on the risk of cancer of the breast and endometrium. We used multiple imputation by chained equations to evaluate the effect of missing data on observed associations.

Results: We found no associations between use of skincare products and incidence of premenopausal breast cancer (frequent/heavy versus non-/light use: hazard ratio [HR] =1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-1.32), postmenopausal breast cancer (heavy versus light use: HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.65-1.18, frequent versus light use: HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.07) or endometrial cancer (frequent/heavy versus non-/light use: HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.79-1.20). Use of skincare products did not increase the risk of ER+ or ER- breast cancer and there was no difference in effect across ER status (0.58 ≤ p ≤ 0.99). The magnitude and direction of the effect estimates based on complete case analyses and multiple imputation were similar.

Conclusion: Heavy use of skincare products, i.e. creaming the body up to two times per day during mid-life, did not increase the risk of cancer of the breast or endometrium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-019-0547-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889352PMC
December 2019

Healthy lifestyle and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the EPIC study.

Eur J Epidemiol 2020 Oct 28;35(10):975-986. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly fatal cancer with currently limited opportunities for early detection and effective treatment. Modifiable factors may offer pathways for primary prevention. In this study, the association between the Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) and PC risk was examined. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1113 incident PC (57% women) were diagnosed from 400,577 participants followed-up for 15 years (median). HLI scores combined smoking, alcohol intake, dietary exposure, physical activity and, in turn, overall and central adiposity using BMI (HLI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, HLI), respectively. High values of HLI indicate adherence to healthy behaviors. Cox proportional hazard models with age as primary time variable were used to estimate PC hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analyses were performed by excluding, in turn, each factor from the HLI score. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated assuming participants' shift to healthier lifestyles. The HRs for a one-standard deviation increment of HLI and HLI were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.89; p = 4.3e-09) and 0.77 (0.72, 0.82; p = 1.7e-15), respectively. Exclusions of smoking from HLI resulted in HRs of 0.88 (0.82, 0.94; p = 4.9e-04). The overall PAF estimate was 19% (95% CI: 11%, 26%), and 14% (6%, 21%) when smoking was removed from the score. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle was inversely associated with PC risk, beyond the beneficial role of smoking avoidance. Public health measures targeting compliance with healthy lifestyles may have an impact on PC incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-019-00559-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116136PMC
October 2020

Incidence and Causes of Perinatal Mortality in Georgia.

J Epidemiol Glob Health 2019 09;9(3):163-168

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway, Hansine Hansens veg 18, Tromsø 9037, Norway.

Georgia has one of the highest perinatal mortality rates (i.e., stillbirths and early neonatal deaths combined) in Europe. The Georgian Birth Registry was started in 2016 to provide data for preventive measures of maternal and child health. In this study, we aim to determine the incidence of perinatal mortality, assess the distribution of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths, and to determine the major causes of perinatal mortality in Georgia. Data sources were the Georgian Birth Registry and the vital registration system for the year 2017. Causes of early neonatal deaths were assigned into five categories, using the Wigglesworth classification with the Neonatal and Intrauterine deaths Classification according to Etiology modification. The study used descriptive statistics only, specifically counts, means, proportions, and rates, using the statistical software STATA version 15.0. (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). In 2017, 489 stillbirths and 238 early neonatal deaths were recorded, resulting in a perinatal mortality rate of 13.6 per 1000 births. About 80% of stillbirths had an unknown cause of death. The majority of stillbirths occurred before the start of labor (85%), and almost one-third were delivered by caesarean section (28%). Prematurity (58%) and congenital malformations (23%) were the main causes of early neonatal deaths, and 70% of early neonatal deaths occurred after the first day of life. The perinatal mortality rate in Georgia remained high in 2017. The major causes of early neonatal deaths were comparable to those of many high-income countries. Contrary to global data, most early neonatal deaths occurred after the first day of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.190818.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310824PMC
September 2019

Anthropometric and reproductive factors and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer by subtype and subsite: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Int J Cancer 2020 02 21;146(4):929-942. Epub 2019 May 21.

Institution of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Sweden.

Obesity has been associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers; however, there are limited prospective data on associations by subtype/subsite. Obesity can impact hormonal factors, which have been hypothesized to play a role in these cancers. We investigated anthropometric and reproductive factors in relation to esophageal and gastric cancer by subtype and subsite for 476,160 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox models. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 220 esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), 195 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 243 gastric cardia (GC) and 373 gastric noncardia (GNC) cancers were diagnosed. Body mass index (BMI) was associated with EA in men (BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5-25 kg/m : HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.25-3.03) and women (HR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.15-6.19); however, adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attenuated these associations. After mutual adjustment for BMI and HC, respectively, WHR and waist circumference (WC) were associated with EA in men (HR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.99-6.06 for WHR >0.96 vs. <0.91; HR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.52-4.72 for WC >98 vs. <90 cm) and women (HR = 4.40, 95% CI: 1.35-14.33 for WHR >0.82 vs. <0.76; HR = 5.67, 95% CI: 1.76-18.26 for WC >84 vs. <74 cm). WHR was also positively associated with GC in women, and WC was positively associated with GC in men. Inverse associations were observed between parity and EA (HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-0.99; >2 vs. 0) and age at first pregnancy and GNC (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.91; >26 vs. <22 years); whereas bilateral ovariectomy was positively associated with GNC (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.04-3.36). These findings support a role for hormonal pathways in upper gastrointestinal cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6973006PMC
February 2020

Time trends of persistent organic pollutants in 30 year olds sampled in 1986, 1994, 2001 and 2007 in Northern Norway: Measurements, mechanistic modeling and a comparison of study designs.

Environ Res 2019 05 1;172:684-692. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Community Medicine, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; NILU-Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Human biomonitoring studies have demonstrated decreasing concentrations of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in years after emission peaks.

Objectives: To describe time trends of POPs in blood using four cross-sectional samples of 30 year olds from Tromsø, Norway across 1986-2007, and to compare the measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB-153) to model-estimated values. A second objective was to compare the repeated cross-sectional time trends with those observed in our previous longitudinal study using repeated individual measurements in older men from the same surveys.

Methods: Serum from 45 persons aged 30 years in each of the following years: 1986, 1994, 2001, and 2007 was analyzed for 14 POPs. Further, predicted concentrations of PCB-153 in each sampling year were derived using the emission-based CoZMoMAN model.

Results: The median decreases in summed serum POP concentrations (lipid-adjusted) in 1994, 2001, and 2007 relative to 1986 were - 71%, - 81%, and - 86% for women and - 65%, - 77%, and - 87% for men, respectively. The overall time trend in predicted PCB-153 concentrations demonstrated agreement with the observed trend although model predictions were higher than the measured concentrations at all time points. Compared to our previous longitudinal study of repeated individual measurements in older men, similar although more prominent declines were observed in the younger cross-sectional samples.

Discussion: Observed declines in serum concentrations from 1986 to 2007 were substantial for legacy POPs in men and women at reproductive ages in Northern Norway and are generally consistent with previous longitudinal biomonitoring efforts in the study population. The measured concentrations and observed declines likely reflect a combination of recent and historic exposures. Small differences in time trends observed between the studies could be attributed to different study designs (i.e. the chosen age group or sex and cross-sectional versus repeated individual measurement sampling).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.02.047DOI Listing
May 2019

Prevalence and correlates of self-reported disordered eating: A cross-sectional study among 90 592 middle-aged Norwegian women.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(1):e0211056. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Disordered eating (DE) is extensively studied among adolescents and young women. However, there is growing evidence that DE as well as the clinical eating disorders may occur at any age from childhood to advanced years. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of DE in a representative sample of middle-aged women from Norway. The study included 90 592 women (median age: 55 years) from the Norwegian Women and Cancer study who responded to a questionnaire between the years 2002-2005. Correlates of self-reported DE were assessed by logistic regression analyses. The overall period prevalence of DE between 2002-2005 was 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.25-0.31) %, and was highest among women ≥ 66 years: 0.65 (0.60-0.70) %. DE was strongly associated with depression (Odds ratio [OR] 3.34 [95% confidence interval 2.53-4.41]), being unemployed (OR 1.78 [1.32-2.40]) and single (OR 1.66 [1.25-2.20]). Women with DE were more likely to report low energy intake (OR 1.41 [1.08-1.86]) and were less likely to be moderately physically active (OR 0.67 [0.47-0.95]). Using the largest study sample in the literature, the present findings confirm smaller studies showing that DE do occur in women in mid-life and older age as well. Our results contribute to address a somewhat under-communicated community health problem that needs attention in terms of age-specific treatment and prevention.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211056PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343912PMC
October 2019

Methodological issues in a prospective study on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and pancreatic cancer risk within the EPIC cohort.

Environ Res 2019 02 23;169:417-433. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Community Medicine, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: The use of biomarkers of environmental exposure to explore new risk factors for pancreatic cancer presents clinical, logistic, and methodological challenges that are also relevant in research on other complex diseases.

Objectives: First, to summarize the main design features of a prospective case-control study -nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort- on plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk. And second, to assess the main methodological challenges posed by associations among characteristics and habits of study participants, fasting status, time from blood draw to cancer diagnosis, disease progression bias, basis of cancer diagnosis, and plasma concentrations of lipids and POPs. Results from etiologic analyses on POPs and pancreatic cancer risk, and other analyses, will be reported in future articles.

Methods: Study subjects were 1533 participants (513 cases and 1020 controls matched by study centre, sex, age at blood collection, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status) enrolled between 1992 and 2000. Plasma concentrations of 22 POPs were measured by gas chromatography - triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). To estimate the magnitude of the associations we calculated multivariate-adjusted odds ratios by unconditional logistic regression, and adjusted geometric means by General Linear Regression Models.

Results: There were differences among countries in subjects' characteristics (as age, gender, smoking, lipid and POP concentrations), and in study characteristics (as time from blood collection to index date, year of last follow-up, length of follow-up, basis of cancer diagnosis, and fasting status). Adjusting for centre and time of blood collection, no factors were significantly associated with fasting status. Plasma concentrations of lipids were related to age, body mass index, fasting, country, and smoking. We detected and quantified 16 of the 22 POPs in more than 90% of individuals. All 22 POPs were detected in some participants, and the smallest number of POPs detected in one person was 15 (median, 19) with few differences by country. The highest concentrations were found for p,p'-DDE, PCBs 153 and 180 (median concentration: 3371, 1023, and 810 pg/mL, respectively). We assessed the possible occurrence of disease progression bias (DPB) in eight situations defined by lipid and POP measurements, on one hand, and by four factors: interval from blood draw to index date, tumour subsite, tumour stage, and grade of differentiation, on the other. In seven of the eight situations results supported the absence of DPB.

Conclusions: The coexistence of differences across study centres in some design features and participant characteristics is of relevance to other multicentre studies. Relationships among subjects' characteristics and among such characteristics and design features may play important roles in the forthcoming analyses on the association between plasma concentrations of POPs and pancreatic cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.11.027DOI Listing
February 2019

DNA methylation and associated gene expression in blood prior to lung cancer diagnosis in the Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort.

Sci Rep 2018 11 13;8(1):16714. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

MRC/PHE Centre for Environmental Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

The majority of lung cancer is caused by tobacco smoking, and lung cancer-relevant epigenetic markers have been identified in relation to smoking exposure. Still, smoking-related markers appear to mediate little of the effect of smoking on lung cancer. Thus in order to identify disease-relevant markers and enhance our understanding of pathways, a wide search is warranted. Through an epigenome-wide search within a case-control study (131 cases, 129 controls) nested in a Norwegian prospective cohort of women, we found 25 CpG sites associated with lung cancer. Twenty-three were classified as associated with smoking (LC-AwS), and two were classified as unassociated with smoking (LC-non-AwS), as they remained associated with lung cancer after stringent adjustment for smoking exposure using the comprehensive smoking index (CSI): cg10151248 (PC, CSI-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.34 [0.23-0.52] per standard deviation change in methylation) and cg13482620 (B3GNTL1, CSI-adjusted OR = 0.33 [0.22-0.50]). Analysis among never smokers and a cohort of smoking-discordant twins confirmed the classification of the two LC-non-AwS CpG sites. Gene expression profiles demonstrated that the LC-AwS CpG sites had different enriched pathways than LC-non-AwS sites. In conclusion, using blood-derived DNA methylation and gene expression profiles from a prospective lung cancer case-control study in women, we identified 25 CpG lung cancer markers prior to diagnosis, two of which were LC-non-AwS markers and related to distinct pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34334-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233189PMC
November 2018

Predicting human plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants from dietary intake and socio-demographic information in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.

Environ Int 2018 12 9;121(Pt 2):1311-1318. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT-The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in humans are influenced by a large number of factors including birth year, reproductive history and diet. Accordingly, information on dietary habits and socio-demographic variables may predict plasma concentrations of POPs, thus enabling studies on health effects in large epidemiological studies, without performing time consuming and expensive chemical analyses on entire cohorts.

Aims: To develop and evaluate statistical models for predicting concentrations of POPs in participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study, using questionnaire information and measured plasma POP concentrations.

Materials And Methods: Information on estimated dietary intakes and socio-demographic variables from four different questionnaires (in 1991, 1994, 2004 and 2005) were obtained from participants in the NOWAC study. We measured POP concentrations in a total of 367 blood samples from 2005 and built multivariable linear regression models for p,p'-DDE, PCB-118, -138, -153, -180 and summed PCB concentrations in one subsample (N = 259) and evaluated the models in another subsample (N = 108). Measured and predicted values were compared using correlation coefficients and inter-method agreement was evaluated using weighted Cohen's κ for tertile categorization.

Results: Median POP concentrations in the population ranged from 13 ng/g lipid to 162 ng/g lipid (lowest for PCB-118 and highest for p,p'-DDE). Common predictors for all POPs were birth year, breastfeeding and the weight-related variables (BMI or weight change), whereas influential dietary variables differed and were of varying importance. The predicted plasma concentrations were significantly correlated with the measured values (r = 0.24, 0.33, 0.41, 0.50, 0.56, and 0.54 for p,p'-DDE, PCB-118, -138, 153, -180 and summed PCBs, respectively). Tertiles of predicted plasma concentrations displayed significant, but varying agreement with measured concentrations (Weighted Cohen's κ = 0.19, 0.22, 0.33, 0.42, 0.45, and 0.50 respectively).

Conclusion: Predicted plasma concentrations of certain PCBs showed good precision (Kw > 0.4) when compared to measured concentrations. Thus, the models can be used to classify NOWAC participants into high, medium and low PCB exposure groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.10.057DOI Listing
December 2018

Factors Associated with High Weight Gain and Obesity Duration: The Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study.

Obes Facts 2018 12;11(5):381-392. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Aim: To identify factors associated with high weight gain and obesity duration in a representative sample of Norwegian women.

Methods: 66,618 Norwegian women aged 34-70 years at baseline were included in the analysis. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires completed in 1991-2011 provided information on height, weight as well as sociodemographic, lifestyle and reproductive factors. We assessed the association with multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Women gained on average 0.5 kg/year (95% CI 0.5-0.5 kg/year) during 6 years of follow-up, and 3.5% maintained in obesity during 13 years of follow-up. The factors with strongest association with high weight gain (≥10 kg) were smoking cessation (cessation vs. no change, OR = 4.39, 95% CI 3.91-4.94) and decreased physical activity level (decrease vs. no change, OR = 2.40, 95% CI 2.21-2.61). Low physical activity level (high vs. low, OR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.14-0.20), higher than median age at menarche (over median vs. median or under median, OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.31-0.41), and less than 10 years of education (>12 years vs. <10 years, OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.37-0.51) were strongly associated with obesity duration.

Conclusion: The modifiable factor with the strongest association with adverse weight development and potential for prevention was low or decreased physical activity level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000492002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6257091PMC
September 2019

Nutritional quality of food as represented by the FSAm-NPS nutrient profiling system underlying the Nutri-Score label and cancer risk in Europe: Results from the EPIC prospective cohort study.

PLoS Med 2018 09 18;15(9):e1002651. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.

Background: Helping consumers make healthier food choices is a key issue for the prevention of cancer and other diseases. In many countries, political authorities are considering the implementation of a simplified labelling system to reflect the nutritional quality of food products. The Nutri-Score, a five-colour nutrition label, is derived from the Nutrient Profiling System of the British Food Standards Agency (modified version) (FSAm-NPS). How the consumption of foods with high/low FSAm-NPS relates to cancer risk has been studied in national/regional cohorts but has not been characterized in diverse European populations.

Methods And Findings: This prospective analysis included 471,495 adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, 1992-2014, median follow-up: 15.3 y), among whom there were 49,794 incident cancer cases (main locations: breast, n = 12,063; prostate, n = 6,745; colon-rectum, n = 5,806). Usual food intakes were assessed with standardized country-specific diet assessment methods. The FSAm-NPS was calculated for each food/beverage using their 100-g content in energy, sugar, saturated fatty acid, sodium, fibres, proteins, and fruits/vegetables/legumes/nuts. The FSAm-NPS scores of all food items usually consumed by a participant were averaged to obtain the individual FSAm-NPS Dietary Index (DI) scores. Multi-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were computed. A higher FSAm-NPS DI score, reflecting a lower nutritional quality of the food consumed, was associated with a higher risk of total cancer (HRQ5 versus Q1 = 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.10, P-trend < 0.001). Absolute cancer rates in those with high and low (quintiles 5 and 1) FSAm-NPS DI scores were 81.4 and 69.5 cases/10,000 person-years, respectively. Higher FSAm-NPS DI scores were specifically associated with higher risks of cancers of the colon-rectum, upper aerodigestive tract and stomach, lung for men, and liver and postmenopausal breast for women (all P < 0.05). The main study limitation is that it was based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data obtained through a single baseline food frequency questionnaire; thus, exposure misclassification and residual confounding cannot be ruled out.

Conclusions: In this large multinational European cohort, the consumption of food products with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher risk of cancer. This supports the relevance of the FSAm-NPS as underlying nutrient profiling system for front-of-pack nutrition labels, as well as for other public health nutritional measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143197PMC
September 2018

Excess body weight, weight gain and obesity-related cancer risk in women in Norway: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.

Br J Cancer 2018 08 11;119(5):646-656. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Excess body weight and weight gain have been reported to independently increase the risk of several cancers. There are few published studies in nationally representative populations of women on specific, 'obesity-related' cancers in relation to prior weight change and relevant confounders.

Methods: Based on self-reported anthropometry, we prospectively assessed body mass index (BMI), weight change over 6 years and subsequent obesity-related cancer risk in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios and restricted cubic splines to model potential non-linear dose-response relationships.

Results: Excess body weight increased the risk of overall obesity-related cancer, postmenopausal breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial and kidney cancer, with endometrial cancer showing a threefold elevated risk. High weight gain ( ≥ 10 kg) increased the risk of overall obesity-related cancer, postmenopausal breast, endometrial and pancreatic cancer. The association between high weight gain and pancreatic cancer was strong, with 91% increased risk.

Conclusions: Maintaining stable weight in middle adulthood, irrespective of BMI category at baseline, and avoiding excess body weight are both important in the prevention of several obesity-related cancers in women. Our finding of increased risk of pancreatic cancer in women with moderate and high weight gain is novel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-018-0240-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6162329PMC
August 2018

Implementing a birth registry in a developing country - experiences from Georgia.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2017 12 20;138(2). Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Background: Georgia is the first developing country in the world to have established a national digital, medical birth registry. The Georgia Birth Registry was officially inaugurated on 1 January, 2016. The purpose of this article is to assess the quality of selected variables and present preliminary results from the year 2016.

Material And Methods: The Registry resembles the Nordic birth registries in structure. There are 285 medical facilities involved, each entering 267 variables from week 12 of pregnancy to hospital discharge. In 2016, 52 399 women and 53 236 newborns were recorded as valid entries in the Georgian Birth Registry.

Results: The completeness of the Registry in 2016 was 93.9 %. The difference between the reported number of newborns in the Registry and in official statistics was 3441. The mean gestational age was 271.3 days and the Caesarean section rate 43.5 %. The mean birth weight was 3262 g. Newborns delivered by Caesarean section had a lower gestational age and lower birth weight compared to those delivered vaginally.

Interpretation: There are more newborns registered annually as Georgian citizens than the number of infants born in the country. This leads to inaccurate official reporting on perinatal mortality rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.17.0553DOI Listing
December 2017

Progestin-only and combined oral contraceptives and receptor-defined premenopausal breast cancer risk: The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

Int J Cancer 2018 06 7;142(11):2293-2302. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Receptor-defined subtypes of breast cancer represent distinct cancer types and have differences in risk factors. Whether the two main hormonal forms of oral contraceptives (OCs); i.e. progestin-only (POC) and combined oral contraceptives (COC), are differentially associated with these subtypes are not well known. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of POC and COC use on hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk in premenopausal women in a prospective population-based cohort - The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (NOWAC). Information on OC use was collected from 74,862 premenopausal women at baseline. Updated information was applied when follow-up information became available. Multiple imputation was performed to handle missing data, and multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for breast cancer. 1,245 incident invasive breast cancer cases occurred. POC use ≥5 years was associated with ER+ (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09- 2.32, p  = 0.03) and ER+/PR+ cancer (HR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.07-2.48, p  = 0.05), and was not associated with ER- (p  = 0.36) or ER-/PR- (p  = 0.49) cancer. COC use was associated with ER- and ER-/PR- cancer, but did not increase risk of ER+ and ER+/PR+ cancer. Current COC use gave different estimates for ER/PR-defined subtypes (p  = 0.04). This is the first study to show significant associations between POC use and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The lack of power to distinguish effects of POC use on subtype development calls for the need of larger studies to confirm our finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5893363PMC
June 2018

Characterization of heavy users of skin care products among Norwegian women from 2003 to 2011.

Arch Public Health 2016 19;74:53. Epub 2016 Dec 19.

Department of Community Medicine, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway ; NILU, FRAM-High North Research Centre for Climate and Environment, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Several ingredients in personal care products (PCPs) have been classified as endocrine disruptors (EDs) and concern has been raised whether use of PCPs can affect human health. We aimed to characterize Norwegian female users of skin care products and compare life style characteristics between heavy users and non-users.

Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 114 202 women (age 41-76 years) participating in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study, a large population-based prospective cohort study. Based on self-reported questionnaire data, we classified the study subjects into five groups according to a calculated percentage of skin area creamed per day. Life-style characteristics were then compared between heavy users (using body lotion twice a day) and non-users. Change in use from 2003 to 2011 was assessed through repeated measurements ( = 8484).

Results: Heavy users of skin care products had a significantly lower BMI, higher level of physical activity, higher income, higher alcohol consumption, fewer children and a shorter total time of breastfeeding than non-users ( < 0.001). There were significantly fewer current smokers and more former smokers among heavy users than among non-users ( < 0.01). Current and earlier use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy or hormonal intra-uterine device were significantly more common among heavy users than among non-users ( < 0.01). The use of skin care products was, to a moderate extent (weighted kappa 0.52), consistent over time from 2003 to 2011, and as many as 91.5% of the women were classified into the same user group ±1 category in 2003 and 2011.

Conclusions: Heavy users of skin care products differ significantly from non-users on BMI, degree of daily physical activity, income, number of children, use of hormonal pharmaceuticals, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of skin care products is common among women aged 41-76 years in Norway, and the use is consistent over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-016-0165-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5165705PMC
December 2016