Publications by authors named "Charles Yarish"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Key Considerations for the Use of Seaweed to Reduce Enteric Methane Emissions From Cattle.

Front Vet Sci 2020 23;7:597430. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research, Washington, DC, United States.

Enteric methane emissions are the single largest source of direct greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in beef and dairy value chains and a substantial contributor to anthropogenic methane emissions globally. In late 2019, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) and the Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (FFAR) convened approximately 50 stakeholders representing research and production of seaweeds, animal feeds, dairy cattle, and beef and dairy foods to discuss challenges and opportunities associated with the use of seaweed-based ingredients to reduce enteric methane emissions. This article describes the considerations identified by the workshop participants and suggests next steps for the further development and evaluation of seaweed-based feed ingredients as enteric methane mitigants. Although numerous compounds derived from sources other than seaweed have been identified as having enteric methane mitigation potential, these mitigants are outside the scope of this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.597430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785520PMC
December 2020

Macroalgal germplasm banking for conservation, food security, and industry.

PLoS Biol 2020 02 14;18(2):e3000641. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America.

Ex situ seed banking was first conceptualized and implemented in the early 20th century to maintain and protect crop lines. Today, ex situ seed banking is important for the preservation of heirloom strains, biodiversity conservation and ecosystem restoration, and diverse research applications. However, these efforts primarily target microalgae and terrestrial plants. Although some collections include macroalgae (i.e., seaweeds), they are relatively few and have yet to be connected via any international, coordinated initiative. In this piece, we provide a brief introduction to macroalgal germplasm banking and its application to conservation, industry, and mariculture. We argue that concerted effort should be made globally in germline preservation of marine algal species via germplasm banking with an overview of the technical advances for feasibility and ensured success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046291PMC
February 2020

Photoacclimation and Photoprotection of Juvenile Sporophytes of Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) Under High-light Conditions During Short-term Shallow-water Cultivation.

J Phycol 2020 04 3;56(2):380-392. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Stamford, Connecticut, 06901, USA.

This study was designed to understand better if and how juvenile sporophytes of Macrocystis pyrifera can photoacclimate to high-light conditions when transplanted from 10 to 3 meters over 7 d. Acclimation of adult sporophytes to light regimes in the bathymetric gradient has been extensively documented. It primarily depends on photoacclimation and translocation of resources among blades. Among other physiological differences, juvenile sporophytes of M. pyrifera lack the structural complexity shown by adults. As such, juveniles may primarily depend on their photoacclimation capacities to maintain productivity and even avoid mortality under changing light regimes. However, little is known about how these mechanisms operate in young individuals. The capacity of sporophytes to photoacclimate was assessed by examining changes in their photosynthetic performance, pigment content, and bio-optical properties of the blade. Sporophytes nutritional status and oxidative damage were also determined. Results showed that juvenile sporophytes transplanted to shallow water were able to regulate light harvesting by reducing pigment concentration, and thus, absorptance and photosynthetic efficiency. Also, shallow-water sporophytes notably enhanced the dissipation of light energy as heat (NPQ) as a photoprotective mechanism. Generally, these adjustments allowed sporophytes to manage the absorption and utilization of light energy, hence reducing the potential for photo-oxidative damage. Furthermore, no substantial changes were found in the internal reserves (i.e., soluble carbohydrates and nitrogen) of these sporophytes. To our knowledge, these results are the first to provide robust evidence of photoprotective and photoacclimation strategies in juveniles of M. pyrifera, allowing them to restrict or avoid photodamage during shallow-water cultivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12951DOI Listing
April 2020

Land-based drip-irrigated culture of Ulva compressa: The effect of culture platform design and nutrient concentration on biomass production and protein content.

PLoS One 2018 27;13(6):e0199287. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Integrative Oceanography Division, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

This work developed a laboratory prototype methodology for cost-effective, water-sparing drip-irrigation of seaweeds, as a model for larger-scale, on-land commercial units, which we envision as semi-automated, inexpensive polyethylene sheet-covered bow-framed greenhouses with sloping plastic covered floors, water-collecting sumps, and pumped recycling of culture media into overhead low-pressure drip emitters. Water droplets form on the continually wetted interior plastic surfaces of these types of greenhouses scattering incoming solar radiation to illuminate around and within the vertically-stacked culture platforms. Concentrated media formulations applied through foliar application optimize nutrient uptake by the seaweeds to improve growth and protein content of the cultured biomass. An additional attribute is that seaweed growth can be accelerated by addition of anthropogenic CO2-containing industrial flue gases piped into the head-space of the greenhouse to reuse and recycle CO2 into useful algal biomass. This demonstration tested three different drip culture platform designs (horizontal, vertical and slanted) and four increasing fertilizer media concentrations (in seawater) for growth, areal productivity, and thallus protein content of wild-collected Ulva compressa biomass, against fully-submerged controls. Cool White fluorescent lights provided 150-200 μmol photon m-2 s-1 illumination on a 12/12 hr day/night cycle. Interactive effects we tested using a four-level single factorial randomized block framework (p<0.05). Growth rates and biomass of the drip irrigation designs were 3-9% day-1 and 5-18 g m-2 day-1 (d.w.) respectively, whereas the fully-submerged control group grew better at 8-11% per day with of 20-30 g m-2 day-1, indicating further optimization of the drip irrigation methodology is needed to improve growth and biomass production. Results demonstrated that protein content of Ulva biomass grown using the vertically-oriented drip culture platform and 2x fertilizer concentrations (42:16:36 N:P:K) was 27% d.w., approximating the similarly-fertilized control group. The drip methodology was found to significantly improve gas and nutrient mass transfer through the seaweed thalli, and overall, the labor- and-energy-saving methodology would use a calculated 20% of the seawater required for conventional on-land tank-based tumble culture.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0199287PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6021086PMC
June 2018

Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 08 17;114(31):E6361-E6370. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Ecology, Evolution & Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901.

(laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection. Cytoskeletal motor proteins in are restricted to a small set of kinesins that appear to be the only universal cytoskeletal motors within the red algae. Dynein motors are absent, and most red algae, including , lack myosin. This surprisingly minimal cytoskeleton offers a potential explanation for why red algal cells and multicellular structures are more limited in size than in most multicellular lineages. Additional discoveries further relating to the stress tolerance of bangiophytes include ancestral enzymes for sulfation of the hydrophilic galactan-rich cell wall, evidence for mannan synthesis that originated before the divergence of green and red algae, and a high capacity for nutrient uptake. Our analyses provide a comprehensive understanding of the red algae, which are both commercially important and have played a major role in the evolution of other algal groups through secondary endosymbioses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1703088114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5547612PMC
August 2017

Tracing the origin of green macroalgal blooms based on the large scale spatio-temporal distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules and settled mature Ulva vegetative thalli in coastal regions of the Yellow Sea, China.

Harmful Algae 2016 11 13;59:91-99. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

College of Fisheries and Life Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, PR China; Maine Scientific Research Institute, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, PR China. Electronic address:

From 2008 to 2016, massive floating green macroalgal blooms occurred annually during the summer months in the Yellow Sea. The original source of these blooms was traced based on the spatio-temporal distribution and species composition of Ulva microscopic propagules and settled Ulva vegetative thalli monthly from December 2012 to May 2013 in the Yellow Sea. High quantities of Ulva microscopic propagules in both the water column and sediments were found in the Pyropia aquaculture area along the Jiangsu coast before a green macroalgal bloom appeared in the Yellow Sea. The abundance of Ulva microscopic propagules was significantly lower in outer areas compared to in Pyropia aquaculture areas. A molecular phylogenetic analysis suggested that Ulva prolifera microscopic propagules were the dominant microscopic propagules present during the study period. The extremely low biomass of settled Ulva vegetative thalli along the coast indicated that somatic cells of settled Ulva vegetative thalli did not provide a propagule bank for the green macroalgal blooms in the Yellow Sea. The results of this study provide further supporting evidence that the floating green macroalgal blooms originate from green macroalgae attached to Pyropia aquaculture rafts along the Jiangsu coastline of the southern Yellow Sea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2016.09.005DOI Listing
November 2016

Prospects and challenges for industrial production of seaweed bioactives.

J Phycol 2015 Oct 22;51(5):821-37. Epub 2015 Sep 22.

Acadian Seaplants Limited, 30 Brown Avenue, Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Large-scale seaweed cultivation has been instrumental in globalizing the seaweed industry since the 1950s. The domestication of seaweed cultivars (begun in the 1940s) ended the reliance on natural cycles of raw material availability for some species, with efforts driven by consumer demands that far exceeded the available supplies. Currently, seaweed cultivation is unrivaled in mariculture with 94% of annual seaweed biomass utilized globally being derived from cultivated sources. In the last decade, research has confirmed seaweeds as rich sources of potentially valuable, health-promoting compounds. Most existing seaweed cultivars and current cultivation techniques have been developed for producing commoditized biomass, and may not necessarily be optimized for the production of valuable bioactive compounds. The future of the seaweed industry will include the development of high value markets for functional foods, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Entry into these markets will require a level of standardization, efficacy, and traceability that has not previously been demanded of seaweed products. Both internal concentrations and composition of bioactive compounds can fluctuate seasonally, geographically, bathymetrically, and according to genetic variability even within individual species, especially where life history stages can be important. History shows that successful expansion of seaweed products into new markets requires the cultivation of domesticated seaweed cultivars. Demands of an evolving new industry based upon efficacy and standardization will require the selection of improved cultivars, the domestication of new species, and a refinement of existing cultivation techniques to improve quality control and traceability of products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12326DOI Listing
October 2015

The expansion of Ulva prolifera O.F. Müller macroalgal blooms in the Yellow Sea, PR China, through asexual reproduction.

Mar Pollut Bull 2016 Mar 5;104(1-2):101-6. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China. Electronic address:

Since 2007, Ulva macroalgal blooms have occurred along the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea, China. These blooms are dominated by fragments of Ulva prolifera in the early stages of development. The objectives of this study were to identify the primary mode of asexual reproduction for U. prolifera and to evaluate the contribution of these thalli fragments to the formation of blooms. Four different growth and reproductive strategies of U. prolifera segments were found including: 1) tubular diameter becoming larger; 2) formation of new branches; 3) release of zoids; and 4) polarized growth. This is the first report showing the development of numerous blade-lets from a single segment, which is remarkably different from previous studies on other Ulva species. The results in the present study provide critical information to understand how this species is able to support its explosive growth during a bloom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.01.056DOI Listing
March 2016

The origin of the Ulva macroalgal blooms in the Yellow Sea in 2013.

Mar Pollut Bull 2014 Dec 14;89(1-2):276-283. Epub 2014 Oct 14.

College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China. Electronic address:

Green algal blooms have occurred in the Yellow Sea for seven consecutive years from 2007 to 2013. In this study, satellite image analysis and field shipboard observations indicated that the Ulva blooms in 2013 originated in the Rudong coast. The spatial distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules in the Southern Yellow Sea also supported that the blooms originated in the Rudong coast. In addition, multi-source satellite data were used to evaluate the biomass of green algae on the Pyropia aquaculture rafts. The results showed that approximately 2784 tons of Ulva prolifera were attached to the rafts and possessed the same internal transcribed spacer and 5S rDNA sequence as the dominant species in the 2013 blooms. We conclude that the significant biomass of Ulva species on the Pyropia rafts during the harvesting season in radial tidal sand ridges played an important role in the rapid development of blooms in the Yellow Sea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.09.049DOI Listing
December 2014

Emersion induces nitrogen release and alteration of nitrogen metabolism in the intertidal genus Porphyra.

PLoS One 2013 26;8(7):e69961. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Departments of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Stamford, Connecticut, United States of America.

We investigated emersion-induced nitrogen (N) release from Porphyra umbilicalis Kütz. Thallus N concentration decreased during 4 h of emersion. Tissue N and soluble protein contents of P. umbilicalis were positively correlated and decreased during emersion. Growth of P. umbilicalis did not simply dilute the pre-emersion tissue N concentration. Rather, N was lost from tissues during emersion. We hypothesize that emersion-induced N release occurs when proteins are catabolized. While the δ(15)N value of tissues exposed to emersion was higher than that of continuously submerged tissues, further discrimination of stable N isotopes did not occur during the 4 h emersion. We conclude that N release from Porphyra during emersion did not result from bacterial denitrification, but possibly as a consequence of photorespiration. The release of N by P. umbilicalis into the environment during emersion suggests a novel role of intertidal seaweeds in the global N cycle. Emersion also altered the physiological function (nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity, growth rate) of P. umbilicalis and the co-occurring upper intertidal species P. linearis Grev., though in a seasonally influenced manner. Individuals of the year round perennial species P. umbilicalis were more tolerant of emersion than ephemeral, cold temperate P. linearis in early winter. However, the mid-winter populations of both P. linearis and P. umbilicalis, had similar temporal physiological patterns during emersion.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0069961PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724889PMC
April 2014

Porphyra (Bangiophyceae) Transcriptomes Provide Insights Into Red Algal Development And Metabolism.

J Phycol 2012 Dec 3;48(6):1328-42. Epub 2012 Oct 3.

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 08901, USA.

The red seaweed Porphyra (Bangiophyceae) and related Bangiales have global economic importance. Here, we report the analysis of a comprehensive transcriptome comprising ca. 4.7 million expressed sequence tag (EST) reads from P. umbilicalis (L.) J. Agardh and P. purpurea (Roth) C. Agardh (ca. 980 Mbp of data generated using 454 FLX pyrosequencing). These ESTs were isolated from the haploid gametophyte (blades from both species) and diploid conchocelis stage (from P. purpurea). In a bioinformatic analysis, only 20% of the contigs were found to encode proteins of known biological function. Comparative analysis of predicted protein functions in mesophilic (including Porphyra) and extremophilic red algae suggest that the former has more putative functions related to signaling, membrane transport processes, and establishment of protein complexes. These enhanced functions may reflect general mesophilic adaptations. A near-complete repertoire of genes encoding histones and ribosomal proteins was identified, with some differentially regulated between the blade and conchocelis stage in P. purpurea. This finding may reflect specific regulatory processes associated with these distinct phases of the life history. Fatty acid desaturation patterns, in combination with gene expression profiles, demonstrate differences from seed plants with respect to the transport of fatty acid/lipid among subcellular compartments and the molecular machinery of lipid assembly. We also recovered a near-complete gene repertoire for enzymes involved in the formation of sterols and carotenoids, including candidate genes for the biosynthesis of lutein. Our findings provide key insights into the evolution, development, and biology of Porphyra, an important lineage of red algae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01229.xDOI Listing
December 2012

MAJOR DEVELOPMENTAL REGULATORS AND THEIR EXPRESSION IN TWO CLOSELY RELATED SPECIES OF PORPHYRA (RHODOPHYTA)(1).

J Phycol 2012 Aug 12;48(4):883-96. Epub 2012 Apr 12.

Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27848, USADelaware Biotechnology Institute, Delaware Technology Park, Newark DE 19711, USADOE Joint Genomics Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USADepartment of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USADepartment of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Stamford, CT, 06901, USADepartment of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340, USASchool of Marine Science, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 USA.

Little is known about the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that underlie red algal development, for example, why the group failed to evolve complex parenchyma and tissue differentiation. Here we examined expressed sequence tag (EST) data from two closely related species, Porphyra umbilicalis (L.) J. Agardh and P. purpurea (Roth) C. Agardh, for conserved developmental regulators known from model eukaryotes, and their expression levels in several developmental stages. Genes for most major developmental families were present, including MADS-box and homeodomain (HD) proteins, SNF2 chromatin-remodelers, and proteins involved in sRNA biogenesis. Some of these genes displayed altered expression correlating with different life history stages or cell types. Notably, two ESTs encoding HD proteins showed eightfold higher expression in the P. purpurea sporophyte (conchocelis) than in the gametophyte (blade), whereas two MADS domain-containing paralogs showed significantly different patterns of expression in the conchocelis and blade respectively. These developmental gene families do not appear to have undergone the kinds of dramatic expansions in copy number found in multicellular land plants and animals, which are important for regulating developmental processes in those groups. Analyses of small RNAs did not validate the presence of miRNAs, but homologs of Argonaute were present. In general, it appears that red algae began with a similar molecular toolkit for directing development as did other multicellular eukaryotes, but probably evolved altered roles for many key proteins, as well as novel mechanisms yet to be discovered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01138.xDOI Listing
August 2012

Analysis of Porphyra membrane transporters demonstrates gene transfer among photosynthetic eukaryotes and numerous sodium-coupled transport systems.

Plant Physiol 2012 Apr 14;158(4):2001-12. Epub 2012 Feb 14.

Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, and Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA.

Membrane transporters play a central role in many cellular processes that rely on the movement of ions and organic molecules between the environment and the cell, and between cellular compartments. Transporters have been well characterized in plants and green algae, but little is known about transporters or their evolutionary histories in the red algae. Here we examined 482 expressed sequence tag contigs that encode putative membrane transporters in the economically important red seaweed Porphyra (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta). These contigs are part of a comprehensive transcriptome dataset from Porphyra umbilicalis and Porphyra purpurea. Using phylogenomics, we identified 30 trees that support the expected monophyly of red and green algae/plants (i.e. the Plantae hypothesis) and 19 expressed sequence tag contigs that show evidence of endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer involving stramenopiles. The majority (77%) of analyzed contigs encode transporters with unresolved phylogenies, demonstrating the difficulty in resolving the evolutionary history of genes. We observed molecular features of many sodium-coupled transport systems in marine algae, and the potential for coregulation of Porphyra transporter genes that are associated with fatty acid biosynthesis and intracellular lipid trafficking. Although both the tissue-specific and subcellular locations of the encoded proteins require further investigation, our study provides red algal gene candidates associated with transport functions and novel insights into the biology and evolution of these transporters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.112.193896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3320202PMC
April 2012

THE DISTRIBUTION, MORPHOLOGY, AND ECOLOGY OF THREE INTRODUCED ASIATIC SPECIES OF PORPHYRA (BANGIALES, RHODOPHYTA) IN THE NORTHWESTERN ATLANTIC(1).

J Phycol 2008 Dec;44(6):1399-414

Department of Plant Biology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, 03824, USADepartment of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Stamford, Connecticut, 06901, USA.

Distributions of three Asiatic Porphyra species, Porphyra yezoensis Ueda, Porphyra katadae A. Miura, and Porphyra suborbiculata Kjellm., are reported from New England, USA. Species identifications were confirmed by rbcL and nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) sequence comparisons with herbarium specimens, cultures, and GenBank accessions. Two distinct genotypes of P. yezoensis were detected: forma narawaensis A. Miura and f. yezoensis. Forma narawaensis occurs south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and has ITS1 sequences identical to cultivars widely grown in Japan. Forma yezoensis occurs in western Long Island Sound and from Cape Cod northward to midcoastal Maine; its ITS1 sequence is identical to a wild specimen from Hokkaido, Japan. P. katadae has been collected from five locations near Cape Cod; its ITS1 sequence is identical to a cultured specimen from Qingdao, China. P. suborbiculata has been collected at several locations south of Cape Cod; its presence in North Carolina and Delaware during the mid-1960s was confirmed from herbarium specimens. Morphological and ecological characteristics for New England populations of the three Asiatic species were compared to original descriptions. New England P. yezoensis f. yezoensis is similar to Ueda's original description of Japanese specimens, but there are morphological differences for P. yezoensis f. narawaensis. In New England, f. narawaensis typically does not attain the length reported in Japan (max. 19 cm versus 100 cm). New England P. katadae is similar to Miura's original description, except for slight differences in thallus thickness and reproductive patterns. By contrast, New England, Japanese, and other populations of P. suborbiculata exhibit pronounced differences in blade coloration, shape and dimensions, reproductive patterns, seasonal occurrence, and general ecology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2008.00607.xDOI Listing
December 2008

Bioremediation efficiency in the removal of dissolved inorganic nutrients by the red seaweed, Porphyra yezoensis, cultivated in the open sea.

Water Res 2008 Feb 29;42(4-5):1281-9. Epub 2007 Sep 29.

Key Lab of Aquatic Genetic Resources and Aquacultural Ecology Certificated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Fisheries University, 334 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200090, China.

The bioremediation capability and efficiency of large-scale Porphyra cultivation in the removal of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus from open sea area were studied. The study took place in 2002-2004, in a 300 ha nori farm along the Lusi coast, Qidong County, Jiangsu Province, China, where the valuable rhodophyte seaweed Porphyra yezoensis has been extensively cultivated. Nutrient concentrations were significantly reduced by the seaweed cultivation. During the non-cultivation period of P. yezoensis, the concentrations of NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N and PO4-P were 43-61, 1-3, 33-44 and 1-3 micromol L(-1), respectively. Within the Porphyra cultivation area, the average nutrient concentrations during the Porphyra cultivation season were 20.5, 1.1, 27.9 and 0.96 micromol L(-1) for NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N and PO4-P, respectively, significantly lower than in the non-cultivation season (p<0.05). Compared with the control area, Porphyra farming resulted in the reduction of NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N and PO4-P by 50-94%, 42-91%, 21-38% and 42-67%, respectively. Nitrogen and phosphorus contents in dry Porphyra thalli harvested from the Lusi coast averaged 6.3% and 1.0%, respectively. There were significant monthly variations in tissue nitrogen content (p<0.05) but not in tissue phosphorus content (p>0.05). The highest tissue nitrogen content, 7.65% in dry wt, was found in December and the lowest value, 4.85%, in dry wt, in April. The annual biomass production of P. yezoensis was about 800 kg dry wt ha(-1) at the Lusi Coast in 2003-2004. An average of 14708.5 kg of tissue nitrogen and 2373.5 kg of tissue phosphorus in P. yezoensis biomass were harvested annually from 300 ha of cultivation from Lusi coastal water. These results indicated that Porphyra efficiently removed excess nutrient from nearshore eutrophic coastal areas. Therefore, large-scale cultivation of P. yezoensis could alleviate eutrophication in coastal waters economically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.09.023DOI Listing
February 2008
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