Publications by authors named "Charles Sims"

55 Publications

A Novel Approach to Emergency Airway Simulation Using a 3D-printed Cricothyrotomy Task Trainer.

J Educ Perioper Med 2021 Jul-Sep;23(3):E670. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Background: Cricothyrotomy is a final recourse for salvaging a difficult airway, yet most anesthesiology providers have little training, exposure, or comfort with the procedure. Pig tracheas are frequently used for training, but are single use and require special handling and storage. Other simulation models, such as mannequins and cadavers, are costly. Advances in 3dimensional (3D) printing have improved accessibility and decreased costs. This research project sought to determine whether an inexpensive 3D-printed task trainer was noninferior to pig tracheas for teaching surgical cricothyrotomy skills.

Methods: Anesthesiology residents were enrolled in an institutional review board-exempted, unblinded, randomized, controlled, single-institution, noninferiority trial. Participants were trained in the scalpel-finger-bougie technique for surgical cricothyrotomy. Participants were randomized to practice 5 repetitions on either a pig trachea or the 3D model and were assessed on time to cricothyrotomy completion on a pig trachea before and after practice.

Results: Demographic characteristics of the 25 workshop attendees were similar between study arms. Overall mean (SD) improvement in speed was 9 (12) seconds ( = .001). Postpractice times were similar between groups (analysis of covariance estimated difference of -0.1 seconds [95% confidence interval, -9.4 to 9.2]; = .55). The 3D model was noninferior to the pig trachea at the prespecified noninferiority margin of 10 seconds ( = .017).

Conclusions: The 3D model was noninferior to pig tracheas for improving the time to completion of a surgical cricothyrotomy. A 3D-printed model offers a viable alternative to pig tracheas for emergency airway simulation that is inexpensive, reusable, and readily modified to simulate challenging airway anatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46374/volxxiii_issue3_simsDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8491648PMC
July 2021

Governance structure affects transboundary disease management under alternative objectives.

BMC Public Health 2021 10 2;21(1):1782. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802, USA.

Background: The development of public health policy is inextricably linked with governance structure. In our increasingly globalized world, human migration and infectious diseases often span multiple administrative jurisdictions that might have different systems of government and divergent management objectives. However, few studies have considered how the allocation of regulatory authority among jurisdictions can affect disease management outcomes.

Methods: Here we evaluate the relative merits of decentralized and centralized management by developing and numerically analyzing a two-jurisdiction SIRS model that explicitly incorporates migration. In our model, managers choose between vaccination, isolation, medication, border closure, and a travel ban on infected individuals while aiming to minimize either the number of cases or the number of deaths.

Results: We consider a variety of scenarios and show how optimal strategies differ for decentralized and centralized management levels. We demonstrate that policies formed in the best interest of individual jurisdictions may not achieve global objectives, and identify situations where locally applied interventions can lead to an overall increase in the numbers of cases and deaths.

Conclusions: Our approach underscores the importance of tailoring disease management plans to existing regulatory structures as part of an evidence-based decision framework. Most importantly, we demonstrate that there needs to be a greater consideration of the degree to which governance structure impacts disease outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11797-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8487237PMC
October 2021

Real-World Clinical Use and Outcomes of Telavancin for the Treatment of Bone and Joint Infections: Results from the Telavancin Observational Use Registry (TOUR™).

Drugs Real World Outcomes 2021 Dec 26;8(4):509-518. Epub 2021 May 26.

Theravance Biopharma US, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Additional antibiotic options are needed to treat bone and joint infections caused by penicillin-resistant Gram-positive pathogens.

Objective: This subanalysis of the Telavancin Observational Use Registry (TOUR™) aimed to record real-world telavancin usage patterns in patients with bone and joint infections treated with telavancin.

Methods: TOUR was a multicenter observational-use registry study conducted at 45 US sites between January 2015 and March 2017. Patient characteristics, infection type, infecting pathogen(s), previous treatment, telavancin dosing and duration, clinical response, and adverse event data were collected by retrospective medical chart reviews. As such, inclusion/exclusion criteria were limited, and any patient receiving at least one dose of telavancin at the discretion of the treating physician was eligible. Patients were assessed as either positive clinical response, failed treatment, or indeterminate outcome.

Results: Of the 1063 patients enrolled in TOUR, 27.4% (291/1063) were patients with bone and joint infections including osteomyelitis (with or without prosthetic material), acute septic arthritis, and prosthetic joint infections. Most of these patients had osteomyelitis without prosthetic material (191/291; 66.0%). Among patients assessed at the end of treatment, 211/268 (78.7%) achieved a positive clinical response, 26/268 (9.7%) failed treatment, and 31/268 (11.6%) had an indeterminate outcome. The most frequent pathogen was methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (110/291; 37.8%). The median (interquartile range [IQR as Q1, Q3]) telavancin dose was 750.0 mg (IQR, 750, 750 mg) or 8.2 mg/kg (IQR, 6.8, 9.7 mg/kg) administered for a median of 26 days (IQR, 12, 42 days). These assessments were recorded in the registry ≥ 30 days after the last dose of telavancin was administered.

Conclusions: Real-world data from the TOUR study show that clinicians are using once-daily telavancin with positive clinical outcomes for the treatment of bone and joint infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens.

Clinical Trial Registration: This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02288234) on 11 November, 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40801-021-00255-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153092PMC
December 2021

Strawberry sweetness and consumer preference are enhanced by specific volatile compounds.

Hortic Res 2021 Apr 1;8(1):66. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Wimauma, FL, USA.

Breeding crops for improved flavor is challenging due to the high cost of sensory evaluation and the difficulty of connecting sensory experience to chemical composition. The main goal of this study was to identify the chemical drivers of sweetness and consumer liking for fresh strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa). Fruit of 148 strawberry samples from cultivars and breeding selections were grown and harvested over seven years and were subjected to both sensory and chemical analyses. Each panel consisted of at least 100 consumers, resulting in more than 15,000 sensory data points per descriptor. Three sugars, two acids and 113 volatile compounds were quantified. Consumer liking was highly associated with sweetness intensity, texture liking, and flavor intensity, but not sourness intensity. Partial least square analyses revealed 20 volatile compounds that increased sweetness perception independently of sugars; 18 volatiles that increased liking independently of sugars; and 15 volatile compounds that had positive effects on both. Machine learning-based predictive models including sugars, acids, and volatiles explained at least 25% more variation in sweetness and liking than models accounting for sugars and acids only. Volatile compounds such as γ-dodecalactone; 5-hepten-2-one, 6-methyl; and multiple medium-chain fatty acid esters may serve as targets for breeding or quality control attributes for strawberry products. A genetic association study identified two loci controlling ester production, both on linkage group 6 A. Co-segregating makers in these regions can be used for increasing multiple esters simultaneously. This study demonstrates a paradigm for improvement of fruit sweetness and flavor in which consumers drive the identification of the most important chemical targets, which in turn drives the discovery of genetic targets for marker-assisted breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00502-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012349PMC
April 2021

Training the Trainer: Preparing Anesthesiology Residents to be Trainers in the Operating Room.

MedEdPORTAL 2021 03 4;17:11116. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Assistant Professor, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic Rochester; Assistant Professor, Department of Critical Care, Mayo Clinic Rochester.

Introduction: The transition into clinical anesthesiology is a challenging period that requires swift acquisition of clinical knowledge and procedural skills. Senior residents are in a prime position to help their junior colleagues into the operating room environment due to their ability to relate from personal experience. We created a workshop for enhancing peer apprenticeship during this transition.

Methods: The workshop consisted of PowerPoint didactics interspersed with small-group practice sessions. Surveys were administered pre-, post-, 1-week post-, and 1-month postworkshop. The primary outcome was pre-post improvement in the proportion of residents prepared to be a trainer. Secondary outcomes included pre- to 1-week postworkshop improvement, pre-postworkshop change in knowledge of learning theory concepts, and pre-postworkshop change in first-year clinical anesthesiology perceptions of trainers.

Results: Of residents, 12 of 43 (28%) eligible to be resident trainers attended the workshop. The proportion of residents who felt prepared increased from 75% preworkshop to 100% postworkshop and remained at 93% at 1 week. Knowledge of cognitive load and microskills improved from 0% preworkshop to 83% postworkshop but dropped to 0% at 1 month. Comfort using microskills improved from 0% preworkshop to 83% postworkshop.

Discussion: Early anesthesiology training demands rapid acquisition of novel cognitive and procedural skills. Senior anesthesiology residents are in a prime position to train junior residents, yet many are uncomfortable with this role. We developed a workshop to transition residents into a peer trainer role and significantly increased their confidence to be a trainer. Other programs may benefit from implementing similar training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.11116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970634PMC
March 2021

Performance of macroporous resins for debittering HLB-affected grapefruit juice and its impacts on furanocoumarin and consumer sensory acceptability.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 23;352:129367. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States. Electronic address:

About 90% of grapefruit in Florida are affected by Huanglongbing (HLB). HLB negatively affects the organoleptic properties of grapefruit juice because affected trees overproduce bitter secondary-metabolites, mostly naringin. The objective of this research was to remove naringin from HLB-affected grapefruit juice using microporous-adsorbents and to investigate how debittering affected narirutin, limonoids, bergamottin, and consumer acceptability. The adsorption kinetics of naringin on seven adsorbent resins obeyed pseudo-second order. PAD550 and PAD600 showed better static adsorption/desorption. Adsorption-isotherms on these resins were better fitted on Temkin-Pyzhev-model. On a fixed-bed-column packed with PAD550 resin, a slower loading rate increased its breakthrough volume before naringin in effluent reached its taste-threshold. In addition to naringin being reduced to below its taste-threshold, debittering significantly decreased the content of limonin, nomilin, and bergamottin. A consumer taste panel rated debittered and half-debittered juices higher for overall acceptability than the untreated. The half-debittered juice was ranked the most preferred while untreated was the least preferred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129367DOI Listing
August 2021

Development and Pilot Testing of Entrustable Professional Activities for US Anesthesiology Residency Training.

Anesth Analg 2021 06;132(6):1579-1591

Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Background: Modern medical education requires frequent competency assessment. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) provides a descriptive framework of competencies and milestones but does not provide standardized instruments to assess and track trainee competency over time. Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) represent a workplace-based method to assess the achievement of competency milestones at the point-of-care that can be applied to anesthesiology training in the United States.

Methods: Experts in education and competency assessment were recruited to participate in a 6-step process using a modified Delphi method with iterative rounds to reach consensus on an entrustment scale, a list of EPAs and procedural skills, detailed definitions for each EPA, a mapping of the EPAs to the ACGME milestones, and a target level of entrustment for graduating US anesthesiology residents for each EPA and procedural skill. The defined EPAs and procedural skills were implemented using a website and mobile app. The assessment system was piloted at 7 anesthesiology residency programs. After 2 months, faculty were surveyed on their attitudes on usability and utility of the assessment system. The number of evaluations submitted per month was collected for 1 year.

Results: Participants in EPA development included 18 education experts from 11 different programs. The Delphi rounds produced a final list of 20 EPAs, each differentiated as simple or complex, a defined entrustment scale, mapping of the EPAs to milestones, and graduation entrustment targets. A list of 159 procedural skills was similarly developed. Results of the faculty survey demonstrated favorable ratings on all questions regarding app usability as well as the utility of the app and EPA assessments. Over the 2-month pilot period, 1636 EPA and 1427 procedure assessments were submitted. All programs continued to use the app for the remainder of the academic year resulting in 12,641 submitted assessments.

Conclusions: A list of 20 anesthesiology EPAs and 159 procedural skills assessments were developed using a rigorous methodology to reach consensus among education experts. The assessments were pilot tested at 7 US anesthesiology residency programs demonstrating the feasibility of implementation using a mobile app and the ability to collect assessment data. Adoption at the pilot sites was variable; however, the use of the system was not mandatory for faculty or trainees at any site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005434DOI Listing
June 2021

Determination of aquacultured whiteleg shrimp (Litopanaeus vannemei) quality using a sensory method with chemical standard references.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Sep 10;101(12):5236-5244. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Fresh shrimp are highly perishable seafood and a reliable spoilage assessment method is necessary to ensure sufficient quality control. The current quality evaluation method employed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) uses subjective terms 'odor of decomposition' to reject shrimp shipments, which lacks reference standards to anchor the concept and can cause ambiguity. The present study aimed to develop chemical reference standards to assist in a more objective and consistent sensory evaluation of shrimp quality.

Results: Chemical references were developed and used by the descriptive panel to demonstrate the aroma quality indicators of shrimp. The most important aroma attributes describing shrimp quality changes were 'salty water-like', 'natto water-like' and 'sour milk-like' based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis. The overall rating consistency of the key quality indicators was confirmed by trained a descriptive panel such that the intensity scores in two separated evaluation sessions (30 days apart) were not significant different (P > 0.05). The sensory ratings also corresponded well with presumed FDA/NOAA grades of shrimp. An untrained panel also confirmed 'salty water-like' as the main indicator of freshness and 'natto water-like' as the main indicator of spoilage, whereas the discriminative capacity was lower compared to the trained panel.

Conclusion: The developed chemical references of key aroma quality indicators allowed the trained and untrained panels to distinguish shrimp of different freshness levels. The results indicate the potential of using chemical references as a new evaluation tool for on-site quality inspection or industrial quality assurance/quality control of shrimp with improved objectivity and consistency. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11172DOI Listing
September 2021

Pulmonary Complications in Esophagectomy Based on Intraoperative Fluid Rate: A Single-Center Study.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 10 12;35(10):2952-2960. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objectives: Esophagectomy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The authors assessed the relationship between intraoperative fluid (IOF) administration and postoperative pulmonary outcomes in patients undergoing a transthoracic, transhiatal, or tri-incisional esophagectomy.

Design: Retrospective cohort study (level 3 evidence).

Setting: Tertiary care referral center.

Participants: Patients who underwent esophagectomy from 2007 to 2017.

Interventions: The IOF rate (mL/kg/h) was the predictor variable analyzed both as a continuous and binary categorical variable based on median IOF rate for this cohort (11.90 mL/kg/h).

Measurements: Primary outcomes included rates of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) within ten days after esophagectomy. Secondary outcomes included rates of reintubation, pneumonia, cardiac or renal morbidity, intensive care unit admission, length of stay, procedure-related complications, and mortality. Multivariate regression analysis determined associations between IOF rate and postoperative outcomes. Analysis was adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, procedure type, year, and thoracic epidural use.

Main Results: A total of 1,040 patients comprised this cohort. Tri-incisional esophagectomy was associated with a higher hospital mortality rate (7.8%) compared with transthoracic esophagectomy (2.6%, p = 0.03) or transhiatal esophagectomy (0.7%, p = 0.01). Regression analysis revealed a higher IOF rate was associated with greater ARDS within ten days (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.03, p = 0.01). For secondary outcomes, a higher IOF rate was associated with greater hospital mortality (adjusted OR = 1.05, p = 0.002), although no significant association with 30-day hospital mortality was identified.

Conclusions: Increased IOF administration during esophagectomy may be associated with worse postoperative pulmonary complications, specifically ARDS. Future well-powered studies are warranted, including randomized, controlled trials comparing liberal versus restrictive fluid administration in this surgical population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2021.01.006DOI Listing
October 2021

Political economy of renewable resource federalism.

Ecol Appl 2021 04 16;31(3):e02276. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, 95616, USA.

The authority to manage natural capital often follows political boundaries rather than ecological. This mismatch can lead to unsustainable outcomes, as spillovers from one management area to the next may create adverse incentives for local decision making, even within a single country. At the same time, one-size-fits-all approaches of federal (centralized) authority can fail to respond to state (decentralized) heterogeneity and can result in inefficient economic or detrimental ecological outcomes. Here we utilize a spatially explicit coupled natural-human system model of a fishery to illuminate trade-offs posed by the choice between federal vs. state control of renewable resources. We solve for the dynamics of fishing effort and fish stocks that result from different approaches to federal management that vary in terms of flexibility. Adapting numerical methods from engineering, we also solve for the open-loop Nash equilibrium characterizing state management outcomes, where each state anticipates and responds to the choices of the others. We consider traditional federalism questions (state vs. federal management) as well as more contemporary questions about the economic and ecological impacts of shifting regulatory authority from one level to another. The key mechanisms behind the trade-offs include whether differences in local conditions are driven by biological or economic mechanisms; degree of flexibility embedded in the federal management; the spatial and temporal distribution of economic returns across states; and the status-quo management type. While simple rules-of-thumb are elusive, our analysis reveals the complex political economy dimensions of renewable resource federalism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.2276DOI Listing
April 2021

Chronic wasting disease undermines efforts to control the spread of brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

Ecol Appl 2020 09 5;30(6):e02129. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Wyoming, 1174 Snowy Range Road, Laramie, Wyoming, 82070, USA.

Wildlife diseases pose a substantial threat to the provisioning of ecosystem services. We use a novel modeling approach to study the potential loss of these services through the imminent introduction of chronic wasting disease (CWD) to elk populations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). A specific concern is that concentrating elk at feedgrounds may exacerbate the spread of CWD, whereas eliminating feedgrounds may increase the number of elk on private ranchlands and the transmission of a second disease, brucellosis, from elk to cattle. To evaluate the consequences of management strategies given the threat of two concurrent wildlife diseases, we develop a spatiotemporal bioeconomic model. GPS data from elk and landscape attributes are used to predict migratory behavior and population densities with and without supplementary feeding. We use a 4,800 km area around Pinedale, Wyoming containing four existing feedgrounds as a case study. For this area, we simulate welfare estimates under a variety of management strategies. Our results indicate that continuing to feed elk could result in substantial welfare losses for the case-study region. Therefore, to maximize the present value of economic net benefits generated by the local elk population upon CWD's arrival in the region, wildlife managers may wish to consider discontinuing elk feedgrounds while simultaneously developing new methods to mitigate the financial impact to ranchers of possible brucellosis transmission to livestock. More generally, our methods can be used to weigh the costs and benefits of human-wildlife interactions in the presence of multiple disease risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.2129DOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of Scion/Rootstock Combination on Flavor Quality of Orange Juice from Huanglongbing (HLB)-Affected Trees: A Two-Year Study of the Targeted Metabolomics.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Mar 28;68(10):3286-3296. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850, United States.

The bacterial disease Huanglongbing (HLB) has been causing large economic losses in the citrus industry worldwide. Aimed at unraveling the mechanisms of scion/rootstock combination on improving HLB-affected orange juice quality, a specific scion/rootstock combination field trial was designed using three sibling rootstocks and two late-maturing sweet orange scion cultivars. Scion/rootstock combination significantly improved the overall consumer liking of orange juice from the HLB-affected trees. Rootstocks showed significant effects on the consumer liking and overall flavor, while scions had significant effects on the freshness and overall orange flavor intensity of the juice. A PLS-DA model combined with KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and some biomarker metabolites further indicated that scions mainly affected metabolism of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate in orange fruits. Meanwhile, rootstocks had an impact on the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites. Sugars and organic acids were not closely correlated with the overall liking and sensory perception of orange juice. Rather, flavonoids, terpenoids, and volatile aromas played important roles in improving consumer overall liking. These results indicated that an optimum tolerant scion/rootstock combination can make a positive contribution toward improved fruit or juice quality from HLB-affected citrus trees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b07934DOI Listing
March 2020

Manipulation of sensory characteristics and volatile compounds in strawberry fruit through the use of isolated wavelengths of light.

J Food Sci 2020 Mar 11;85(3):771-780. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Author Folta is with Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611.

Consumers consistently note that there is room for improvement in the flavor of commercial strawberries. Fruit flavor and aroma are affected by both genetics and environment. This work tests the hypothesis that sensory quality may be manipulated using postharvest light treatments. Individual detached fruits representing two different cultivars received a 24-hr treatment of 100 µmol m s blue LED light while the control was kept in complete darkness. Following treatment, samples were analyzed for flavor volatiles, sugars, acids, firmness, and sensory differences in human trials. Fruits were rated for overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and overall strawberry flavor intensity (OSFI) on the sensory and hedonic versions of the global intensity scale (GIS). A positive treatment effect was observed for "Strawberry Festival" fruit for the overall liking rating. A triangle test revealed a significant treatment effect, as light-treated fruit tested higher in many flavor volatiles including those known to contribute to sweetness in strawberries. Levels of several volatiles were consistently higher in the treated fruit across all four harvests: acetic acid hexyl ester, butanoic acid octyl ester, methyl isovalerate, and pentanoic acid ethyl ester. The results show that postharvest light treatment can be used to modulate sensory quality of fruit, perhaps offering a means to complement genetic efforts in fruit flavor and aroma improvement. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results indicate that it may be possible to increase the sensory quality of strawberry fruits using an inexpensive and noninvasive light treatment. Light may be applied during transport or storage to improve fruit quality. This concept could also be extended into other realms of storage, such as residential and commercial refrigeration, further increasing the quality impact of the approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15044DOI Listing
March 2020

Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Microbiome Response to Snacks Fortified with Pea Hull Fiber: A Randomized Trial in Older Adults.

Curr Dev Nutr 2020 Feb 17;4(2):nzaa005. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Consuming foods with added fiber may help older adults achieve fiber recommendations; however, many high-fiber ingredients have little effect on laxation and may contribute to unpleasant gastrointestinal side effects.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of consuming snacks fortified with pea hull fiber (PHF) on stool frequency and form, gastrointestinal symptoms, and appetite in older adults. An exploratory aim was to determine if PHF altered the microbiota profile.

Methods: A 10-wk, randomized, blinded, crossover study was carried out. Following a 2-wk baseline period, participants [aged (mean ± SD) 69.7 ± 6.5 y;  = 31; 14 men, 17 women] consumed snacks providing 10 g/d of PHF or a control, each for 2-wk periods followed by 2-wk washouts. Participants used the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) to record daily stool frequency and gastrointestinal symptoms, and completed the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) biweekly. One stool was collected per period for 16S ribosomal RNA high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the fecal microbiota profile.

Results: Participants reported 1.63 ± 0.05 stools/d and 76.6% normal transit stool form at baseline and no change with PHF. GSRS syndrome scores were similarly unchanged. Daily abdominal noises and bloating were higher for PHF versus control, and flatulence was higher for PHF versus baseline, suggesting fermentation in some individuals. There was no evidence to suggest a common PHF-induced microbiome response for the group as a whole; however, a subgroup of participants ( = 7) who responded with increased flatulence (fermenters), harbored many different taxa than nonfermenters, and demonstrated lower abundance of Clostridiales with PHF. Appetite was unchanged with PHF.

Conclusions: PHF did not modulate stool form or frequency in older adults with normal bowel habits. Because snacks fortified with PHF did not suppress appetite, PHF may be an appropriate fiber source for older adults at nutritional risk. Microbiome profile may be predictive of gastrointestinal symptom response to PHF. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02778230.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzaa005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994441PMC
February 2020

What Aristotle didn't know about flavor.

Am Psychol 2019 12;74(9):1003-1011

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.

Aristotle confused taste with flavor because he did not realize that chewing food releases odorants (volatiles) that rise up behind the palate and enter the nose from the rear (retronasal olfaction). When Aristotle bit into an apple, the flavor of the apple was perceptually localized to his mouth so he called it "taste." The correct attribution of flavor to the sense of olfaction was not made until 1812, and the term retronasal olfaction did not come into common use until 1984. Recent research has focused on interactions; tastes can change the perceived intensities of retronasal olfactory sensations and vice versa. In particular, some retronasal olfactory stimuli enhance sweet taste signals in the brain. In addition to sweetening foods (and reducing dependence on sugars and artificial sweeteners), retronasal olfaction can bypass damaged taste nerves and thus perhaps restore sweetness perception in patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000577DOI Listing
December 2019

Use of Angiotensin II for Vasoplegic Shock in a Combined Heart and Liver Transplant Recipient with Systolic Anterior Motion Physiology.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2019 08 28;33(8):2366-2367. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Multidisciplinary Epidemiology and Translational Research in Intensive Care (METRIC), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2019.03.054DOI Listing
August 2019

Early Warning Signs and Rapid Response on the Nursing Floor-Can We Do More?

Int Anesthesiol Clin 2019 ;57(2):61-74

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnesotaDepartment of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AIA.0000000000000228DOI Listing
January 2020

Above the GRADE: Evaluation of Guidelines in Critical Care Medicine.

Crit Care Med 2019 01;47(1):109-113

Division of Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objectives: We examined recommendations within critical care guidelines to describe the pairing patterns for strength of recommendation and quality of evidence. We further identified recommendations where the reported strength of recommendation was strong while the reported quality of evidence was not high/moderate and then assessed whether such pairings were within five paradigmatic situations offered by Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to justify such pairings.

Data Sources And Extraction: We identified all clinical critical care guidelines published online from 2011 to 2017 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine along with individual guidelines published by Surviving Sepsis Campaign, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes, American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, and the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society.

Data Synthesis: In all, 15 documents specifying 681 eligible recommendations demonstrated variation in strength of recommendation (strong n = 215 [31.6%], weak n = 345 [50.7%], none n = 121 [17.8%]) and in quality of evidence (high n = 41 [6.0%], moderate n = 151 [22.2%], low/very low n = 298 [43.8%], and Expert Consensus/none n = 191 [28.1%]). Strength of recommendation and quality of evidence were positively correlated (ρ = 0.66; p < 0.0001). Of 215 strong recommendations, 69 (32.1%) were discordantly paired with evidence other than high/moderate. Twenty-two of 69 (31.9%) involved Strong/Expert Consensus recommendations, a category discouraged by Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. Forty-seven of 69 recommendations (68.1%) were comprised of Strong/Low or Strong/Very Low variation requiring justification within five paradigmatic scenarios. Among distribution in the five paradigmatic scenarios of Strong/Low and Strong/Very Low recommendations, the most common paradigmatic scenario was life threatening situation (n = 20/47; 42.6%). Four Strong/Low or Strong/Very Low recommendations (4/47; 8.5%) were outside Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology.

Conclusions: Among a large, diverse assembly of critical care guideline recommendations using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology, the strength of evidence of a recommendation was generally associated with the quality of evidence. However, strong recommendations were not infrequently made in the absence of high/moderate quality of evidence. To improve clarity and uptake, future guideline statements may specify why such pairings were made, avoid such pairings when outside of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria, and consider separate language for Expert Consensus recommendations (good practice statements).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003467DOI Listing
January 2019

Sensory Quality, Physicochemical Attributes, Polyphenol Profiles, and Residual Fungicides in Strawberries from Different Disease-Control Treatments.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Jul 29;66(27):6986-6996. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Food Quality Laboratory, Department of Cell Biology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology , University of South Florida , 4202 E. Fowler Avenue , Tampa , Florida 33620 , United States.

Using alternative agricultural practices in combination with proper postharvest handling has become a major goal to improve fresh produce quality. Here, two different strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa) genotypes were used as a model to study the impact of repeated, reduced-fungicide or no-fungicide applications on the sensory quality, physicochemical attributes, polyphenol profiles, and residual fungicide in strawberries. Strawberries grown under reduced-fungicide applications had similar or better physicochemical quality than conventionally and organically grown fruit and lower levels of fungicide residues than conventional fruit. Overall, flavor- and health-related attributes of strawberries from reduced-fungicide applications were intermediate between conventional and organic fruit. Thus, growing strawberries with reduced-fungicide applications can be an alternative to conventional or organic agricultural practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b02153DOI Listing
July 2018

Flavor Alterations Associated with Miracle Fruit and Gymnema sylvestre.

Chem Senses 2018 08;43(7):481-488

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Taste and flavor (retronasal olfaction) interact in the brain. The rules of that interaction are not well understood. This study uses 2 taste modifiers that alter sweet to examine the effects on flavors. Subjects used the Global Sensory Intensity Scale to assess the aroma, sweetness, sourness, and flavor of 10 foods. As previous work had shown, miracle fruit added sweetness to acids, which secondarily reduced sourness (mixture suppression) and Gymnema sylvestre reduced sweetness in sweet foods as well as the sweetness induced by miracle fruit. In this study, multiple regression showed that both sweet and sour contribute to flavor. Gymnema sylvestre reduced the perceived sweet of predominantly sweet foods (chocolate and maple syrup) as expected; reducing the sweet, reduced the flavor. The effects of miracle fruit were complicated by its dual action: intensification of sweet and reduction of sour. Predominantly sour foods (vinegar, lemon, mustard, pickle) were sweetened by miracle fruit but any flavor enhancement associated with the added sweet appears to have been countered by the flavor reduction associated with reduced sourness. Moderately sour foods that are also sweet (tomatoes, strawberries) were sweetened by miracle fruit and thus flavor was enhanced; flavor loss through sour reduction was apparently not sufficient to counter the flavor enhancement due to increased sweet so the net result was that tomato and strawberry flavors were enhanced. The flavors of control foods (not predominantly sweet or sour [sausage, peanuts]) showed only small changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjy032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108391PMC
August 2018

Sensory and Flavor Characteristics of Tomato Juice from Garden Gem and Roma Tomatoes with Comparison to Commercial Tomato Juice.

J Food Sci 2018 Jan 14;83(1):153-161. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Food Science and Human Nutrition Dept., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., U.S.A.

The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor of a premium Florida tomato variety that has significant potential for producing a high quality processed juice product. A high-quality Florida plum tomato variety (Garden Gem), and a typical grocery-store plum tomato variety (Roma) were thermally processed into tomato juices without any additives. The 2 pilot products and a popular commercially available tomato juice (low sodium with sugar and flavor added) were compared using sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Flavor compounds in these products were identified using dynamic headspace purge and trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-GC-MS) by MS library match and retention index and were semi-quantitated using internal standards. Color, uniformity, overall liking, tomato flavor, sweetness and texture were rated using a hedonic scale. Analysis of variance, correlation and principal component analysis were used to analyze both sensory and flavor data. Among the 3 products, Garden Gem juice was rated significantly (P < 0.05) higher for overall liking, tomato flavor, and sweetness by the 119 consumer panelists in both seasons. Garden Gem juice was found to contain higher levels of 3 sweet/fruity related aroma compounds: 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, linalool, and β-ionone. The commercial tomato juice contained a high level of the Maillard reaction-related notes furfural, dimethyl sulfide, and the least amount of green-related notes (hexanal, E-2-hexenal and Z-2-heptenal). The flavor profile of the Roma tomato juice was similar to Garden Gem juice except it contained substantially lower amounts of hexanal and 2-isobutylthiazole. The compound β-ionone (fruity note) was not detected in either the commercial or Roma juice.

Practical Application: This proof of concept study demonstrates that high flavor quality tomatoes can be used to create better tasting processed tomato products. The study also demonstrates how sensory preference can confer a potential market advantage over existing commercial products. The Garden Gem variety has potential to add desirable flavor attributes to processed tomato products. This research may also provide insights for product developers to which flavor volatiles best reflect sensory observations for different aspects of tomato flavor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13980DOI Listing
January 2018

Validating the Physiologic Model HumMod as a Substitute for Clinical Trials Involving Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution.

Anesth Analg 2018 01;126(1):93-101

Department of Physiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi.

Background: Blood conservation strategies and transfusion guidelines remain a heavily debated clinical topic. Previous investigational trials have shown that acute isovolemic hemodilution does not limit adequate oxygen delivery; however, a true critical hemoglobin level has never been investigated or defined due to safety concerns for human volunteers. Validated physiologic modeling may be useful to investigate hemodilution at critical hemoglobin levels without the ethical or safety hazards of clinical trials. Our hypothesis is that HumMod, an integrative physiological model, can replicate the cardiovascular and metabolic findings of previous clinical studies of acute isovolemic hemodilution and use coronary blood flow and coronary oxygen delivery in extreme hemodilution to predict a safety threshold.

Methods: By varying cardiovascular and sizing parameters, unique individuals were generated to simulate a population using HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology. Hemodilution was performed by simultaneously hemorrhaging 500 mL aliquots of blood while infusing equal volumes of hetastarch, 5% albumin balanced salt solution, or triple volumes of lactated Ringer's solution over 10 minutes. Five hemodilution protocols reported over 3 studies were directly replicated with HumMod to compare and validate essential cardiovascular and metabolic responses to hemodilution in moderately healthy, awake adults. Cardiovascular parameters, mental status, arterial and mixed venous oxygen content, and oxyhemoglobin saturation were recorded after the removal of each aliquot. The outputs of this simulation were considered independent variables and were stratified by hemoglobin concentration at the time of measurement to assess hemoglobin as an independent predictor of hemodynamic and metabolic behavior.

Results: The published reports exhibited discrepancies: Weiskopf saw increased heart rate and cardiac index, while Jones and Ickx saw no change in these variables. In HumMod, arterial pressure was maintained during moderate hemodilution due to decreases in peripheral resistance opposing increases in cardiac index. HumMod showed preserved ventilation through moderate hemodilution, compensated for by an increased oxygen extraction similar to the studies of Jones and Ickx. The simulation results qualitatively followed the clinical studies, but there were statistical differences. In more extreme hemodilution, HumMod had a lesser increase in cardiac index, which led to deficiencies in oxygen delivery and low venous saturation. In the simulations, coronary blood flow and oxygen delivery increase up to a critical hemoglobin threshold of 55-75 g/L in HumMod. In this range, coronary blood flow and oxygen delivery fell, leading to cardiac injury. The allowable amount of hemodilution before reaching the critical point is most closely correlated with nonmuscle mass (r = 0.69) and resting cardiac output (r = 0.67).

Conclusions: There were significant statistical differences in the model population and the clinical populations, but overall, the model responses lay within the clinical findings. This suggests our model is an effective replication of hemodilution in conscious, healthy adults. A critical hemoglobin range of 5.5-7.5 g/L was predicted and found to be highly correlated with nonmuscle mass and resting cardiac output.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000002430DOI Listing
January 2018

Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cold Pressed Oils from Florida Hamlin and Valencia Oranges Affected by Huanglongbing.

J Food Sci 2017 Sep 31;82(9):2158-2166. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Florida, 359 FSHN Bldg, 572 Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL, 32611, U.S.A.

Cold pressed oils from huanglongbing (HLB) symptomatic (SY) and asymptomatic (AS) Hamlin and Valencia oranges were assessed for 2 y (2014 to 2015 and 2015 to 2016 seasons) with 2 harvest dates for each orange variety per year. Physicochemical properties (optical rotation, aldehyde content, ultraviolet [UV] absorbance, refractive index, and specific gravity) mandated by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for orange oil quality were assessed. Hamlin and Valencia oils showed minor differences in physicochemical properties based upon disease stage. However, all Hamlin oils had aldehyde contents below the USP minimum and Valencia oil from late season SY oranges had specific gravities above the USP maximum. Significant differences based on harvest year were seen for aldehyde content, refractive index, optical rotation, and UV absorbance. While none of these changes led to an oil being out of USP specifications, they indicate a need to monitor the quality of oil every year to ensure a consistent product. Flavor taste panels were performed both years by adding 0.035% oil samples to a uniform orange juice base. Aroma panels were done by smelling pure oil. There were no significant differences between SY and AS oils for flavor, although panelist race was a significant factor in several of the panels. There were significant differences between the aroma of SY and AS oils for both 2015 to 2016 Hamlin Early and Valencia Late samples. Overall, these results show HLB can have an effect on the aroma and USP mandated physicochemical properties of Florida orange oils, although flavor may be unaffected by this plant disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13814DOI Listing
September 2017

Fruit quality of seedless watermelon grafted onto squash rootstocks under different production systems.

J Sci Food Agric 2017 Nov 8;97(14):4704-4711. Epub 2017 May 8.

Plant Pathology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: The market demand for seedless watermelon has been continuously increasing because of consumer preference. Grafting is a useful tool to manage soilborne diseases in watermelon production, but the use of squash rootstocks may negatively affect watermelon fruit quality. Currently, most research has focused on seeded cultivars, while grafting effects on seedless watermelons remain largely unknown. This multi-season study was conducted to assess the effects of squash rootstocks, including both Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata and C. moschata cultivars, with intact or excised and regenerated roots, on fruit quality of seedless watermelon 'Melody' using both instrumental and sensory measurements under different production scenarios. The grafted watermelon plants were also challenged by field inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum.

Results: A combination of instrumental measurements and consumer sensory analyses suggested that fruit quality of the seedless watermelon 'Melody' was not impacted by the use of the squash rootstocks used in this study, which included soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and most fruit sensory properties. Watermelon flesh firmness was increased by grafting but the grafting effect on lycopene content was inconclusive. Root excision and regeneration did not influence the grafting effect, whereas the grafting effect on flesh firmness varied among the rootstocks under Fusarium inoculation.

Conclusion: Overall, grafting with squash rootstocks did not reduce fruit quality attributes of 'Melody' but improved texture. Our results support incorporating grafting into integrated management programs for seedless watermelon production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8338DOI Listing
November 2017

Consumer Acceptability of Fresh-Market Muscadine Grapes.

J Food Sci 2016 Nov 14;81(11):S2808-S2816. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, Univ. of Florida, 2725 Binion Rd, Apopka, FL, 32703-8504, USA.

The objective of this research was to investigate the acceptability of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) genotypes (cultivars and selections) and to correlate overall liking to other quality measurements to determine the main drivers of liking. Twenty-two genotypes grown at the Univ. of Georgia-Tifton Campus were evaluated. Four retail commercial grape genotypes (Vitis vinifera and "Concord") were also evaluated for comparison. Panelists familiar with muscadine grapes used the hedonic general labeled magnitude scale (HgLMS, -100 = strongest disliking of any kind ever experienced, +100 = strongest liking of any kind ever experienced) to rate overall liking and the liking of appearance, flavor, pulp texture, and skin texture. Puncture testing was done to assess grape berry texture, and compositional attributes soluble solids and pH were also measured. The sensory results indicated that the grapes were variable with overall liking scores from 12.2 to 39.6. The factors highly correlated with overall liking scores were muscadine flavor, pulp and skin liking, while a significant negative correlation was found between skin liking and skin texture and mechanical texture measures. The muscadine grapes with the highest overall liking scores were Ga. 5-1-34 and Ga. 2-8-21. Principal component analysis confirmed that grapes with a thinner skin and a higher pH tended to group around overall liking and flavor points. These results indicate that even among panelists familiar with muscadine grapes, skin thickness is a negative characteristic. Breeding for thinner skins may be a positive step in muscadines gaining a more widespread appeal in the fresh fruit market.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13522DOI Listing
November 2016

Management of the risks for inherited disease in donor-conceived offspring.

Fertil Steril 2016 Nov 24;106(6):1479-1484. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

California Cryobank, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Objective: To illustrate the burden of inherited disease on donor-conceived offspring based on mode of inheritance and to provide guidance on methods of risk reduction.

Design: An 8.5-year retrospective review of outcome reports and donor management to summarize medical risks to donor-conceived offspring that presented after the sperm donors were qualified for participation in the donor program.

Setting: Not applicable.

Patient(s): None.

Intervention(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Description of our experience with newly identified medical risks in donor-conceived offspring as well as how this information was ascertained and managed.

Result(s): More than half of the indications to restrict donor specimen distribution were due to multifactorial disorders. Approximately one third of the restrictions involved autosomal recessive disorders. The remainder of the restrictions were due to the other indications, including autosomal dominant disorders.

Conclusion(s): The risks for multifactorial disorders or undiagnosed autosomal dominant disease cannot be significantly reduced or eliminated with routine donor screening procedures. Ongoing risk assessment is essential to identify new genetic risks for autosomal dominant and multifactorial disorders. These assessments require an investment of resources and genetics professionals in the long-term management of changing health information as well as collaboration among gamete facilities, recipients, donors, and their health care providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.08.008DOI Listing
November 2016

Polysaccharides as Alternative Moisture Retention Agents for Shrimp.

J Food Sci 2016 Mar 5;81(3):S728-35. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., 32611, U.S.A.

Phosphates are used as moisture retention agents (MRAs) by the shrimp industry. Although they are effective, phosphates are expensive, need to be listed on a food label, and overuse can often lead to a higher product cost for consumers. Polysaccharides were researched as alternative MRAs. Polysaccharides are usually inexpensive, are considered natural, and can have nutritional benefits. Research was conducted to determine whether polysaccharides yielded similar functional impacts as phosphates. Treatments included a 0.5% fibercolloid solution isolated from citrus peel, an 8% pectin solution, a 0.5% xanthan gum (XG) solution, a 1% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, and conventionally used 4% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). Experimental treatments were compared to a distilled water control to gauge effectiveness. Freezing, boiling, and oven drying studies were performed to determine how moisture retention in shrimp differed using these different treatments. Water activity was measured to determine any potential differences in shelf life. Solution uptake was also determined to understand how well the treatments enhanced water binding. For moisture loss by freezing, 4% STP and the 0.5% fibercolloid solution functioned the best. The 4% STP treated shrimp lost the least amount of moisture during boiling. The 0.5% fibercolloid and 0.5% XG treatment outperformed phosphates in respect to moisture uptake ability. None of the treatments had a major effect on water activity. All treatments were rated similar in consumer sensory acceptability tests except for pectin, which was rated lower by the sensory panel. Overall, polysaccharides were found to be viable alternatives to phosphates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13242DOI Listing
March 2016

Identifying Breeding Priorities for Blueberry Flavor Using Biochemical, Sensory, and Genotype by Environment Analyses.

PLoS One 2015 17;10(9):e0138494. Epub 2015 Sep 17.

Plant Innovation Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America; Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids) genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit (P<0.001) were found with sweetness (R2 = 0.70), texture (R2 = 0.68), and flavor (R2 = 0.63). Sourness had a significantly negative relationship with overall liking (R2 = 0.55). The relationship between flavor and texture liking was also linear (R2 = 0.73, P<0.0001) demonstrating interaction between olfaction and somatosensation. Partial least squares analysis was used to identify sugars, acids, and volatile compounds contributing to liking and sensory intensities, and revealed strong effects of fructose, pH, and several volatile compounds upon all sensory parameters measured. To assess the feasibility of breeding for flavor components, a three year study was conducted to compare genetic and environmental influences on flavor biochemistry. Panelists could discern genotypic variation in blueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their breeding is worthwhile.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0138494PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4574478PMC
May 2016

Acceptability and Identification of Scooped Versus Molded Puréed Foods.

Can J Diet Pract Res 2014 Sep;75(3):145-7

a Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida/IFAS, Gainesville, FL.

Purpose: Although puréed foods are commonly recommended for individuals with dysphagia and the acceptability of these foods is often a concern, few sensory studies on puréed foods have been carried out. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serving style (i.e., scooped vs molded), on identification and acceptability of puréed foods in younger and older adults.

Methods: Acceptability of scooped versus molded puréed meats and vegetables was evaluated using the hedonic general Labeled Magnitude Scale. The younger adult panelists (n = 97; 55 F, 42 M) were recruited from the University of Florida staff and students, and the older adult panelists (n = 70; 59 F, 11 M) were recruited from the community.

Results: The younger panelists correctly identified a higher percentage of puréed foods than did the older panelists. Scooped puréed foods were more acceptable than molded.

Conclusions: The results suggest that puréed foods may be more acceptable and identifiable when served without molding for both younger and older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3148/cjdpr-2014-004DOI Listing
September 2014
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