Publications by authors named "Charles R V Tomson"

83 Publications

Management of Blood Pressure in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Not Receiving Dialysis: Synopsis of the 2021 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline.

Ann Intern Med 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts (M.J.S.).

Description: The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2021 clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure (BP) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not receiving dialysis is an update of the KDIGO 2012 guideline on the same topic and reflects new evidence on the risks and benefits of BP-lowering therapy among patients with CKD. It is intended to support shared decision making by health care professionals working with patients with CKD worldwide. This article is a synopsis of the full guideline.

Methods: The KDIGO leadership commissioned 2 co-chairs to convene an international Work Group of researchers and clinicians. After a Controversies Conference in September 2017, the Work Group defined the scope of the evidence review, which was undertaken by an evidence review team between October 2017 and April 2020. Evidence reviews were done according to the Cochrane Handbook. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to guide the development of the recommendations and rate the strength and quality of the evidence. Practice points were included to provide guidance when evidence was insufficient to make a graded recommendation. The guideline was revised after public consultation between January and March 2020.

Recommendations: The updated guideline comprises 11 recommendations and 20 practice points. This synopsis summarizes key recommendations pertinent to the diagnosis and management of high BP in adults with CKD, excluding those receiving kidney replacement therapy. In particular, the synopsis focuses on recommendations for standardized BP measurement and a target systolic BP of less than 120 mm Hg, because these recommendations differ from some other guidelines.
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June 2021

Heart Failure Hospitalization in Adults Receiving Hemodialysis and the Effect of Intravenous Iron Therapy.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Jul 9;9(7):518-527. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Renal Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: This study sought to examine the effect of intravenous iron on heart failure events in hemodialysis patients.

Background: Heart failure is a common and deadly complication in patients receiving hemodialysis and is difficult to diagnose and treat.

Methods: The study analyzed heart failure events in the PIVOTAL (Proactive IV Iron Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients) trial, which compared intravenous iron administered proactively in a high-dose regimen with a low-dose regimen administered reactively. Heart failure hospitalization was an adjudicated outcome, a component of the primary composite outcome, and a prespecified secondary endpoint in the trial.

Results: Overall, 2,141 participants were followed for a median of 2.1 years. A first fatal or nonfatal heart failure event occurred in 51 (4.7%) of 1,093 patients in the high-dose iron group and in 70 (6.7%) of 1,048 patients in the low-dose group (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94; P = 0.023). There was a total of 63 heart failure events (including first and recurrent events) in the high-dose iron group and 98 in the low-dose group, giving a rate ratio of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40-0.87; P = 0.0084). Most patients presented with pulmonary edema and were mainly treated by mechanical removal of fluid. History of heart failure and diabetes were independent predictors of a heart failure event.

Conclusions: Compared with a lower-dose regimen, high-dose intravenous iron decreased the occurrence of first and recurrent heart failure events in patients undergoing hemodialysis, with large relative and absolute risk reductions. (UK Multicentre Open-label Randomised Controlled Trial Of IV Iron Therapy In Incident Haemodialysis Patients; 2013-002267-25).
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July 2021

Executive summary of the KDIGO 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Blood Pressure in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Kidney Int 2021 03;99(3):559-569

KfH Kidney Center, Munich, Germany; Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address:

The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Blood Pressure in Chronic Kidney Disease for patients not receiving dialysis represents an update to the KDIGO 2012 guideline on this topic. Development of this guideline update followed a rigorous process of evidence review and appraisal. Guideline recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant studies and appraisal of the quality of the evidence. The strength of recommendations is based on the "Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation" (GRADE) approach. The scope includes topics covered in the original guideline, such as optimal blood pressure targets, lifestyle interventions, antihypertensive medications, and specific management in kidney transplant recipients and children. Some aspects of general and cardiovascular health, such as lipid and smoking management, are excluded. This guideline also introduces a chapter dedicated to proper blood pressure measurement since all large randomized trials targeting blood pressure with pivotal outcomes used standardized preparation and measurement protocols adhered to by patients and clinicians. Based on previous and new evidence, in particular the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) results, we propose a systolic blood pressure target of less than 120 mm Hg using standardized office reading for most people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not receiving dialysis, the exception being children and kidney transplant recipients. The goal of this guideline is to provide clinicians and patients a useful resource with actionable recommendations supplemented with practice points. The burden of the recommendations on patients and resources, public policy implications, and limitations of the evidence are taken into consideration. Lastly, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research are provided.
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March 2021

Investigating Ethnic Disparity in Living-Donor Kidney Transplantation in the UK: Patient-Identified Reasons for Non-Donation among Family Members.

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 21;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Bristol Medical School: Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2PS, UK.

There is ethnic inequity in access to living-donor kidney transplants in the UK. This study asked kidney patients from Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups why members of their family were not able to be living kidney donors. Responses were compared with responses from White individuals. This questionnaire-based mixed-methods study included adults transplanted between 1/4/13-31/3/17 at 14 UK hospitals. Participants were asked to indicate why relatives could not donate, selecting all options applicable from: Age; Health; Weight; Location; Financial/Cost; Job; Blood group; No-one to care for them after donation. A box entitled 'Other-please give details' was provided for free-text entries. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the association between the likelihood of selecting each reason for non-donation and the participant's self-reported ethnicity. Qualitative responses were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. In total, 1240 questionnaires were returned (40% response). There was strong evidence that Black, Asian and minority ethnic group individuals were more likely than White people to indicate that family members lived too far away to donate (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.25, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.30-4.58), were prevented from donating by financial concerns (aOR = 2.95, 95% CI 2.02-4.29), were unable to take time off work (aOR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.18-3.02), were "not the right blood group" (aOR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.35-2.01), or had no-one to care for them post-donation (aOR = 3.73, 95% CI 2.60-5.35). Four qualitative themes were identified from responses from Black, Asian and minority ethnic group participants: 'Burden of disease within the family'; 'Differing religious interpretations'; 'Geographical concerns'; and 'A culture of silence'. Patients perceive barriers to living kidney donation in the UK Black, Asian and minority ethnic population. If confirmed, these could be targeted by interventions to redress the observed ethnic inequity.
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November 2020

Changes in Blood Pressure and Arterial Hemodynamics following Living Kidney Donation.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 09 25;15(9):1330-1339. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Birmingham Cardio-Renal Group, Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Background And Objectives: The Effect of a Reduction in GFR after Nephrectomy on Arterial Stiffness and Central Hemodynamics (EARNEST) study was a multicenter, prospective, controlled study designed to investigate the associations of an isolated reduction in kidney function on BP and arterial hemodynamics.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: Prospective living kidney donors and healthy controls who fulfilled criteria for donation were recruited from centers with expertise in vascular research. Participants underwent office and ambulatory BP measurement, assessment of arterial stiffness, and biochemical tests at baseline and 12 months.

Results: A total of 469 participants were recruited, and 306 (168 donors and 138 controls) were followed up at 12 months. In the donor group, mean eGFR was 27 ml/min per 1.73 m lower than baseline at 12 months. Compared with baseline, at 12 months the mean within-group difference in ambulatory day systolic BP in donors was 0.1 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -1.7 to 1.9) and 0.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -0.7 to 2.0) in controls. The between-group difference was -0.5 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.8 to 1.7; =0.62). The mean within-group difference in pulse wave velocity in donors was 0.3 m/s (95% confidence interval, 0.1 to 0.4) and 0.2 m/s (95% confidence interval, -0.0 to 0.4) in controls. The between-group difference was 0.1 m/s (95% confidence interval, -0.2 to 0.3; =0.49).

Conclusions: Changes in ambulatory peripheral BP and pulse wave velocity in kidney donors at 12 months after nephrectomy were small and not different from controls.

Clinical Trial Registry Name And Registration Number: NCT01769924 (
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September 2020

Changes in quality of life, health status and other patient-reported outcomes following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPKT): a quantitative and qualitative analysis within a UK-wide programme.

Transpl Int 2020 10 9;33(10):1230-1243. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Health Psychology Research Unit, Royal Holloway University of London, London, UK.

We examined quality of life (QoL) and other patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in 95 simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant (SPKT) recipients and 41 patients wait-listed for SPKT recruited to the UK Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures (ATTOM) programme. Wait-listed patients transplanted within 12 months of recruitment (n = 22) were followed 12 months post-transplant and compared with those still wait-listed (n = 19) to examine pre- to post-transplant changes. Qualitative interviews with ten SPKT recipients 12 months post-transplant were analysed thematically. Cross-sectional analyses showed several better 12-month outcomes for SPKT recipients compared with those still wait-listed, a trend to better health utilities but no difference in diabetes-specific QoL or diabetes treatment satisfaction. Pre- to post-transplant, SPKT recipients showed improved treatment satisfaction, well-being, self-reported health, generic QoL and less negative impact on renal-specific QoL (ps < 0.05). Health utility values were better overall in transplant recipients and neither these nor diabetes-specific QoL changed significantly in either group. Pre-emptive transplant advantages seen in 12-month cross-sectional analyses disappeared when controlling for baseline values. Qualitative findings indicated diabetes complications, self-imposed blood glucose monitoring and dietary restrictions continued to impact QoL negatively post-transplant. Unrealistic expectations of SPKT caused some disappointment. Measuring condition-specific PROMs over time will help in demonstrating the benefits and limitations of SPKT.
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October 2020

Mediators of Socioeconomic Inequity in Living-donor Kidney Transplantation: Results From a UK Multicenter Case-Control Study.

Transplant Direct 2020 Apr 13;6(4):e540. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Bristol Medical School: Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

There is evidence of socioeconomic inequity in access to living-donor kidney transplantation, but limited evidence as to why. We investigated possible mediators of the inequity.

Methods: This questionnaire-based case-control study included 14 UK hospitals. Participants were adults transplanted between April 1, 2013 and March 31, 2017. Living-donor kidney transplant (LDKT) recipients (cases) were compared with deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients (controls). We collected data on mediators identified in earlier qualitative work: perceived social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List shortened version-12), patient activation (Patient Activation Measure 13), and LDKT knowledge (Rotterdam Renal Replacement Knowledge Test). We performed mediation analyses to investigate what proportion of the effect of socioeconomic position (education and income) on case-control status was mediated by these variables.

Results: One thousand two-hundred and forty questionnaires were returned (40% response). Receipt of an LDKT over a deceased-donor kidney transplant was associated with higher socioeconomic position [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) university degree versus no degree aOR = 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.84), = 0.001 and aOR per +£1000 increase in monthly household income after tax 1.14 (95% CI, 1.11-1.17), < 0.001] higher perceived social support (aOR per +1-point Interpersonal Support Evaluation List shortened version-12 score = 1.05 (95% CI, 1.03-1.08), < 0.001), higher levels of patient activation (aOR per +1 patient activation measure level = 1.35 (95% CI, 1.24-1.48), < 0.001), and greater LDKT knowledge (aOR per + 1-point Rotterdam Renal Replacement Knowledge Test score = 1.59 (95% CI, 1.49-1.69), < 0.001). Mediation analyses revealed that perceived social support, patient activation, and LDKT knowledge together mediate 48.5% (95% CI, 12.7-84.3, = 0.008) of the association between university education and LDKT status, and 46.0% (95% CI, 28.7-63.4, < 0.001) of the association between income and LDKT status.

Conclusions: LDKT knowledge, perceived social support, and patient activation are associated with the socioeconomic position of people with kidney disease, and mediate approximately 50% of the association between the socioeconomic position and receipt of an LDKT. Interventions that target these factors may redress observed socioeconomic inequity.
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April 2020

Intravenous Iron Dosing and Infection Risk in Patients on Hemodialysis: A Prespecified Secondary Analysis of the PIVOTAL Trial.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 05 6;31(5):1118-1127. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Background: Experimental and observational studies have raised concerns that giving intravenous (IV) iron to patients, such as individuals receiving maintenance hemodialysis, might increase the risk of infections. The Proactive IV Iron Therapy in Haemodialysis Patients (PIVOTAL) trial randomized 2141 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for ESKD to a high-dose or a low-dose IV iron regimen, with a primary composite outcome of all-cause death, heart attack, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure. Comparison of infection rates between the two groups was a prespecified secondary analysis.

Methods: Secondary end points included any infection, hospitalization for infection, and death from infection; we calculated cumulative event rates for these end points. We also interrogated the interaction between iron dose and vascular access (fistula versus catheter).

Results: We found no significant difference between the high-dose IV iron group compared with the lose-dose group in event rates for all infections (46.5% versus 45.5%, respectively, which represented incidences of 63.3 versus 69.4 per 100 patient years, respectively); rates of hospitalization for infection (29.6% versus 29.3%, respectively) also did not differ. We did find a significant association between risk of a first cardiovascular event and any infection in the previous 30 days. Compared with patients undergoing dialysis with an arteriovenous fistula, those doing so a catheter had a higher incidence of having any infection, hospitalization for infection, or fatal infection, but IV iron dosing had no effect on these outcomes.

Conclusions: The high-dose and low-dose IV iron groups exhibited identical infection rates. Risk of a first cardiovascular event strongly associated with a recent infection.
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May 2020

Recipient Comorbidity and Survival Outcomes After Kidney Transplantation: A UK-wide Prospective Cohort Study.

Transplantation 2020 06;104(6):1246-1255

Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Background: Comorbidity is increasingly common in kidney transplant recipients, yet the implications for transplant outcomes are not fully understood. We analyzed the relationship between recipient comorbidity and survival outcomes in a UK-wide prospective cohort study-Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures (ATTOM).

Methods: A total of 2100 adult kidney transplant recipients were recruited from all 23 UK transplant centers between 2011 and 2013. Data on 15 comorbidities were collected at the time of transplantation. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationship between comorbidity and 2-year graft survival, patient survival, and transplant survival (earliest of graft failure or patient death) for deceased-donor kidney transplant (DDKT) recipients (n = 1288) and living-donor kidney transplant (LDKT) recipients (n = 812).

Results: For DDKT recipients, peripheral vascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 3.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37-6.74; P = 0.006) and obesity (HR 2.27, 95% CI: 1.27-4.06; P = 0.006) were independent risk factors for graft loss, while heart failure (HR 3.77, 95% CI: 1.79-7.95; P = 0.0005), cerebrovascular disease (HR 3.45, 95% CI: 1.72-6.92; P = 0.0005), and chronic liver disease (HR 4.36, 95% CI: 1.29-14.71; P = 0.018) were associated with an increased risk of mortality. For LDKT recipients, heart failure (HR 3.83, 95% CI: 1.15-12.81; P = 0.029) and diabetes (HR 2.23, 95% CI: 1.03-4.81; P = 0.042) were associated with poorer transplant survival.

Conclusions: The key comorbidities that predict poorer 2-year survival outcomes after kidney transplantation have been identified in this large prospective cohort study. The findings will facilitate assessment of individual patient risks and evidence-based decision making.
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June 2020

Blood pressure in chronic kidney disease: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

Kidney Int 2019 05;95(5):1027-1036

KfH Kidney Center, Munich, Germany; Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital, Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany. Electronic address:

In September 2017, KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) convened a Controversies Conference titled Blood Pressure in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The purpose of the meeting was to consider which recommendations from the 2012 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Blood Pressure in CKD should be reevaluated based on new evidence from clinical trials. Participants included a multidisciplinary panel of clinical and scientific experts. Discussions focused on the optimal means for measuring blood pressure (BP) as well as managing BP in CKD patients. Consistent with the 2012 Guideline, the conference did not address BP management in patients on maintenance dialysis.
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May 2019

An update of the ERA-EDTA Registry primary renal disease coding system: what's new?

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2019 06;34(6):896-898

Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

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June 2019

Intravenous Iron in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis.

N Engl J Med 2019 01 26;380(5):447-458. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

From the Department of Renal Medicine, King's College Hospital (I.C.M., C.W.), and University College London (D.C.W.), London, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust and Hull York Medical School, Hull (S.B.), Lister Hospital, Stevenage (K.F.), and University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire (K.F.), the Department of Renal Medicine, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford (P.A.K.), the British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre (J.J.V.M.) and the Robertson Centre for Biostatistics (H.M., I.F.), University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (C.R.V.T.), and the Oxford Kidney Unit, Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford (C.G.W.) - all in the United Kingdom; and the Division of Cardiology and Metabolism, Department of Cardiology, Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, German Center for Cardiovascular Research partner site Berlin, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (S.D.A.).

Background: Intravenous iron is a standard treatment for patients undergoing hemodialysis, but comparative data regarding clinically effective regimens are limited.

Methods: In a multicenter, open-label trial with blinded end-point evaluation, we randomly assigned adults undergoing maintenance hemodialysis to receive either high-dose iron sucrose, administered intravenously in a proactive fashion (400 mg monthly, unless the ferritin concentration was >700 μg per liter or the transferrin saturation was ≥40%), or low-dose iron sucrose, administered intravenously in a reactive fashion (0 to 400 mg monthly, with a ferritin concentration of <200 μg per liter or a transferrin saturation of <20% being a trigger for iron administration). The primary end point was the composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, or death, assessed in a time-to-first-event analysis. These end points were also analyzed as recurrent events. Other secondary end points included death, infection rate, and dose of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. Noninferiority of the high-dose group to the low-dose group would be established if the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio for the primary end point did not cross 1.25.

Results: A total of 2141 patients underwent randomization (1093 patients to the high-dose group and 1048 to the low-dose group). The median follow-up was 2.1 years. Patients in the high-dose group received a median monthly iron dose of 264 mg (interquartile range [25th to 75th percentile], 200 to 336), as compared with 145 mg (interquartile range, 100 to 190) in the low-dose group. The median monthly dose of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent was 29,757 IU in the high-dose group and 38,805 IU in the low-dose group (median difference, -7539 IU; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9485 to -5582). A total of 320 patients (29.3%) in the high-dose group had a primary end-point event, as compared with 338 (32.3%) in the low-dose group (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.00; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.04 for superiority). In an analysis that used a recurrent-events approach, there were 429 events in the high-dose group and 507 in the low-dose group (rate ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.92). The infection rate was the same in the two groups.

Conclusions: Among patients undergoing hemodialysis, a high-dose intravenous iron regimen administered proactively was superior to a low-dose regimen administered reactively and resulted in lower doses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent being administered. (Funded by Kidney Research UK; PIVOTAL EudraCT number, 2013-002267-25 .).
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January 2019

Randomized Trial Comparing Proactive, High-Dose versus Reactive, Low-Dose Intravenous Iron Supplementation in Hemodialysis (PIVOTAL): Study Design and Baseline Data.

Am J Nephrol 2018 10;48(4):260-268. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Background: Intravenous (IV) iron supplementation is a standard maintenance treatment for hemodialysis (HD) patients, but the optimum dosing regimen is unknown.

Methods: PIVOTAL (Proactive IV irOn Therapy in hemodiALysis patients) is a multicenter, open-label, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled (PROBE) trial. Incident HD adults with a serum ferritin < 400 µg/L and transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels < 30% receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) were eligible. Enrolled patients were randomized to a proactive, high-dose IV iron arm (iron sucrose 400 mg/month unless ferritin > 700 µg/L and/or TSAT ≥40%) or a reactive, low-dose IV iron arm (iron sucrose administered if ferritin <200 µg/L or TSAT < 20%). We hypothesized that proactive, high-dose IV iron would be noninferior to reactive, low-dose IV iron for the primary outcome of first occurrence of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure or death from any cause. If noninferiority is confirmed with a noninferiority limit of 1.25 for the hazard ratio of the proactive strategy relative to the reactive strategy, a test for superiority will be carried out. Secondary outcomes include infection-related endpoints, ESA dose requirements, and quality-of-life measures. As an event-driven trial, the study will continue until at least 631 primary outcome events have accrued, but the expected duration of follow-up is 2-4 years.

Results: Of the 2,589 patients screened across 50 UK sites, 2,141 (83%) were randomized. At baseline, 65.3% were male, the median age was 65 years, and 79% were white. According to eligibility criteria, all patients were on ESA at screening. Prior stroke and MI were present in 8 and 9% of the cohort, respectively, and 44% of patients had diabetes at baseline. Baseline data for the randomized cohort were generally concordant with recent data from the UK Renal Registry.

Conclusions: PIVOTAL will provide important information about the optimum dosing of IV iron in HD patients representative of usual clinical practice.

Trial Registration: EudraCT number: 2013-002267-25.
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January 2020

Investigation and management of renal stone disease.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2017 12;32(12):1984-1986

Department of Renal Unit, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

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December 2017

A multicenter cohort study of potential living kidney donors provides predictors of living kidney donation and non-donation.

Kidney Int 2017 11 12;92(5):1249-1260. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

This multicenter prospective potential living kidney donor cohort study investigated which sociodemographic and other factors predict progression to living kidney donation or donor withdrawal as little is known on this topic. Therefore, we examined data on individuals undergoing living donor assessment at seven hospitals in the United Kingdom. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the relationships between donor and recipient characteristics and likelihood of kidney donation. A total of 805 individuals presented for directed donation to 498 intended recipients, of which 112 received a transplant from a living donor. Potential donors were less likely to donate if their intended recipient was female rather than male with an odds ratio of 0.60, a friend rather than relative 0.18, or had renal failure due to a systemic disease rather than another cause 0.41. The most socioeconomically deprived quintile was less likely to donate than the least 0.49, but the trend with deprivation was consistent with chance. Higher body mass index was associated with a lower likelihood of donation (odds ratio per each kg/m increase, 0.92). Younger potential donors (odds ratio per each year increase 0.97), those of nonwhite ethnicity 2.98, and friend donors 2.43 were more likely to withdraw from work-up. This is the first study in the United Kingdom of potential living kidney donors to describe predictors of non-donation. Qualitative work with individuals who withdraw might identify possible ways of supporting those who wish to donate but experience difficulties doing so.
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November 2017

A Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Associations of Limited Health Literacy in CKD.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Jul 9;12(7):1070-1084. Epub 2017 May 9.

Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Background And Objectives: The self-management and decision-making skills required to manage CKD successfully may be diminished in those with low health literacy. A 2012 review identified five papers reporting the prevalence of limited health literacy in CKD, largely from United States dialysis populations. The literature has expanded considerably since.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: We used systematic review, pooled prevalence analysis, metaregression, and exploration of heterogeneity in studies of patients with CKD (all stages).

Results: From 433 studies, 15 new studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed together with five studies from the 2012 review. These included 13 cross-sectional surveys, five cohort studies (using baseline data), and two using baseline clinical trial data. Most (19 of 20) were from the United States. In total, 12,324 patients were studied (3529 nondialysis CKD, 5289 dialysis, 2560 transplant, and 946 with unspecified CKD; median =198.5; IQR, 128.5-260 per study). Median prevalence of limited health literacy within studies was 23% (IQR, 16%-33%), and pooled prevalence was 25% (95% confidence interval, 20% to 30%) with significant between-study heterogeneity (=97%). Pooled prevalence of limited health literacy was 25% (95% confidence interval, 16% to 33%; =97%) among patients with CKD not on dialysis, 27% (95% confidence interval, 19% to 35%; =96%) among patients on dialysis, and 14% (95% confidence interval, 7% to 21%; =97%) among patients with transplants. A higher proportion of nonwhite participants was associated with increased limited health literacy prevalence (=0.04), but participant age was not (=0.40). Within studies, nonwhite ethnicity and low socioeconomic status were consistently and independently associated with limited health literacy. Studies were of low or moderate quality. Within-study participant selection criteria had potential to introduce bias.

Conclusions: Limited health literacy is common in CKD, especially among individuals with low socioeconomic status and nonwhite ethnicity. This has implications for the design of self-management and decision-making initiatives to promote equity of care and improve quality. Lower prevalence among patients with transplants may reflect selection of patients with higher health literacy for transplantation either because of less comorbidity in this group or as a direct effect of health literacy on access to transplantation.
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July 2017

A programme to spread eGFR graph surveillance for the early identification, support and treatment of people with progressive chronic kidney disease (ASSIST-CKD): protocol for the stepped wedge implementation and evaluation of an intervention to reduce late presentation for renal replacement therapy.

BMC Nephrol 2017 04 11;18(1):131. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

Kidney Research UK, Peterborough, UK.

Background: Patients who start renal replacement therapy (RRT) for End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) without having had timely access to specialist renal services have poor outcomes. At one NHS Trust in England, a community-wide CKD management system has led to a decline in the incident rate of RRT and the lowest percentage of patients presenting within 90 days of starting RRT in the UK. We describe the protocol for a quality improvement project to scale up and evaluate this innovation.

Methods: The intervention is based upon an off-line database that integrates laboratory results from blood samples taken in all settings stored under different identifying labels relating to the same patient. Graphs of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over time are generated for patients <65 years with an incoming eGFR <50 ml/min/1.73 m and patients >65 years with an incoming eGFR <40 ml/min/1.73 m. Graphs where kidney function is deteriorating are flagged by a laboratory scientist and details sent to the primary care doctor (GP) with a prompt that further action may be needed. We will evaluate the impact of implementing this intervention across a large population served by a number of UK renal centres using a mixed methods approach. We are following a stepped-wedge design. The order of implementation among participating centres will be randomly allocated. Implementation will proceed with unidirectional steps from control group to intervention group until all centres are generating graphs of eGFR over time. The primary outcome for the quantitative evaluation is the proportion of patients referred to specialist renal services within 90 days of commencing RRT, using data collected routinely by the UK Renal Registry. The qualitative evaluation will investigate facilitators and barriers to adoption and spread of the intervention. It will include: semi-structured interviews with laboratory staff, renal centre staff and service commissioners; an online survey of GPs receiving the intervention; and focus groups of primary care staff.

Discussion: Late presentation to nephrology for patients with ESKD is a source of potentially avoidable harm. This protocol describes a robust quantitative and qualitative evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to reduce late presentation and improve the outcomes for patients with ESKD.
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April 2017

Barriers to living donor kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom: a national observational study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2017 May;32(5):890-900

Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: Living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) provides more timely access to transplantation and better clinical outcomes than deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT). This study investigated disparities in the utilization of LDKT in the UK.

Methods: A total of 2055 adults undergoing kidney transplantation between November 2011 and March 2013 were prospectively recruited from all 23 UK transplant centres as part of the Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures (ATTOM) study. Recipient variables independently associated with receipt of LDKT versus DDKT were identified.

Results: Of the 2055 patients, 807 (39.3%) received LDKT and 1248 (60.7%) received DDKT. Multivariable modelling demonstrated a significant reduction in the likelihood of LDKT for older age {odds ratio [OR] 0.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.17], P < 0.0001 for 65-75 years versus 18-34 years}; Asian ethnicity [OR 0.55 (95% CI 0.39-0.77), P = 0.0006 versus White]; Black ethnicity [OR 0.64 (95% CI 0.42-0.99), P = 0.047 versus White]; divorced, separated or widowed [OR 0.63 (95% CI 0.46-0.88), P = 0.030 versus married]; no qualifications [OR 0.55 (95% CI 0.42-0.74), P < 0.0001 versus higher education qualifications]; no car ownership [OR 0.51 (95% CI 0.37-0.72), P = 0.0001] and no home ownership [OR 0.65 (95% CI 0.85-0.79), P = 0.002]. The odds of LDKT varied significantly between countries in the UK.

Conclusions: Among patients undergoing kidney transplantation in the UK, there are significant age, ethnic, socio-economic and geographic disparities in the utilization of LDKT. Further work is needed to explore the potential for targeted interventions to improve equity in living donor transplantation.
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May 2017

Patient preferences, knowledge and beliefs about kidney allocation: qualitative findings from the UK-wide ATTOM programme.

BMJ Open 2017 01 27;7(1):e013896. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Health Psychology Research Unit, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, UK.

Objective: To explore how patients who are wait-listed for or who have received a kidney transplant understand the current UK kidney allocation system, and their views on ways to allocate kidneys in the future.

Design: Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis based on a pragmatic approach.

Participants: 10 deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients, 10 live-donor kidney transplant recipients, 12 participants currently wait-listed for a kidney transplant and 4 participants whose kidney transplant failed.

Setting: Semistructured telephone interviews conducted with participants in their own homes across the UK.

Results: Three main themes were identified: uncertainty of knowledge of the allocation scheme; evaluation of the system and participant suggestions for future allocation schemes. Most participants identified human leucocyte anitgen matching as a factor in determining kidney allocation, but were often uncertain of the accuracy of their knowledge. In the absence of information that would allow a full assessment, the majority of participants consider that the current system is effective. A minority of participants were concerned about the perceived lack of transparency of the general decision-making processes within the scheme. Most participants felt that people who are younger and those better matched to the donor kidney should be prioritised for kidney allocation, but in contrast to the current scheme, less priority was considered appropriate for longer waiting patients. Some non-medical themes were also discussed, such as whether parents of dependent children should be prioritised for allocation, and whether patients with substance abuse problems be deprioritised.

Conclusions: Our participants held differing views about the most important factors for kidney allocation, some of which were in contrast to the current scheme. Patient participation in reviewing future allocation policies will provide insight as to what is considered acceptable to patients and inform healthcare staff of the kinds of information patients would find most useful.
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January 2017

Can we routinely measure patient involvement in treatment decision-making in chronic kidney care? A service evaluation in 27 renal units in the UK.

Clin Kidney J 2016 Apr 5;9(2):252-9. Epub 2016 Mar 5.

Department of Renal Medicine , Freeman Hospital , Newcastle upon Tyne , UK.

Background: Shared decision making is considered an important aspect of chronic disease management. We explored the feasibility of routinely measuring kidney patients' involvement in making decisions about renal replacement therapy (RRT) in National Health Service settings.

Methods: We disseminated a 17-item paper questionnaire on involvement in decision-making among adult patients with established kidney failure who made a decision about RRT in the previous 90 days (Phase 1) and patients who had been receiving RRT for 90-180 days (Phase 2). Recruitment rates were calculated as the ratio between the number of included and expected eligible patients (I : E ratio). We assessed our sample's representativeness by comparing demographics between participants and incident patients in the UK Renal Registry.

Results: Three hundred and five (Phase 1) and 187 (Phase 2) patients were included. For Phase 1, the I : E ratio was 0.44 (range, 0.08-2.80) compared with 0.27 (range, 0.04-1.05) in Phase 2. Study participants were more likely to be white compared with incident RRT patients (88 versus 77%; P < 0.0001). We found no difference in age, gender or social deprivation. In Phases 1 and 2, the majority reported a collaborative decision-making style (73 and 69%), and had no decisional conflict (85 and 76%); the median score for shared decision-making experience was 12.5 (Phase 1) and 10 (Phase 2) out of 20.

Conclusion: Our study shows the importance of assessing the feasibility of data collection in a chronic disease context prior to implementation in routine practice. Routine measurement of patient involvement in established kidney disease treatment decisions is feasible, but there are challenges in selecting the measure needed to capture experience of involvement, reducing variation in response rate by service and identifying when to capture experience in a service managing people's chronic disease over time.
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April 2016

Socioeconomic deprivation and barriers to live-donor kidney transplantation: a qualitative study of deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients.

BMJ Open 2016 Mar 2;6(3):e010605. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Objectives: Socioeconomically deprived individuals with renal disease are less likely to receive a live-donor kidney transplant than less-deprived individuals. This qualitative study aimed to identify reasons for the observed socioeconomic disparity in live-donor kidney transplantation.

Design: A qualitative study using face-to-face in-depth semistructured interviews.

Setting: A UK tertiary renal referral hospital and transplant centre.

Participants: Purposive sampling was used to select deceased-donor transplant recipients from areas of high socioeconomic deprivation (SED) (19 participants), followed by a low SED comparison group (13 participants), aiming for maximum diversity in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, primary renal disease and previous renal replacement therapy.

Methods: Participants were interviewed following their routine transplant clinic review. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using NVivo software and analysed using the constant comparison method described in Grounded Theory.

Results: Themes common and distinct to each socioeconomic group emerged. 6 themes appeared to distinguish between individuals from areas of high and low SED. 4 themes were distinct to participants from areas of high SED: (1) Passivity, (2) Disempowerment, (3) Lack of social support and (4) Short-term focus. 2 themes were distinct to the low SED group: (1) Financial concerns and (2) Location of donor.

Conclusions: Several of the emerging themes from the high SED individuals relate to an individual's lack of confidence and skill in managing their health and healthcare; themes that are in keeping with low levels of patient activation. Inadequate empowerment of socioeconomically deprived individuals by healthcare practitioners was also described. Financial concerns did not emerge as a barrier from interviews with the high SED group. Interventions aiming to redress the observed socioeconomic inequity should be targeted at both patients and clinical teams to increase empowerment and ensure shared decision-making.
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March 2016

Dietary restriction and exercise for diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review.

PLoS One 2014 25;9(11):e113667. Epub 2014 Nov 25.

European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; CNR-Institute of Clinical Physiology, Reggio Calabria, Italy.

Background: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are major health problems and key features to develop cardiovascular disease. Data on the effects of lifestyle interventions in diabetics with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been conflicting.

Study Design: Systematic review.

Population: Diabetes patients with CKD stage 3 to 5. SEARCH STRATEGY AND SOURCES: Medline, Embase and Central were searched to identify papers.

Intervention: Effect of a negative energy balance on hard outcomes in diabetics with CKD.

Outcomes: Death, cardiovascular events, glycaemic control, kidney function, metabolic parameters and body composition.

Results: We retained 11 studies. There are insufficient data to evaluate the effect on mortality to promote negative energy balance. None of the studies reported a difference in incidence of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events. Reduction of energy intake does not alter creatinine clearance but significantly reduces proteinuria (mean difference from -0.66 to -1.77 g/24 h). Interventions with combined exercise and diet resulted in a slower decline of eGFR (-9.2 vs. -20.7 mL/min over two year observation; p<0.001). Aerobic and resistance exercise reduced HbA1c (-0.51 (-0.87 to -0.14); p = 0.007 and -0.38 (-0.72 to -0.22); p = 0.038, respectively). Exercise interventions improve the overall functional status and quality of life in this subgroup. Aerobic exercise reduces BMI (-0.74% (-1.29 to -0.18); p = 0.009) and body weight (-2.2 kg (-3.9 to -0.6); p = 0.008). Resistance exercise reduces trunk fat mass (-0,7±0,1 vs. +0,8 kg ±0,1 kg; p = 0,001-0,005). In none of the studies did the intervention cause an increase in adverse events.

Limitations: All studies used a different intervention type and mixed patient groups.

Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the effect of negative energy balance interventions on mortality in diabetic patients with advanced CKD. Overall, these interventions have beneficial effects on glycaemic control, BMI and body composition, functional status and quality of life, and no harmful effects were observed.
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January 2016

Bayesian analysis of glomerular filtration rate trajectories in kidney transplant recipients: a pilot study.

Transplantation 2015 Mar;99(3):533-9

1 Department of Nephrology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom. 2 Wolfson Computer Laboratory, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom. 3 Department of Nephrology, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, United Kingdom. 4 Department of Nephrology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: Detailed modeling and analysis of renal (dys)function trajectories has not been undertaken in kidney transplant recipients. Although previous studies have assumed linear trajectories, this likely represents an oversimplification.

Methods: In this study, a Bayesian smoothing technique was undertaken to create 10,000 Monte Carlo samples for each of 158 patients over a median of 88 months. Specific parameters investigated were the prevalence of nonlinear trajectories, periods of nonprogression, and of rapid progression.

Results: Forty-five (28%) patients displayed high probability (>80%) for a nonlinear trajectory. Periods of nonprogression were also common, present in 110 (70%) patients. A substantial proportion of patients showed deviation from the classic paradigm of progressive linear loss of graft function with 137 (87%) patients displaying nonlinearity or nonprogression. Only nine (6%) patients demonstrated at least one episode of nonprogression after an episode of progression, that is, once progression occurred, a subsequent period of nonprogression was uncommon. Episodes of nonprogression were less common (P < 0.001) in patients whose grafts subsequently failed, whereas episodes of rapid progression were more common (P = 0.04).

Conclusion: This study highlights the often nonlinear and nonprogressive nature of renal function decline after transplantation. Heightened understanding of the factors influencing these trajectories should help inform patients and clinicians alike.
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March 2015

Association between glycemia and mortality in diabetic individuals on renal replacement therapy in the U.K.

Diabetes Care 2014 26;37(5):1304-11. Epub 2014 Feb 26.

Corresponding author: Amanda Adler,

Objective: In the U.K., one-third of patients receiving treatment with dialysis have diabetes. Guidelines from organizations representing patients with renal disease or diabetes advocate tight glycemic control in patients with end-stage renal disease, despite glucose-lowering trials having excluded these patients.

Research Design And Methods: Using national U.K. Renal Registry data, we tested whether glycemia as measured by hemoglobin (Hb) A(1c) (HbA(1c)) level is associated with death in adults with diabetes starting hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis between 1997 and 2006, and observed for at least 6 months. Of 7,814 patients, we excluded those who had died within 6 months; had received transplants; were lost/recovered; or lacked measures of HbA1c, ethnicity, or Hb. Categorizing HbA1c measured in the first 6 months of starting dialysis as <6.5% (<48 mmol/mol), 6.5-7.4% (48-57 mmol/mol) (reference value), 7.5-8.4% (58-68 mmol/mol), and ≥8.5% (≥69 mmol/mol), we adjusted in proportional hazards models for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, year, dialysis type, and Hb, and tested for interactions.

Results: Of 3,157 patients observed for a median time of 2.7 years, 1,688 died. For patients ≥60 years of age, we found no association between HbA1c and death; among younger patients, relative to those with HbA(1c) values 6.5-7.4%, the hazard ratio for HbA(1c) level 7.5-8.4% was 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.5), and for HbA(1c) level >8.5% was 1.5 (1.2-1.9). The projected difference in median survival time between younger patients with a reference HbA1c value versus >8.5% was 1 year.

Conclusions: In the absence of trials, and confounding notwithstanding, these observational data support improved glycemic control in younger patients prior to and during dialysis.
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August 2015

Bridging the gap between what is known and what we do in renal medicine: improving implementability of the European Renal Best Practice guidelines.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 May 17;29(5):951-7. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The increasing volume of evidence on how to treat kidney patients makes it difficult for nephrologists and renal nurses to keep up-to-date. This potentially widens the gap between what is known about best practice and how daily renal care is provided. Rigorously developed clinical practice guidelines can be important tools to bridge this gap. However, just developing and publishing guidelines does not ensure their use in actual practice. In this paper, we distinguish and illustrate three types of modifiable factors (i.e. barriers) that potentially impede renal healthcare professionals to provide care according to the guidelines: barriers related to knowledge, to attitudes and to behaviour. European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) produces guidelines for care of kidney patients in Europe and neighbouring regions. To facilitate implementation of its guidelines, ERBP aims to optimize 'guideline implementability', which regards the intrinsic characteristics of guidelines (i.e. format and content). The last section of this paper describes some of the associated ERBP activities, which are planned or pending.
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May 2014

Measuring the quality of renal care: things to keep in mind when selecting and using quality indicators.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Aug 27;29(8):1460-7. Epub 2013 Nov 27.

Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ERA-EDTA Registry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

This educational paper discusses a variety of indicators that can be used to measure the quality of care in renal medicine. Based on what aspect of care they reflect, indicators can be grouped into four main categories: structure, process, surrogate outcome and outcome indicators. Each category has its own advantages and disadvantages, and we give some pointers on how to balance these pros and cons while taking into account the aim of the measurement initiative. Especially within initiatives that link payment or reputation to indicator measurement, this balancing should be done with utmost care to avoid potential, unintended consequences. Furthermore, we suggest consideration of (i) a causal chain-i.e. subsequent aspects of care connected by evidence-based links-as a starting point for composing a performance indicator set and (ii) adequate case-mix adjustment, not only of (surrogate) outcomes, but also of process indicators in order to obtain fair comparisons between facilities and within facilities over time.
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August 2014

The effect of rural-to-urban migration on renal function in an Indian population: cross-sectional data from the Hyderabad arm of the Indian Migration Study.

BMC Nephrol 2013 Oct 31;14:240. Epub 2013 Oct 31.

The Richard Bright Renal Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK.

Background: Urban migration is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, obesity and diabetes in Indian migrants. This study assessed the relationship between internal migration and renal function in the Hyderabad arm of the Indian Migration Study.

Methods: We assessed 841 subjects; urban non-migrants (n = 158), urban migrants (n = 424) and rural non-migrants (n = 259). Muscle mass was ascertained from DXA scanning. We derived urban life years for urban migrants and rural non-migrants. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of urban life years and 4-variable MDRD eGFR using Stata 11.

Results: Mean eGFR was lower in urban non-migrants and urban migrants compared to rural non-migrants. The prevalence of CKD 3-5 was higher in the rural non-migrant population (5.0%) than in the urban non-migrant populations (2.5%) due to a negatively skewed distribution of eGFR in rural non-migrants. As urban life years increased, eGFR declined (p = 0.008) though there was no obvious dose response effect. After adjustment for muscle mass, the association was attenuated and the trend was consistent with chance (p = 0.08). Further adjustment for vascular risk factors weakened the association to a small degree (p = 0.11).

Conclusions: The high prevalence of reduced eGFR in rural areas requires further research. Urbanization was associated with reduced eGFR. This association appears mostly to be due to higher muscle mass with a small contribution from adverse vascular disease risk factors.
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October 2013

Variation in centre-specific survival in patients starting renal replacement therapy in England is explained by enhanced comorbidity information from hospitalization data.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Feb 19;29(2):422-30. Epub 2013 Sep 19.

School for Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: Unadjusted survival on renal replacement therapy (RRT) varies widely from centre to centre in England. Until now, missing data on case mix have made it impossible to determine whether this variation reflects genuine differences in the quality of care. Data linkage has the capacity to reduce missing data.

Methods: Modelling of survival using Cox proportional hazards of data returned to the UK Renal Registry on patients starting RRT for established renal failure in England. Data on ethnicity, socioeconomic status and comorbidity were obtained by linkage to the Hospital Episode Statistics database, using data from hospitalizations prior to starting RRT.

Results: Patients with missing data were reduced from 61 to 4%. The prevalence of comorbid conditions was remarkably similar across centres. When centre-specific survival was compared after adjustment solely for age, survival was below the 95% limit for 6 of 46 centres. The addition of variables into the multivariable model altered the number of centres that appeared to be 'outliers' with worse than expected survival as follows: ethnic origin four outliers, socioeconomic status eight outliers and year of the start of RRT four outliers. The addition of a combination of 16 comorbid conditions present at the start of RRT reduced the number of centres with worse than expected survival to one.

Conclusions: Linked data between a national registry and hospital admission dramatically reduced missing data, and allowed us to show that nearly all the variation between English renal centres in 3-year survival on RRT was explained by demographic factors and by comorbidity.
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February 2014

Association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and failure to monitor renal function with adverse outcomes in people with diabetes: a primary care cohort study.

BMC Nephrol 2013 Sep 18;14:198. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Department of Healthcare Management and Policy, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. We investigate the relationship between CKD stage, proteinuria, hypertension and these adverse outcomes in the people with diabetes. We also study the outcomes of people who did not have monitoring of renal function.

Methods: A cohort of people with type 1 and 2 diabetes (N = 35,502) from the Quality Improvement in Chronic Kidney Disease (QICKD) cluster randomised trial was followed up over 2.5 years. A composite of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events, and end stage renal failure comprised the outcome measure. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to determine correlates with this outcome. Known cardiovascular and renal risk factors were adjusted for.

Results: Proteinuria and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were independently associated with adverse outcomes in people with diabetes. People with an eGFR < 60 ml/min, proteinuria, and hypertension have the greatest odds ratio (OR) of adverse outcome; 1.58 (95% CI 1.36-1.83). Renal function was not monitored in 4460 (12.6%) people. Unmonitored renal function was associated with adverse events; OR 1.35 (95% CI 1.13-1.63) in people with hypertension and OR 1.32 (95% CI 1.07-1.64) in those without.

Conclusions: Proteinuria, eGFR < 60 ml/min, and failure to monitor renal function are associated with cardiovascular and renal events and mortality in people with diabetes.
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September 2013

Patient safety in chronic kidney disease: time for nephrologists to take action.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Mar 23;29(3):473-5. Epub 2013 Aug 23.

Specialist Registrar in Nephrology, Richard Bright Renal Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK.

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March 2014