Publications by authors named "Charles M Strother"

32 Publications

Statistical properties of cerebral CT perfusion imaging systems. Part I. Cerebral blood volume maps generated from nondeconvolution-based systems.

Med Phys 2019 Nov 20;46(11):4869-4880. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI, 53705, USA.

Purpose: The development and clinical employment of a computed tomography (CT) imaging system benefit from a thorough understanding of the statistical properties of the output images; cerebral CT perfusion (CTP) imaging system is no exception. A series of articles will present statistical properties of CTP systems and the dependence of these properties on system parameters. This Part I paper focuses on the signal and noise properties of cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps calculated using a nondeconvolution-based method.

Methods: The CBV imaging chain was decomposed into a cascade of subimaging stages, which facilitated the derivation of analytical models for the probability density function, mean value, and noise variance of CBV. These models directly take CTP source image acquisition, reconstruction, and postprocessing parameters as inputs. Both numerical simulations and in vivo canine experiments were performed to validate these models.

Results: The noise variance of CBV is linearly related to the noise variance of source images and is strongly influenced by the noise variance of the baseline images. Uniformly partitioning the total radiation dose budget across all time frames was found to be suboptimal, and an optimal dose partition method was derived to minimize CBV noise. Results of the numerical simulation and animal studies validated the derived statistical properties of CBV.

Conclusions: The statistical properties of CBV imaging systems can be accurately modeled by extending the linear CT systems theory. Based on the statistical model, several key signal and noise characteristics of CBV were identified and an optimal dose partition method was developed to improve the image quality of CBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.13806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299080PMC
November 2019

Measuring blood velocity using 4D-DSA: A feasibility study.

Med Phys 2018 Oct 6;45(10):4510-4518. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Purpose: Four-dimensional (4D) DSA reconstruction provides three-dimensional (3D) time-resolved visualization of contrast bolus passage through arterial vasculature in the interventional setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using these data in measuring blood velocity and flow.

Methods: The pulsatile signals in the time concentration curves (TCCs) measured at different points along a vessel are markers of the movement of a contrast bolus and thus of blood flow. When combined with the spatial content, that is, geometry of the vasculature, this information then provides the data required to determine blood velocity. A Fourier-based algorithm was used to identify and follow the pulsatility signal. A Side Band Ratio (SBR) metric was used to reduce uncertainty in identifying the pulsatility in regions where the signal was weak. We tested this method using 4D-DSA reconstructions from vascular phantoms as well as from human studies.

Results: In five studies using 3D printed patient-specific cerebrovascular phantoms, velocities calculated from the 4D-DSAs were found to be within 10% of velocities measured with a flow meter. Calculated velocity and flow values from three human studies were within the range of those reported in the literature.

Conclusions: 4D-DSA provides temporal and spatial information about blood flow and vascular geometry. This information is obtained using conventional rotational angiographic systems. In this small feasibility study, these data allowed calculations of velocity values that correlated well with measured values. The availability of velocity and blood flow information in the interventional setting would support a more quantitative approach to diagnosis, treatment planning and post-treatment evaluations of a variety of cerebrovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.13120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6767933PMC
October 2018

The History of Digital Subtraction Angiography.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2018 08;29(8):1138-1141

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2018.03.030DOI Listing
August 2018

4D DSA reconstruction using tomosynthesis projections.

Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 2017 Feb 9;10132. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Dept. of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

We investigate the use of tomosynthesis in 4D DSA to improve the accuracy of reconstructed vessel time-attenuation curves (TACs). It is hypothesized that a narrow-angle tomosynthesis dataset for each time point can be exploited to reduce artifacts caused by vessel overlap in individual projections. 4D DSA reconstructs time-resolved 3D angiographic volumes from a typical 3D DSA scan consisting of mask and iodine-enhanced C-arm rotations. Tomosynthesis projections are obtained either from a conventional C-arm rotation, or from an inverse geometry scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system. In the proposed method, rays of the tomosynthesis dataset which pass through multiple vessels can be ignored, allowing the non-overlapped rays to impart temporal information to the 4D DSA. The technique was tested in simulated scans of 2 mm diameter vessels separated by 2 to 5 cm, with TACs following either early or late enhancement. In standard 4D DSA, overlap artifacts were clearly present. Use of tomosynthesis projections in 4D DSA reduced TAC artifacts caused by vessel overlap, when a sufficient fraction of non-overlapped rays was available in each time frame. In cases where full overlap between vessels occurred, information could be recovered via a proposed image space interpolation technique. SBDX provides a tomosynthesis scan for each frame period in a rotational acquisition, whereas a standard C-arm geometry requires the grouping of multiple frames.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2255197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5606252PMC
February 2017

Feasibility of reduced-dose three-dimensional/four-dimensional-digital subtraction angiogram using a weighted edge preserving filter.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2017 Jan 11;4(1):013501. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States; University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, 1111 Highland Avenue #1005, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, United States; University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, United States.

A conventional three-dimensional/four-dimensional (3D/4D) digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) requires two rotational acquisitions (mask and fill) to compute the log-subtracted projections that are used to reconstruct a 3D/4D volume. Since all of the vascular information is contained in the fill acquisition, it is hypothesized that it is possible to reduce the x-ray dose of the mask acquisition substantially and still obtain subtracted projections adequate to reconstruct a 3D/4D volume with noise level comparable to a full-dose acquisition. A full-dose mask and fill acquisition were acquired from a clinical study to provide a known full-dose reference reconstruction. Gaussian noise was added to the mask acquisition to simulate a mask acquisition acquired at 10% relative dose. Noise in the low-dose mask projections was reduced with a weighted edge preserving filter designed to preserve bony edges while suppressing noise. Two-dimensional (2D) log-subtracted projections were computed from the filtered low-dose mask and full-dose fill projections, and then 3D/4D-DSA reconstruction algorithms were applied. Additional bilateral filtering was applied to the 3D volumes. The signal-to-noise ratio measured in the filtered 3D/4D-DSA volumes was compared to the full-dose case. The average ratio of filtered low-dose SNR to full-dose SNR was 0.856 for the 3D-DSA and 0.849 for the 4D-DSA, indicating that the method is a feasible approach to restoring SNR in DSA scans acquired with a low-dose mask. The method was also tested in a phantom study with full-dose fill and 22%-dose mask.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JMI.4.1.013501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5225403PMC
January 2017

Interactive decomposition and mapping of saccular cerebral aneurysms using harmonic functions: its first application with "patient-specific" computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2013 Feb 31;32(2):153-64. Epub 2012 Aug 31.

Medical Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

Recent developments in medical imaging and advanced computer modeling simulations) now enable studies designed to correlate either simulated or measured "patient-specific" parameters with the natural history of intracranial aneurysm i.e., ruptured or unruptured. To achieve significance, however, these studies require rigorous comparison of large amounts of data from large numbers of aneurysms, many of which are quite dissimilar anatomically. In this study, we present a method that can likely facilitate such studies as its application could potentially simplify an objective comparison of surface-based parameters of interest such as wall shear stress and blood pressure using large multi-patient, multi-institutional data sets. Based on the concept of harmonic function/field, we present a unified and simple approach for mapping the surface of an aneurysm onto a unit disc. Requiring minimal human interactions the algorithm first decomposes the vessel geometry into 1) target aneurysm and 2) parent artery and any adjacent branches; it, then, maps the segmented aneurysm surface onto a unit disk. In particular, the decomposition of the vessel geometry quantitatively exploits the unique combination of three sets of information regarding the shape of the relevant vasculature: 1) a distance metric defining the spatially varying deviation from a tubular characteristic (i.e., cylindrical structure) of a normal parent artery, 2) local curvatures and 3) local concavities at the junction/interface between an aneurysm and its parent artery. These three sets of resultant shape/geometrical data are then combined to construct a linear system of the Laplacian equation with a novel shape-sensitive weighting scheme. The solution to such a linear system is a shape-sensitive harmonic function/field whose iso-lines will densely gather at the border between the normal parent artery and the aneurysm. Finally, a simple ranking system is utilized to select the best candidate among all possible iso-lines. Quantitative analysis using “patient-specific” aneurysm geometries taken from our internal database demonstrated that the technique is robust. Similar results were obtained from aneurysms having widely different geometries (bifurcation, terminal and lateral aneurysms). Application of our method should allow for meaningful, reliable and reproducible model-to-model comparisons of surface-based physiological and hemodynamic parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2012.2216542DOI Listing
February 2013

Measurement of quantifiable parameters by time-density curves in the elastase-induced aneurysm model: first results in the comparison of a flow diverter and a conventional aneurysm stent.

Eur Radiol 2013 Feb 16;23(2):521-7. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Department of Neuroradiology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Quantifiable parameters to evaluate the effectiveness of flow diverters (FDs) are desirable. We measured time-density curves (TDCs) and calculated quantifiable parameters in the rabbit elastase-induced aneurysm model after stent (Neuroform [NF]) and FD (Pipeline embolisation device [PED]) treatment.

Methods: Sixteen rabbit elastase-induced aneurysms were treated with FD (n = 9) or NF (n = 5). Angiography was performed before and after treatment and TDCs were created. The time to peak (TTP), the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the average slope of the curve which represent the inflow (IF) and outflow (OF) were calculated.

Results: Mean values before treatment were TTP = 0.8 s, FWHM = 1.2 s, IF = 153.5 and OF = -54.9. After PED treatment, the TTP of 1.8 s and FWHM of 47.8 s were extended. The IF was 31.2 and the OF was -11.5 and therefore delayed. The values after NF treatment (TTP = 1.1 s, FWHM = 1.8 s, IF = 152.9, OF = -33.2) changed only slightly.

Conclusion: It was feasible to create TDCs in the rabbit aneurysm model. Parameters describing the haemodynamic effect of PED and NF were calculated and were different according to the type of device used. These parameters could possibly serve as predictive markers for aneurysm occlusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-012-2611-2DOI Listing
February 2013

Time-resolved angiography: Past, present, and future.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2012 Dec 7;36(6):1273-86. Epub 2012 May 7.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

The introduction of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in 1980 provided a method for real time 2D subtraction imaging. Later, 4D magnetic resonance (MR) angiography emerged beginning with techniques like Keyhole and time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) that provided frame rates of one every 5 seconds with limited spatial resolution. Undersampled radial acquisition was subsequently developed. The 3D vastly undersampled isotropic projection (VIPR) technique allowed undersampling factors of 30-40. Its combination with phase contrast displays time-resolved flow dynamics within the cardiac cycle and has enabled the measurement of pressure gradients in small vessels. Meanwhile similar accelerations were achieved using Cartesian acquisition with projection reconstruction (CAPR), a Cartesian acquisition with 2D parallel imaging. Further acceleration is provided by constrained reconstruction techniques such as highly constrained back-projection reconstruction (HYPR) and its derivatives, which permit acceleration factors approaching 1000. Hybrid MRA combines a separate phase contrast, time-of flight, or contrast-enhanced acquisition to constrain the reconstruction of contrast-enhanced time frames providing exceptional spatial and temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This can be extended to x-ray imaging where a 3D DSA examination can be used to constrain the reconstruction of time-resolved 3D volumes. Each 4D DSA (time-resolved 3D DSA) frame provides spatial resolution and SNR comparable to 3D DSA, thus removing a major limitation of intravenous DSA. Similar techniques have provided the ability to do 4D fluoroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.23646DOI Listing
December 2012

Aneurysm volume-to-ostium area ratio: a parameter useful for discriminating the rupture status of intracranial aneurysms.

Neurosurgery 2011 Feb;68(2):310-7; discussion 317-8

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Background: Slow or stagnant flow is a hemodynamic feature that has been linked to the risk of aneurysm rupture.

Objective: To assess the potential value of the ratio of the volume of an aneurysm to the area of its ostium (VOR) as an indicator of intra-aneurysmal slow flow and, thus, in turn, the risk of rupture.

Methods: Using a sample defined from internal databases, a retrospective analysis of aneurysm size, aspect ratio (AR), and VOR was performed on a series of 155 consecutive aneurysms having undergone 3-dimensional digital subtraction angiography as a part of their evaluation. Measurements were obtained from 3-dimensional digital subtraction angiography studies using commercial software. Aneurysm size, AR, and VOR were correlated with rupture status (ruptured or unruptured). A multiple logistic regression model that best correlated with rupture status was generated to evaluate which of these parameters was the most useful to discriminate rupture status. This model was validated using an independent database of 62 consecutive aneurysms acquired outside the retrospective study interval.

Results: VOR showed better discrimination for rupture status than did size and AR. The best logistic regression model, which included VOR rather than size or AR, determined rupture status correctly in 80.6% of subjects. The reproducibility calculating AR and VOR was excellent.

Conclusion: Determination of VOR was easily done and reproducible using widely available commercial equipment. It may be a more robust parameter to discriminate rupture status than AR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182010ed0DOI Listing
February 2011

Wall shear stress variations in basilar tip aneurysms investigated with computational fluid dynamics.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2006;2006:3214-7

Methodist Hosp. Res. Inst., Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Hemodynamics are thought to play an important role in the creation, thrombosis, recanalization, regrowth and re-bleeding of cerebral aneurysms treated by endovascular means. However, their exact role and interaction is unclear and warrants further study. Towards a systematic classification of the hemodynamics in intracranial aneurysms, we investigated the dependence of the values of the magnitude of the wall shear stresses in the vicinity of the aneurysm on varying inflow conditions in three basilar tip aneurysms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2006.259689DOI Listing
March 2008

Angiographic and histological comparison of canine bifurcation aneurysms treated with first generation matrix and standard GDC coils.

Neuroradiology 2008 Jan 27;50(1):57-65. Epub 2007 Sep 27.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, WI, USA.

Introduction: It is claimed that bioactive coils induce accelerated and more durable aneurysm healing. Data supporting this claim are quite limited. Our purpose was to compare the angiographic and histological results obtained following treatment with different coil types.

Methods: Bifurcation type aneurysms were surgically created in 24 dogs and treated using standard clinical techniques. Eight were treated with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC), eight with first-generation Matrix coils, and eight with a combination of GDC and Matrix coils. The aneurysms were explanted and final angiographic evaluations performed 12 weeks after treatment. Angiographic and histological outcomes were documented.

Results: Increased coil compaction with aneurysm recurrence was found in aneurysms treated with first-generation Matrix coils as compared to standard GDC (P = 0.0001). In aneurysms treated with first-generation Matrix coils thrombus organization was better than in those treated with either standard GDC coils (P = 0.008) or with a combination of GDC and Matrix coils (P = 0.04). In aneurysms treated with first-generation Matrix coils there were no endothelialized vascular clefts within the coil mass, but they were seen in the majority of aneurysms treated with GDC or a combination of GDC and Matrix coils (P = 0.003).

Conclusion: Aneurysms treated with first-generation Matrix coils showed the greatest degree of coil compaction and aneurysm recurrence on the final angiographic evaluation. Aneurysms treated with first-generation Matrix coils showed enhanced thrombus organization and absence of vascular clefts at the aneurysm neck that were markedly different from those treated with bare platinum coils or a combination of GDC and Matrix coils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-007-0302-5DOI Listing
January 2008

Comparison of platinum and first-generation Matrix coils in under-packed canine side-wall aneurysms: evaluation of progressive thrombosis.

Neuroradiology 2007 Nov 16;49(11):939-45. Epub 2007 Aug 16.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, 600 Highland Ave., Madison, WI, 53792, USA.

Introduction: There is much speculation in reference to the occurrence and mechanisms of progressive aneurysm occlusion after treatment with bioactive coils. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies documenting the impact on progressive occlusion in aneurysms that are intentionally under-packed.

Methods: A total of 24 experimental side-wall aneurysms were created in canine common carotid arteries. Of these 24, 9 were treated with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC) and 15 with first-generation Matrix (Matrix1) coils to packing densities of 22% or less. Angiograms were obtained immediately after treatment and again at the time of explant at 2 weeks, 8 weeks, or 12 weeks, and were graded utilizing the Raymond scale. At the time of the final angiography and explant all aneurysms were histologically processed and evaluated.

Results: At the conclusion of initial coiling, near or complete occlusion was achieved in 7 of the 15 aneurysms (47%) treated with Matrix1 coils and in 2 of the 9 (22%) treated with GDC. Of the aneurysms that were incompletely occluded, six of eight (75%) treated with Matrix1 coils and two of seven (29%) treated with GDC showed progressive thrombosis at explant. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that the aneurysms treated with Matrix1 coils had increased fibrocellular tissue and inflammation, with less histological recanalization or vascular spaces, relative to those treated with GDC.

Conclusion: Experimental wide-necked side-wall canine aneurysms suboptimally treated with first-generation Matrix1 coils had a higher incidence of progressive occlusion and on histological analysis showed evidence of more advanced thrombus organization than did those treated with GDC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-007-0280-7DOI Listing
November 2007

Images in cardiovascular medicine. Angiographic computed tomography for imaging of underdeployed intracranial stent.

Circulation 2006 Sep;114(12):e499-500

Methodist Hospital Research Institute, The Methodist Hospital, 6565 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.611202DOI Listing
September 2006

Increased cell opening and prolapse of struts of a neuroform stent in curved vasculature: value of angiographic computed tomography: technical case report.

Neurosurgery 2006 Apr;58(4 Suppl 2):ONS-E380; discussion ONS-E380

Department of Radiology, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Objective And Importance: To describe the use of a new imaging tool, angiographic computed tomography, for visualization of cell opening and strut prolapse of a Neuroform 2 stent (Boston Scientific/Target, Fremont, CA) placed in curved vasculature for treatment of a basilar tip aneurysm.

Clinical Presentation: A 46-year-old woman presented with an unruptured 8-mm basilar tip aneurysm with a wide patulous neck.

Intervention: A 4 x 20-mm Neuroform 2 stent was placed across the aneurysm neck. Angiographic computed tomographic scanning was performed using a flat detector biplane angiographic system with new commercially available software (Dyna-CT; Siemens Medical Solution, Forchheim, Germany) and the following parameters: 20-second acquisition, 0.4-degree increment, 512 matrix in projections, 220-degree total angle, 20 degree/s, and approximately 15 to 30 frames/s, for a total of 538 projections. Image postprocessing was performed to correct scattered radiation, beam hardening, and ring artifacts on a commercially available workstation (Leonardo, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). The aneurysm was coiled in a second session, using bare platinum coils without clinical sequelae.

Conclusion: Increased opening of cells and prolapsing of struts of an open cell design stent can occur after placement in a curved vessel across an aneurysm orifice. Angiographic computed tomography is a new imaging tool that provides visualization of intracranial stents that is superior to digital subtraction angiogram or nonsubtracted images. It will enhance our understanding of stent behavior in clinical practice and improve the efficacy and safety of intracranial stent placement. Further in vitro and in vivo imaging studies of intracranial stents are necessary to assess the value of this promising new technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000205287.06739.E1DOI Listing
April 2006

MR-visible coatings for endovascular device visualization.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2006 May;23(5):763-9

Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792-1590, USA.

Purpose: To investigate the potential utility of magnetic resonance (MR)-visible coatings for passive visualization of therapeutic endovascular devices such as catheters and guidewires.

Materials And Methods: Using a multistep coating process, gadolinium-based coatings were applied to commercially available off-the-shelf catheters and guidewires. These coated devices were imaged in phantoms made of fat-free yogurt, saline, and whole blood and also in live canine aorta on a 1.5-T cardiovascular MR scanner using T1-weighted two-dimensional radiofrequency (RF)-spoiled gradient-recalled echo, two-dimensional spin echo, and three-dimensional RF-spoiled gradient-recalled echo techniques.

Results: Commercially available off-the shelf catheters (4, 5, and 6 French) and guidewires (0.038 inch) were clearly visualized in all phantoms and canine aorta and the coatings proved to be durable and imageable without degradation in signal intensity up to 24 hours. MR-visible coatings address some of the shortcomings that have previously limited the role of MR as a guidance tool.

Conclusion: Both in vitro and in vivo visualization of therapeutic endovascular devices coated with MR-visible coatings are found to be clinically viable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.20555DOI Listing
May 2006

"Cross-over" technique for horizontal stenting of an internal carotid bifurcation aneurysm using a new self-expandable stent: technical case report.

Neurosurgery 2006 Feb;58(1 Suppl):ONS-E172; discussion ONS-E172

Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Objective And Importance: To describe the use of a newly available self-expandable stent in a cross-over approach for treatment of a large, wide-necked carotid termination aneurysm.

Clinical Presentation: A 58-year-old hypertensive woman presenting with mild headaches underwent computed tomography, which showed a nonruptured aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery. She subsequently underwent cerebral angiography, confirming that the aneurysm was located at the left terminal carotid segment with a wide neck.

Intervention: Using a cross-over approach from the contralateral internal carotid artery, a new self-expandable stent was advanced through the anterior communicating artery and placed horizontally across the aneurysm neck. Aneurysm occlusion was performed by subsequent trans-stent catheterization of the aneurysm and coil packing.

Conclusion: Successful stent placement allowed subtotal coil occlusion of the aneurysm with a good anatomic and clinical result. No complications were encountered. The new self-expandable stent is a highly flexible, low-profile device that can be safely navigated through tortuous intracranial vessels even in a crossover technique. Its radial force and closed cell design is suitable for stent-assisted coiling and may be superior to stents with an open cell design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000193530.95489.D8DOI Listing
February 2006

Stent-assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms aided by virtual parent artery reconstruction.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005 Oct;26(9):2368-70

Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

The availability of stents designed specifically for use in the intracranial vasculature has increased the use of stent-assisted coiling for treatment of wide-necked and complex intracranial aneurysms. We present a technique for pretreatment planning and visualization of a virtual stent within the parent artery by using a virtual reconstruction of the parent artery across the aneurysm neck. As illustrated by 2 clinical examples, this method provides information not otherwise available regarding the location of portions of the stent that are not visible on fluoroscopy. During treatment, this information enhances the ability to determine the location of coils in relation to the stent boundaries and should thereby improve the ability to avoid parent artery compromise.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976153PMC
October 2005

Angiographic CT in cerebrovascular stenting.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005 Aug;26(7):1813-8

Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

We evaluated the feasibility of angiographic CT (ACT) for visualizing metallic stents in three patients who underwent intracranial (n = 2) or extracranial (n = 1) stent placement to treat atherosclerotic lesions. ACT is a new technique that provides cross-sectional CT-like images based on rotational radiography performed with a rotating C-arm-mounted flat-panel detector. ACT allowed for the clear visualization of stents in both intracranial and extracranial arteries and was superior to conventional digital subtraction angiography and digital radiography in visualizing both the stent struts and their relationships to the arterial walls and aneurysmal lumen.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7975146PMC
August 2005

Endovascular treatment of high-flow carotid cavernous fistulas by stent-assisted coil placement.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005 Jun-Jul;26(6):1399-404

Department of Radiology, The Methodist Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Background And Purpose: Endovascular techniques are the methods of choice for the treatment of patients with carotid cavernous fistulas. We report our experience using stent-assisted coil placement for treatment of patients with high-flow fistulas that are associated with severe laceration of the internal carotid artery.

Methods: In a retrospective review of an internal endovascular therapy database covering the interval between October 2001 and October 2003, we identified a total of 5 patients presenting with 6 high-flow type A carotid cavernous fistulas (one had a bilateral fistula) that were associated with severe laceration of the internal carotid artery. All were treated first with stenting of the injured segment of the internal carotid artery followed by transarterial (3/6) and/or transvenous (4/6) obliteration of the fistula with detachable platinum coils. In 2 cases, a liquid adhesive was also used. In all instances, a compliant balloon was inflated within the stented arterial segment during coil deposition to avoid extension of coils into the parent artery.

Results: All 6 fistulas were obliterated, and each internal carotid artery was successfully reconstructed. Except for posttraumatic cranial nerve dysfunction in 1 patient, clinical outcome was very good. Follow-up angiograms in 3 of the 6 patients obtained at intervals between 3 and 6 months (mean, 4.5 months) revealed no fistula recurrence and no evidence of intimal hyperplasia within the stent.

Conclusion: In this series of patients with high-flow carotid cavernous fistula associated with severe injury to the internal carotid artery, stent-assisted coil placement offered a safe and effective treatment. Stent-assisted coil placement may increase the ability to successfully treat fistulas with severe injury to the internal carotid artery with preservation of the parent artery.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149099PMC
December 2005

Self-expandable stent-assisted coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms: a single-center experience.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005 May;26(5):1223-31

Department of Radiology, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background And Purpose: Endovascular treatment of wide-necked aneurysms remains a therapeutic challenge. We conducted this study to evaluate the angiographic results and clinical outcome of patients treated with stent-assisted coiling by using a recently available self-expandable intracranial stent.

Methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated with self-expandable stent-assisted coiling between September 2002 and December 2003 was done. Treatment was attempted in 32 patients with 35 aneurysms. Four of the aneurysms were ruptured. All had either a dome-to-neck ratio less than 2 and/or a neck diameter of 5 mm or larger. Following stent placement, coiling was attempted in 33 of 34 aneurysms. The technical success of the procedure, procedure related complications, and the angiographic results were documented.

Results: In 34 of 35 aneurysms, stent deployment across the neck of the aneurysm was successful. Coiling was performed successfully in 30 of 33 aneurysms. In 20 aneurysms, immediate posttreatment angiography showed either total (17%) or satisfactory (50%) occlusion. Procedure-related mortality occurred in one patient (3.1%). Adverse events occurred in eight patients (25%); in three of them permanent neurologic deficit resulted (9.3%). In six patients, thrombus formation occurred within the stented segments during the procedure and reopro infusion was used. Follow-up angiography was available in 12 (40%) of 30 treated aneurysms.

Conclusion: In our practice use of the self-expandable stent seemed to facilitate endovascular treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. Difficulty of deployment and stent thrombogenicity are the main drawbacks of the system.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158593PMC
May 2005

Training, experience, and evidence matter.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2004 Nov-Dec;25(10):1635

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148723PMC
February 2005

A technique for improved quantitative characterization of intracranial aneurysms.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2004 Aug;25(7):1158-61

Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

3D digital subtraction angiograms of two intracranial aneurysms were imported to a workstation for reconstruction and postprocessing into a format allowing delineation of 1) the extent to which the diameter of the parent artery is incorporated into the aneurysm ostium (percentage of parent artery involvement or neck angle) and 2) the aneurysm volume and surface area. For clear visualization, 3D surface-rendered objects of the reconstructed artery, neck angle, and aneurysm were created.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976552PMC
August 2004

Hemodynamic versus hydrodynamic effects of Guglielmi detachable coils on intra-aneurysmal pressure and flow at varying pulse rate and systemic pressure.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2004 Jun-Jul;25(6):1049-57

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin Health Sciences Center, Madison, USA.

Background And Purpose: Alterations in intra-aneurysmal pressure and flow have been observed after treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). We wished to determine whether these changes could be assigned to a hydrodynamic effect of the coils themselves or a compound effect of coils plus thrombus formation.

Methods: Intra-aneurysmal pressure and flow were measured with a 0.014-inch guidewire- mounted transducer in a canine aneurysm in vivo and in vitro before and after treatment with GDCs. Flow was evaluated by using the thermodilution technique. Pressure and flow were also recorded in a bifurcational silicone aneurysm mounted onto a flow phantom during variations in systemic pressure and pulse rate before and following the insertion of GDCs.

Results: The insertion of GDCs induced a reduction in flow that was qualitatively similar when the aneurysm was perfused either by blood (in vivo) or with normal saline (in vitro). Quantitatively, however, flow was reduced less distinctly during perfusion with saline. In the silicone aneurysm, pressure was inversely related to pulse rate and increased with augmenting systemic pressure, whereas flow remained constant regardless of variations in pressure and pulse rate. After GDC placement, reduced flow was dependent on pulse rate but independent of systemic pressure.

Conclusion: GDCs significantly reduced flow even in the absence of thrombus, indicating that they have a purely hydrodynamic effect. In the silicone model, the decrease in intra-aneurysmal flow after coiling relied upon the pulse rate in a manner suggesting the presence of resonance phenomena.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7975659PMC
October 2004

Mycotic carotid artery pseudoaneurysm following stenting--a case report and lessons learned.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2002 Sep-Oct;36(5):397-401

University of Wisconsin Department of Surgery, Madison, WI, USA.

Carotid stenting is assuming an important role in the management of carotid disease. Surgeons although hesitant to embrace catheter treatment for the management of primary carotid artery disease, are more enthusiastic regarding it's use in the treatment of recurrent stenoses. This report suggests that caution should be exercised in the selection of patients to be treated with carotid stenting for recurrent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/153857440203600512DOI Listing
December 2002

Combined time-resolved and high-spatial-resolution 3D MRA using an extended adaptive acquisition.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2002 Mar;15(3):291-301

Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Purpose: To combine the benefits of time-resolved dynamic imaging and single elliptical centric acquisitions in a reasonable scan time.

Materials And Methods: A time series of images with moderate spatial resolution was acquired using the 3D Time-Resolved Imaging of Contrast KineticS (3D TRICKS) technique with elliptical centric encoding during contrast arrival. Following venous opacification, a complete large centrically encoded k-space volume was acquired. The high-spatial-frequency portions of this volume were combined with a 3D TRICKS time frame to form a high-resolution image. An additional single image is formed by suppressing background and signal averaging all acquired data, including post-venous low-spatial-frequency data. For this image, 2D temporal correlation analysis is used to suppress low-spatial-frequency vein contributions. Arrival time and spatial correlations are used to suppress background.

Results: The 3D TRICKS time frame may be selected to ensure a combined high-resolution image that has optimal central k-space sampling for any vascular region. The single image formed by signal averaging all acquired data has increased contrast-to-noise (CNR) and signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios.

Conclusion: The advantages of time-resolved and high-spatial-resolution imaging were combined using an extended dual-phase acquisition. Some SNR and CNR gain was achieved by signal averaging. This process is facilitated by background and vein suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.10071DOI Listing
March 2002
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